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JOURNAL /-3 



Bombay Natural History Society. 



INDEX AND TITLE PAGE. 



VOL. XXVill, 
fl {-A- SEP 7 192; ft] 



PARTS 1 & 2. 



■^^"IIVAI. MVJiS-^*' 



Bombay : 

Printed at The Times Press. 

1923. 



For convenience in binding it has been found advisable to issue the 
Index in two parts. The present issue includes the Index to parts 1 and 2, 
Vol. XXVIII, pp. l-rj70. The Index to parts 3 and 4 will be issued sepa- 
rately. 

Instructions to Binder, 

The contents of these two parts should be arranged in the following 
order when they are being bound : — 



Title page . . . . (issued with Vol. XXVIII, 

No. 2). 

Contents of Parts 1 and 2, Vol. XXVIII 

List of Contributors 

List of Plates . , 

Index to Illustrations 

Errata 

Index to Species 



Explanation of Plate of Tavoy Butterflies 



Frontispiece. 



To follow 
frontispiece 
this order. 



the 



To go at the end 
of the two num- 
bers. 

To face plate at 
page 123. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXV I IL 

No. 1. 

Page 
The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. Part XXX 
(concluded). (Genus Arhoricola) (With a coloured Plate). 
By E. C, Stuart Baker, j.p., f.l.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u 1 

Scientific Eesults from the Mammal Survey, No. XXIX. 

By the lato R. C. Wroughton 23 

Scientific Results from the Mammal Survey, Nos. XXX 

and XXXI. By Oldfield Thomas, f.r.s 26 

A NEW Arabian Hare. By Oldiield Thomas, f.r.s 28 

Notes on Indian Butterflies. By Lt.-Col. W. H. Evans, 

D.S.O., R.E., F.z.s. , F.E.S 30 

A New Snake of the Family UropeltidcB (with a Plate). 

By Col. F. Wall, I.M.S., C.M.G., c.M.z.s 41 

Notes on some Notable Additions to the Bombay 
Natural History Society's Snake Collection (with 
a Plate). By Col. F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.g., c.m.z.s 43 

Big Game Shooting of Kashmir and Adjacent Hill Pro- 
vinces (with two Plates). By Lt.-Col. A. E. Ward . . 45 

The Butterflies of Mesopotamia (with a Plate). By Col. 

H. D. Peile, f.e.s., i.m.s 50 

Three new Alpine Orthopteka from Central Asia. By 

B. P. Uvarov, f.e.s. 71 

A Few Hints on Ckocodile Shooting (with two Plates). 

By W. H. 0. Shortt 76 

Birds of the Indian Empire, Part IV. By E. C. Stuart 

Baker, j.p., f.l.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u 85 

Indian Dragonflies (with Text -figures). By Major F. C. 

Eraser, i.m.s 107 

A List of Butterflies collected in the Tavoy District, 

Burma (with a Plate). By 0. C. OUenbach 123 

1 



XV CON 7 EN TS OI VOL UME XX VIII. 

Page 

Not?: on the nidification and habits of some Birds 
IN British Garhwal (with 3 Plates and a Map). By 
A. E. Osmastoii 140 

Shaflspeare on the Noble Art of Hawking. By Col. C. E. 

Luard, i.a 161 

Myriapods collected by p. a. Buxton (with two Plates). 

By H. W. Brolemami 165 

Moths of Mesopotamia and N. W. Persia. By Various 

Authors 170 

Annotated Lists of Acculeate Hymenoptera (except 
Heterogyna) and Chrysids recently collected in 
Mesopotamia and North- West Persia (with 8 Text- 
figures). By F. D. Morice, M.A., F.z.s 192 

Quaint Beasts and Queer Habits. By Major C. H. Stockley, 

D.s.o 204 

The BiiU3S of Mesopotamia (with two Plates). By Dr. C. 

B. Ticehurst, m.a., m.b.o.u 210 

Further Lizards and Snakes from Persia and Mesopo- 
tamia. By Joan B. Procter, f.z.s 2.51 

Reviews (Small Game Shooting around Ootacamund). 

By Rolling Stone 254- 

The Water Fowl of India and Asia. By Frank Finn.. 254 

Editorial 255 

Obituary : — John Wallace, C. E 2.59 

Miscellaneous Notes ; — 

J. The Power of Scent in Wild Animals. By H. 

Copley 26-J 

n. Panthers and Artificial Light. By C. B. 

Beadnell 265 

in. The Food of the Small Indian Civet [Viveri- 

cula malaccensis), in captivity. By C. M. 

Inghs, m.b.o.u., f.z.s., f.e.s 265 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XX VI II. v 

Page 

IV, A good female Chinkara Head {G. bennelti). 

ByG. B. Powar 266 

V. Wild Dogs in Burma. By 0. E. Milner . . 267 

VI. Distribution of Serow in Burma. By C. E. 

Milner 267 

VII. Some Notes on the horns of the Thamin 
[Cervus eldi) with a Plate, By Major C. H. 
Stockley, d,s,o 268 

VIII, A baby Hog Deer in captivity (with a Plate). 

By Miss Kennion 271 

IX. The Indian Pangolin (.Vam's pentadactyla, L.). 

By N. C. Chatterjee, b.sc, f.e.s 273 

X. The Habits of the Grey Mongoose. By C. E. 

C. Fischer, i.f.s 274 

XI. The Effect of a Scorpion's sting on a Terrier, 

By Lt,-Col. E. O'Brien 274 

XII, A Panther's indifference. By H, Copley .... 275 

XIII. Kashmir Bird Notes. By H. A, F, Magrath. 276 

XIV, The Avifauna of the Nelliampathy Hills, By 

A. P, Kinloch 279 

XV, Roosting habits of the Common Babbler 

{Argya caudata). By Major A. G. Frere, i.a. 280 

XVI. Behaviour of the White-cheeked Bulbul 
{Molpastes leucogenys), when its young 
is in danger ; and the (?) parental mstinct 
of love for the offspring displayed by the 
Dark-Grey Bush Chat {Oreicola ferrea). By 
S. Basil-Edwardes 280 

XVII, An albinoid Otocompsa emeria. By Satya 

C^rn Law 281 

XVIII. The White-spotted Fantail Flycatcher, {Rhi- 
pidura pecioralis). By B, B. Osmaston. 
I,F,S., CLE 282 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVII I. 

Page 

XIX. The Crested Swift (Macrojo^er^/xforowa^a). By 

B. B. Osmaston i.f.s., c.i.e 283 

XX. Breeding of the Indian Pitta. By P. C. 

Bolster, i.cs 284 

XXI. The Call of Franklin's Nightjar {Capriynulgus 

monticola). By H. Whistler, f.z.s. m.b.o.u. 284 

XXII. Nidification of the Black Vulture or Indian 

King Vulture {Otogyps calvus). By Lt.-Col. 

E. O'Brien 284 

XXIII. Some curious nesting places. By Lt.-Col. A. 

R. B. Shuttleworth 285 

XXIV. Destruction of Birds' Nests. By R. C. Bolster, 

I.cs 286 

XXV. Breeding of the Khyah or Marsh Partridge 
{Francolinus gularis) in captivity in Bihar. 
By C. M. Inglis, m.b.o.u., f.z.s,, f.e.s 287 

XXVI. The Adjutant Bird, and other matters. By 

Brig.-Genl. R. G. Burton 287 

XXVII. Manipuri names of certain Birds. By J. C. 

Higgins, I.cs 288 

XXVIII. Crocodile Shooting in Nepal. By Miss Kennion. 291 

XXIX. An aggressive Phoorsa {Echis carinata). By 

Major A. G. Frere, i.a 291 

XXX. The Enemies of Butterflies. By C. E. C. Fischer, 

i.F.s 292 

XXXI. Butterfly Notes. By W. M. Crawford, i.cs 292 

XXXII. Butterflies at Sea. By Col. F. Wall, i.m.s., 

CM.G., CM.Z.S '. 293 

XXXIII. On the habits of a Sceliphron Wasp {S. deforme). 

By S. Basil-Edwardes 293 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVIII. vii 

Page 

XXXIV. An undescribed natural history enemy of the 
Castor Semilooper (Achcea (Ophiusa) meli- 
certe, Hmp.) (with a Plate). By T. V. Ram- 
krishna Aiyar 298 

Proceedings 301 

Wo. 2>. 

The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. Part XXXI. 
(Genus Alectoris) (with a coloured Plate.) By E, C. Stuart 
Baker, J. p., e.l.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u 305 

Birds of the Indian Empire. Part V. By E. C. Stuart 

Baker, j.p., f.l.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u 313 

Game Anialals of Kashmir and Adjacent Hill Provin- 
ces. Part II. (With Plates and Text-figures.) By Lt.- 
Col. A. E. Ward 334 

The Butterflies of Mesopotamia, Part II. (With a Plate.) 

By Lt.-Col. H. D. Peile, f.e.s., i.m.s 345 

On Indian Parasitic Flies. By Harold Russell, f.l.s,, f.z.s. 370 

The Birds of Mesopotamia, Part II. By Dr. C. B. Ticehurst, 

M.A., M.B.O.U. (With two Plates) 381 

Scientific Results of the Mammal Survey, No. XXXII. 
By Oldfield Thomas, f.r.s. 

A. New and interesting mammals from the Mishmi 

Hills 428 

B. The Porcupine of Assam 431 

C. A new Ferret Badger {Helictis) from the Naga 

Hills 432 

Notes on the Nomenclature of the Northern Slow 

LoRis. By Oldfield Thomas, f.r.s 433 

A Day's Shooting on the Nilgiris near Ootacamund. By 

Lt.-Col. H. R. Baker, i.a. (With two Plates) 434 

Notes on the Batrachia. By C. R. Narayan Rao, m.a. 

(With a Text block) 439 



^ii CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXV HI. 

Page 

Notes on the habits of some Ceylon Bats. By W. W. A. 

Phillips • 448 

Birds of Pachmarhi. By B. B. Osmaston, c.i.e., i.f.s. 

(With two Plates) 453 

Nest-boxes for Birds. By S. H. Prater, c.m.z.s. (With a 
note by H. Whistler, f.z.s., m.b.o.u. (With two Plates 
and a Text-figure) 460 

Notes on the Generic Names of Indian Theclin^. and 

Amblypodin.e. By N. D. Riley 465 

Notes on Mesopotamian Mammals. By Capt. C. R. Pitman. 474 

Indian Dragonflies. By Major F. C. Fraser, i.m.s. ( With 

tlu-ee Text-figures) Part XII 481 

Notes on some Lizards, Frogs, and Human Beings in 

THE Nilgiri Hills. By Col. F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s. . . 493 

Butterfly collecting in India. By Lt.-Col. W. H. 

Evans, d.s.o., r.e., f.z.s., f.e.s. (With 9 Text-figures) .... 500 

Review. (Zoology — a text book for Colleges and Uni- 
versities. By T. D. A. Cockerell) 518 

Obituary :— Lt.-Col. L. L. Fenton 519 

Editorial 520 

In Lighter Vein, Notes by a Pseudo Collector 524 

Miscellaneous Notes : — 

I. Notes on Lydekker's " Game Animals of 
India." (With a Plate.) By Major C. H. 

Stockley, d.s.o 529 

II. Editors' and readers' comments on notes which 

appeared in previous numbers 533 

HI. An interesting Panther incident. (With a 

photo.) By Major C. H. Stockley, d.s.o. . . 535 
IV. Occurrence of the Tree Shrew {Anathana 
wroughtoni) at Khandalla, Poona District. 
By Dr. M. Suter, D.sc 537 



CONTENTS 01 VOLUME XXVI II. ix 

Page 

V. The breeding of Elephants in Captivity. By 

Gordon Hundley 537 

VI. Notes on the Tsaine {Bos sondaicus). (With a 

Plate.) By Major 0. H. Stockley, d.s.o. ... 540 
VII. Some measurements of Big Game. By Major 

C. H. Stockley. D.s.o 543 

VIII, Abnormal Ibex head (with a photo). By Lt.- 

Col. R. W. Burton 544 

IX. An addition to the list of Indian Birds. By H. 

Whistler, F.Z.S., c.p.A.,o.u 544 

X, Habits of the Southern Scimitar Babbler 
(Pomatorhinus horsfieldi travancoriensis.) By 
A. P. Kinloch, f.z.s 545 

XL Nidification of the Southern Red Whiskered 
Bulbul {Otocompsa emeria fuscicaudata) 

By A. P. Kinloch, f.z.s 545 

XII. Woodpeckers " Roosting". By A. P. Kinloch, 

F.z.s 546 

XIII. Predaceous habit of the common King Crow. 

By B. B. Osmaston 546 

XIV. Nidification of the Ceylon Thrush (0. imbri- 

cata, Layard). By T. E. Tunnard 546 

XV. Occurrence of the Malay Bittern {GorsacMus 
melanalophus) at Ootacamund, S. India. 
By Lt.-Col. H. R. Baker, i.a. (Retd.) 547 

XVI. Notes on Duck in the Rawalpindi District. 

By Major C. H. Stockley 548 

XVII. Occurrence of the Flamingo (P. roseus) in the 

Central Provinces. By B. B. Osmaston . . 549 
XVIII. Notes on two young Indian Hombills. (Z). 
Ucornis) (With a Plate) . By S. H. Prater, 
c.M.z.s 550 



X C0^' TENTS OF VOLUME XXVIIl. 

Page 

XIX. Notes on a light between the Indian Screech 
Owl and a Cobra. By Major J. E. M. Boyd, 
F.E.S., R.A.M.C 552 

XX. Crocodile burying its food. By A. F. 

Abercromby 553 

XXI. Hatching of Cobras (Naia tripudians) with 
remarks on the Oodont, Genitalia, etc. By 
Col. F. Wall, I.M.S., c.M.a., c.m.z.s 553 

XXII. Acquisition of four more specimens of the 
snake Brachyophidium rhodog aster . By 
Col. F. Wall, I.M.S., c.jvi.G., C.M.Z.S. 556 

XXIII. Leech attacking a snake. By A. P. Kinloch, 

F.z.s 557 

XXIV. Food of the Snail Indrella ampula. By A. 

P. Kinloch, F.z.b 557 

XXV. Butterfly feeding on excreta. By Hugh 

Whistler, F.Z.S., c.F.A.,o.u 558 

XXVI. The Black Rock Scorpion Palamnoeus sivam- 

merdami. By Major A. G. Frere, i.a 558 

XXVII. Scorpion committing suicide. ByA. A. Dunbar 

Brander 559 

XXVIIL A short note on instances of Syncarpy 
in Magnifera indica (With a block). By 
P. M. Debbarman, b.sc, f.l.s., m.r.a.s .... 560 

XXIX. Folklore of Birds and Beasts of India. By J. 

Fitzpatrick 562 

Proceeding s 556 

.Accounts for 1921 568-570 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



"voi-xjiian: 

Page 



:3c:"v-in. 



Abercromby, a. F. ; Crocodile 
(C. palustris) burying its 
food 

AiTKEN, E. H. ; Injury feign- 
ing habits of Birds 

AiYAR, T. V. Kamakrishna ; 
An undescribed natural 
history enemy of Vhe 
Castor Semilooper {Achcea 
(Ophiusa) melicerte). Hnip. 
(With a Plate) 

Bakek, E. C. Stuart, J. P., 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. ; 
The Game Birds of India, 
Burma and Ceylon. Part 
XXX coned. ( With a 
Coloured Hate.) The Arra- 
kan Red-throated Hill 
Partridge, Tickell's Red- 
throated Hill Partridge, 
the Red-breasted Hill Par- 
tridge, the White-cheeked 
Hill Partridge, the Brown- 
breasted Hill Partridge, 
the Green-legged Hill 
Partridge, the Ferruginous 
Wood Partridge, the Long- 
billed Wood Partridge 



; J'arfc 

XXXI, ( With a Coloured 
Plate). The Indian Chukor, 
Hume's Chukor 

; The 



Birds of the Indian Empire 
Part IV 

Part V 

2 



553 



535 



Baker, Lt.-Col. H. R., I. A. ; 
A day's shooting on the 
Nilgiris near Ootacamund. 
{With -1 Plates) 



298 



— ; Oc- 
currence of the Malay Bit- 
tern [Gorsachius melanolo- 
phus) at Ootacamund, S. 
India 

Basil-Ed ward Es , S. ; Beha- 
viour of the White-cheeked 
Bulbul {Molpastes leucogenys) 
when its young is in 
danger ; and the (?) paren- 
tal instinct of love for the 
offspring displayed by the 
Dark-Grey Bush Chat 
(Oreicola ferrea) 

; On the 



a05 



85 
313 



Habits of a Sceliphrou 
Wasp. {S. deforme) 

Beadnell, C. B., Panthers 
and artificial light 



' Bolster, R.C, I.C.S.; Breed- 
1 1 ing of the Indian Pitta 



; Des- 
truction of Birds' Nests . . 

Bombay Natural History 
Society's Mammal Survey, 
No. XXIX. A re-naminr>' of 
" Mungos miingo ellioti " 
By R. C. Wroughton 



Page 



434 



547 



1^80 



:i93 



•2b5 



184 



•286 



23 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Page 



Page 



Bombay Natural History 
Society's Mammal Survey ; 
Scieutitic Results from the 
Mammal Survey No. XXX. 
The Mungooses of the Her- 
pestes smithi group. By Old- 
field Thomas 



No. XXXI. Two New Uats 
from Assam (liatfus wellsi 
and Rattzm listen garonum). 
By Old field Thomas 



No. XXX 11— 

(A) New and interesting 
Mammals from the 
Mishmi Hills 

(B) The Porcupine of 
Assam 

(C) A New Ferret Badger 
(Helietis) from the Naga 
Hills. By Oldfield Tho- 
mas, F.U.S 

Boyd, Major J. E. M.; Notes 
on a fight between the 
Indian Screech Owl and a 
Cobra 

Brolemann, H. W. ; Myria- 
pods from Mesopotamia and 
Persia. ( With 2 Plates) . . 

Burton, Brig.-Genl. R. G. ; 
The Adjutant Bird and 
other matters 

Burton, Lt.-Col. R.W. ; Ab- 
normal Ibex Head. {With a 
^ilock) 

BdxTON, p. A., F.E.S., and 
Watkins, H. T. G.; Moths 
of Mesopotamia and N. W. 
Persia, Part II 



23 



26 



428 

428 

428 



165 



287 



544 



184 



Buxton, P. A., M.B.O.U., Tice- 
HURST, Claud B., M. A., 
M.B.O.U. and Major R. E. 
Cheesman, MB.O.U. The 
" Birds of Mesopotamia." 
{With i Plates), Part I . . 

Part II. {With 2 Plates).. 

Chatterjee, N. C. B.Sc, 
F.E.S. ; The Indian Pan- 
golin {Manis pentadactyla), 

Cheesman, Major R. E., 
TicEHURSTj Claud B., M.A., 
M.B.O.U.and Buxton, P.A., 
M.B.O.U. "The Birds of 
Mesopotamia.^" ( With 2 
Plates) Part I 

Part II. ( With 2 Plates) . . 



Crawford, W. M.. 
Butterfly notes 



I.C.S.; 



Debbarman, p. M.; a short 
note on the instances of 
Syncarpy in Magnifera in- 
dica L. and some other 
tropical plants. ( TVith c Text 
block) 

Dunbar, Brander, A. A. ; 
Scorpion Committing Sui- 
cide . . 



Butterfly collecting in 
India. {With 9 Text-figures) 



210 

381 

273 



210 

S81 



Copley, Hugu; The Power of 

Scent in Wild Animals . . 262 



292 



660 



559 



Evans, Lt.-Col. W. H., 
D.S.0.,R.E.,F.Z.S., F.E.S.; 

Notes on Indian Butterflies 
(contd.) 30 



500 



Fenton, Lt.-Col. L. L. ; Obi- 

tuarial Notice . . . . 519 



.LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 



Page 



Page 



Fischer, C.E.C. : The Habits 
of the Grey Mongoose 

; The Ene- 



mies of Butterflies 

FiTzPATRiCK, J. ; Folklore of 
Birds and Beasts of India. 

Fbaser, Ma.jok F. C, I.M.S.; 
Indian Dra^ontiies. ( I] ith 
4 Text-figures) 

Part XII. {With 3 Text- 
figures) 

Fkeke, Major A. G., I. A.; 
Roosting habits of the 
Common Babbler. {Argya 
caudata) 

: An 

aggressive Phoorsa {Echis 
carinata) 



; The 

Black Rock Scorpion {Pa- 
tamnoeiis swammerdami) 

HiGGiNS, J. C, I.C.S. ; Mani- 
puri names of certain birds 

Hundley, G. ; The Breeding 
of Elephants in Captivity. 

HuxToN, J. H.; Sore-neck in 
Sambhar 



Captivity 



Hornbills in 



; Indian Hornet. 

Inglis, Chas. M., M.B.O.U., 
F.Z.S., F.E.S.; The Food of 
the Small Indian Civet 
( Vivericula malaccensis) in 
captivity 



i'74 



292 



562 



107 



481 



28(. 



291 



o58 



; Inglis, Chas. M., M.B.O.U., 
i F.Z.S., F,E.S,; Breeding of 
j the Kyah or Marsh Par- 
I tridge {Francolinus gularis) 
I in captivity in Bihar 

Kennion, Miss, I. A.; A Baby 

Hog Deer in captivity. 
( With a Plate and Text- 
fiu^re) 

: Croco- 



537 
533 

533 

534 



265 



dile Shooting in Nepal 

KiNLOCH, A. p. ; The Avi- 
favma of the Nelliampathy 
Hills 

; Habits of 



the Southern Scimitar Bab- 
ler. [Poinatorhinus horsfieldi 
travancoriensis) 

: Nidification 



of the Southern Red-whis- 
kered Bulbul. (Otocompsa 
emeria fuscicaudata) 

: Woodpeck- 



ers " Roostincr " 



Leech at- 



tacking a Snake 
; Food of the 



Snail (Indrella ampula) 

Law, S. C. ; An albinoid 
Otocompsa emeria . . 

Luard, Lt.-Col. C. E. ; 
Shakespeare on the noble 
Art of Hawking . . 

Magrath, H, a. F. ; Kashmir 
Bird Notes. . 

Milner, C. E. ; Wild Dogs 

in Burma 
; Distribution 



of Serow in Burma 



287 

271 
291 

279 

545 

545 
546 

557 

557 
281 

161 
276 

266 
267 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



MiLNER, J. ; Burmese races 
of Serow 

MiLLETT, H.J.C., I.F.S.; A 

Panther's ludifference 

Mills, J. P.; Wild Dogs in 
Burma 

MoRicE, F. D., M.A., F.Z.S. ; 

Annotated Lists of Acu- 
leate Hymenoptera (except 
Heterogyna) and Chrysids 
recently collected in Meso- 
potamia and North- West 
Persia. {With 8 Text- 
figures) 

Obituary, John Wallace, C.E. 
Lt.-Col. L. L. 

Fentcu 

O'Brien, LT.-Cot. E. ; The 
effect of a Scorpion's sting 
on a Terrier 

— ; Nidi- 

tication of tiiu Black Vul- 
ture or Indian King Vul- 
ture {Otogyps calvus). [With 
Text-figure) 

Ollenbach, O. C. ; a List of 
Butterflies collected in the 
Tavoy District, Burma. 

{With a Plate) 

OsMASTON, A. E. ; A note 
on the Nidification and 
Habits of some Birds in 
British Garhwal. {With 
3 Plates and a Map) 

OsMASTON, B. B., LF.S. ; The 
White-spotted Fantail 

Flycatcher {Ixhipidura pec- 
toralis) 



Page 



.534 



L>75 



534 



192 
l'60 

519 
•214: 



284 



123 



Page 

OsMASTON, B. B., I.F.S., ; The 

Crested Swift {Macropteryx 
coronata). {With a Te.rt- 
figure) . . . . . . 283 

; Birds of 

Pachmarhi. {With 2 Plates.) 453 



140 



282 



■ ; Predace- 

OU8 habit of the Common 
King Crow . . 

Peile, Lt.-Col. H. D., F.E.S. ; 
The Butterflies of Mesopo- 
tamia. Part I. {With a 
Plate) 

Part II. {With a Plate) .. 

Phillips, W^ W. A. : Notes 
on the habits of some 
Ceylon Bats 

Pitman, Capt. C.R.S., D.S.O., 
M.C., M.B.O.U. ; Notes on 
Mesopotamian Mammals . . 

PowAR, G. B. ; A good female 
Chinkara Head (G-'. bennetti) 

Prater, S.H., C.M.Z.S.; Nest 
Boxes for Birds ( With 2 
Plates.) With a note by H. 
Whistler, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., 
C.F., A.O.U 

— ; Notes on two 

young Indian Hornbills. 
{With a Plate) 

Procter, Miss Joan B., 
F.Z.S. ; Further Lizards 
and Snakes from Persia 
and Mesopotamia . . 

Prout, Louis B. ; Moths of 
Mesopotamia and N.-W. 
Persia, Part III 



546 

.50 
34-5 

448 

474 
266 



Pseudo-Collector. 
Lighter Vein 



In 



460 



.550 



251 



187 



524 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Page 



Rao, C. R. Narayan., M.A.; 
Xotes on Batrachia. (With 
a Text block) 

Riley, Capt. N. D., F.E.S., 
F.Z.S. ; Notes on the 
Generic Names of Indian 
Theclinse and Aniblypo- 
dinee {Lep. Rhop.) . . 

Rothschild, Lord ; Moths of 
Mesopotamia and N.-W. 
Persia, Part I 

Russell, Harold, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S. ; On Indian Parasitic 
Flies 

Shortt, W.H.O. ; A few hints 
on Crocodile shooting. ( With 
'2 Plates and a Diagram) 

Shuttleworth, Lt.-Col., 

A.R.B.; Some curious Nest- 
ing places . . 

Stockley, Ma.jor C.H., Quaint 
Beasts and queer habits . . 

Stockley. Major C, H.; Some 
notes on the Horns of the 
Thamin {Cevns eldi). ( With a 
Plate) 

; Notes 

on Lydekker's Game Ani- 
mals of India. {With a Plate). 

; Tha- 
min Horns . . 

; An 

interesting Panther inci- 
dent. {With n Photo) 

; Notes 

on the Tsaine, {Ros sondai- 
cus.) {With a P/at'^) 



439 



465 



170 



370 



76 



285 



204 



629 



534 



535 



540 



Stockley, Ma.tor C. H.; Notes 
on Dack in the liavvalpiudi 
District 



Page 



548 



SriER. M., D. Sc; Occurrence 
of the Tree-Shrew (Anathana 
wroughtoni) at Khandalla, 
Poona District . . . . 537 

Thomas, Oldfield, F.R.S. ; 
See Bombay Natural History 
Society's Mammal Survey of 
India, Burma and Ceylon. 



Arabian Hare, 
nensis cheesmani 



; A new 

Lepus oiiia- 

; Note 



on the Nomenclature of the 
Northern Slow Loris 

Ticehurst, Claud B., M.A., 
M.B.O.U., Buxtow, p. A., 
M.B.O.U. and Major R.E. 
Cheesman, M.B O.U ; "The 
Birds of Mesopotamia " 
Part I ( With -2 Plates) 



; Some 



measurements of Big Game 543 



Part II { With 2 Plates) . . 

TuNNARD, T. E. ; Nidifi cation 
of the Ceylon Thrush [Ore- 
ocincla imbricata) Layard . . 

UVAROV, B. p., F.E.S. ; Three 
New Alpine Orthoptera 
from Central Asia . . 

Wall, Col. F., I.M.S., C.M.G., 
C.M.Z.S.; A New Snake of 
the family Uropeltidce 
( With a Plate) 

; Notes on 

some notable additions to 
the Bombay Natural 
History Society's Snake 
Collection. ( With a Plate) 



28 



433 



210 



^81 



546 



71 



41 



V.i 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Wall, Col. F., T.M.S., C.M.G., 
C.M.Z.S. ; Butterflies at sea. 

Notes oa some Lizards, 
Frogs and Human Beings 
in the Nilghiri Hills 

■ ; Hatching of 

Cobras {Naia tripudinns) 
with remai-ks on the Oodout, 
Genitalia, etc. 

;Acqui8ition of 

four more specimens of 
the Snake Brachyojihidium 
rhodo[/ aster, Wall . . 

W^AED, Lt.-Col. a. E. ; Big 
Game Shooting of Kashmir 
and adjacent Hill Pro- 
vinces. Part I. ( With 2 
Plates) 

Part II {With tl Plates and 
2 Text -figures) 



Page 



293 



493 



553 



556 



45 
534 



Page 

W ATKINS, H. T. G. and 
BnxTON, P.A., M.A., F.E.S., 
Moths of Mesopotamia and 
N. W. Persia, Part II . . 184 

Whistler, Hugh, F.Z.S. ; 
The call of Franklin's Night- 
jar (Capn'mulgiis monticola) 
Frankl 284 



Notes on nest boxes for 
birds 



dition to the 
Indian Birds 



- ; An ad- 
List of 

; Butter- 
fly feeding on excreta 

Wroughton, R. C, F.Z.S. ; 
See Bombay Natural History 
Society^s Mammal Survey of 
India, Burma and Ceylon. 



460 



544 



LI ^T OF PLATE S. 



No 1. 

Page 
The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. The Green-legged 

Hill Partridge ( 7'ropicoperdix chloropus) . . . . . . . . 1 

A new Snake of the family Uropeltidte (Brachyophidium rhodogaster). 41 

Some notable additions to the Bombay Natural History Society's 

Snake Collection (Coluber leonardi) . . . . . . . . 43 

Big Game Shooting of Kashmir and adjacent Hill Provinces — 

Plate I. The Kashmir Stag (C'eri;iis cas/imirmrtMs) .. ., .. 46 

II. Do. do. 48 

The Butterflies of Mesopotamia . . ' . . . . 50 

A Few Hints on Crocodile Shooting — 

Plate I. (A) A heavy Mugger. (C. palustris) .. .. .. 76 

(B) Getting out a heavy Mugger. (C palustris) .. 76 

Plate TI. (A) A female Gavial. {G. gangeticus] .. .. .. 80 

(B) Male Gavial showing nob at the top . . .. 80 

Butterflies of Tavoy District, Burma .. .. .. ,. .. 123 

A Note on the Nidification and Habits of some Birds in British Garhwal- — 

Map of Garhwal District North of Lansdowne . . . . . . 140 

Plate I. (A) Water falls in the Rup Ganga surrounded by 

forest . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 

(B) The northern slopes of Chaukhamba .. .. 147 

Plate II. (A) Chir Forest (Pinus longifoUa) . . . . . . 152 

(B) Deodar Forest 152 

Plate TIL (A) A Forest-clad Ravine at about 10,000' . . . . 154 

(B) Dunagiri Peak 23,200' 154 

Myriapods from Mesopotamia and Persia — 

Plate I. Figs. 1-2. >Strongylosoma persicum .. ..• .. 166 

Plate II. Fig, 3. Slrongylosmna persicum .. .. .. 163 

Fig. 4. Poluxenus ponticus . . . . . . . . 168 

The Birds of Mesopotamia' — 

Plate I. (A) Creek at Makina near Busra, Mesopotamia . . 230 

(B) From Table Mt. Jebel Hararin, N.-E. of Baghdad. 230 



xviii LIST OF PLATES. 

Page 

Plate II. (A) Close to Amara, on Tigris. . 248 

(B) Broken country on Tigris down stream of Samarra. 248 

Some Notes on the Horns of the Thamin (Cervus eldi) — 

(A) Side view of Stag No. 7 . . 269 

(B) Showing horns forming 3 parts of a circle (Stag 

No. 2) 269 

(C) Stags Nos. 5, 4, 3, 2. Showing greater divergence 

in the horns of the older animal . . . . 269 

(D) An old Stag with a very wide head. Tops palmated 

(No. 5) 269 

(E) A fine Stag. (No. 7, from the front) .. .. 269 

A Baby Hog Deer in captivity — 

(A) Surprised . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 

(B) Creeping along head down, ears back . . . . 272 

An undescribed natural enemy of the Castor Semilooper {Aclicea 

(Ophiusa) melicerte) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 

No. 2. 

The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. The Chukor Partridge 

(Alectoris f/rceca chukor) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 

Game Animals of Kashmir and adjacent Hill Provinces — 

Plate I. (A) Great Pamir Sheep {0ns ammon poli) .. .. 336 

(B) Siberian Argali {Ovis ammon ammon) .. ., 336 

(C) Great Tibetan Sheep {Ovis ammon hodgsoni) . . 336 

Plate II. (A) Bharal (P. ?ia^wra) 340 

(B) Oorial {0. vignei) 340 

Some new forms of Lepidoptera from Mesopotamia and N.-W. Persia . . 345 

The Birds of Mesopotamia — 

Plate III. (A) Kentish Plover's nest on shelly clay, margin of 
large marsh below Amara. Eggs (3), almost 
hatching . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 

(B) A salt pan about \ mile W. of Euphrates 

barrage 384 

Plate IV^. (A) Curious mound-like nest of Black-winged Stilt 
with 3 eggs, in a shallow inundation a few 
miles W. of Musejdb on the R. Euphrates . . 410 
;B) Typical breeding coimtry of Sand Grouse [Pterocles 

alchata caudacuta) on right bank of Tigris near Kut. 410 



LIST OF PLATES. xix 

Page 
A day's shooting on the Nilgiris near Ootacamund — 

Plate I. Country round Ootacamund . . . . . . . . 434 

Plate II. (A) Wooded Nala leading down to marshy ground. A 

likely spot for Woodcock . . . . . . . . 436 

(B) A fine Jungle Fowl Shola near Ootacamund, Nilgiris . . 436 

Birds of Pachmarhi — 

Plate I. Views of Pachmarhi . . . . . . . . . . 454 

TI. Do. do 458 

Nest-boxes for Birds — 

Plate I. Suggestions for Bird-boxes . . . . , . . . 460 

II. Do. do 462 

Notes on Lydekker's Game Animals of India — Oorial . . . . . . 529 

Notes on the Tsaine {Bos sondaicus). 

Tsaine or Banting {Bos sondaicus) . . . . . . . . . . 540 

Notes on two young Indian Hombills — 

(A) Feeding time . . . . . . . . . . 550 

(B) Joan and Helen . . . . . . . . . . . . 550 



Ixa.<aLeac -fco IXX-i3LssiiX»a,-fc±oxiL! 



AchcBa {Ophiusa) melicerte, PL. 

Mschna enjthromelas. Anal ap- 
pendage. Fig. 3 (i) . . 

jmcea, Anal appendage, 

Fig. 2(i) .. 

mixta. Anal appendage, 

Fig.2(ii) .. 
ornithocephala. Anal ap- 
pendage, Fig. 3 (iv). 

peialura. Anal appen- 

dage, Fig. 3 (ii) . . 

Alectoris gneca chukor, PI. 

Anaciceschna jaspidea. Anal 
appendage, Fig. 3 
(iii) 

Anax guUatii,s,Doisa.] and lateral 
aspects of anal appen- 
dage, Fig. 3 (1) 

immaculifrons. Dorsal 

and lateral aspects of 
anal appendage. Fig. 3 
(5) 

— . — parthenope julius^ Dorsal 
and lateral aspects of 
anal appendage. Fig, 3 

(2) 

parthenope parthenope, 

wings. Fig. 2 . . 

Dorsal and 

lateral aspects of anal 
appendage, Fig. 3 (4).. 

■ Occiput of fe- 



male. Fig. 4 . . 

Apis melUfera, Fig. 8, Teeth . . 
Argali, Siberian, PI., Fig. 2 . . 
Arhopala pagaiensis, PL, Figs. 
vii. viii . . 



Page 

298 

488 
485 
485 
488 

488 
305 

488 
113 

113 

113 
109 

113 

120 

199 
336 

123 



Page 

Arhopala- sp., PI., Fig. v . . 123 

woodii, PI., Fig. vi. 123 

Bharal, PI 340, 342 

Biduanda nicevillei, PL, Fig. 

xiv. . . 
Bos sondaicus, PI. 
Brachyophidium rhodogaster, Pi. 

i Butterfly collecting in India — 

Fig. 1. Butterfly-net spe- 
j cification 

Figs. 2,3. Setting- boards . . 
I Fig. 4, Setting-box 

Fig. 5, Method of pinning. 

Fig. 6, Pins 

Fig. 7, Method of setting. 

Fig. 8, Position of anten- 
nfe 

Fig. 9, Paper envelopes 
for Butterflies. 



Castor semilooper, An und^- 
scribed natural enemy, PL . . 



123 
340 
41 



509 
510 
511 
511 
511 
511 

512 



513 



298 



Fig. 


1, 


Semilooper Cater- 
pillar on castor 








leaf 


298 


Fig. 


2, 


The Moth of same 


298 


Fig. 


3, 


A parasitised ca- 
terpillar with 
the cocoon of 
the parasite at- 
tached at the 








tail end 


298 


Fig. 


4. 


Cocoon of the pa- 








rasite . . 


298 


Fig. 


5, 


The parasitic wasp. 
Microplitis 
ophiusce, Ram. 








dorsal view 


298 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 

Castor semilooper — conld. 
Fig. 6, The same — side 
view cf thorax 
to show crenat- 
ed fovea . . 298 
Cephalceschna, Abdominal end- 
ing of female. 
Fig. 1 (i) . . 107 
masoni, Anal ap- 
pendage. Fig. 2 
fiii) .. .. 485 
Cervus cashmirianus, PI. . . iG, 48 

— eldi, PI 269 

2Jorcinus, PI. . . . . 272 

Chaukhamba, (Garwhal District) 

Northern slopes of, PI. . . 147 
Chir Forest, Garwhal District, 

PI 152 

C/iri/sis burtoni. Fig. 11, Apex 
of abdomen, 
Fig. 12, Upper 
part of head 
viewed from 
front.. ,. 203 

Cobras, Hatching of — 

Fig. (A) Side view of 

skull . . 555 

Fig. (B) Lower view of 

skull . . 555 
Coelioxys coturnix. Fig. 6, Out- 
line of 6th ab- 
dominal tergite, i 
Fig. 7, Apex of 
abdomen . . 198 
Coluber leonardi, PI. . . . . 43 
Crocodilus palustris, PI. . . 76 
Deodar Forest, Garwhal Dis- 
trict, PI 152 

Dicfwceros bicornis, PI. . . . . 550 
Dunagiri Peak, Garwhal Dis- 
trict, PI 154 

Dragonflies, Indian — 

'R'ig. 1, Anaciceschna jas- 

pidea . . . . 481 



Page 

Dragonflies, Indian — coyitd. 

Fig. 2, Anal appendages 
of (i) jEschna 
juncea, (ii) ^sch- 
na mi.rta, (iii) 
Gephalce s c h n a 
masoni . . . , 485 

Fig. 3, Anal appendages of 
(i) yEschna eryth' 
romelas, (ii) ^s- 
chna petalura,{m) 
Anacioischna jas- 
pidea, (iv) Msch- 
na ornithocephala. 

Garwhal District, Map of, PL. . 
Rup Ganga 

Waterfalls, 

PL 
Chaukhamba, 

nort hern 

slopes f , 

PL 
Chir Forest, 

PL 
Deodar 

Forest, PL 

A Forest-clad 

Ravine at 
about 10,000' 
PL 

D unagiri 

Peak, 23,200' 
PL 

— • — • A morning 

bag at 7,000' 
8 Cheer 
Pheasa n t s 
and 1 KaUj, 
PL . . 157 

GaviaUs gangeticus, Fl. .. 80 

Gynacantha, Abdominal ending 
of female. Fig. 1 
(3) .. .. 107 



488 
140 

147 

147 
152 
152 

154 
154 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 



Page 



Gynacanihceschna, Abdominal 
ending of fe- 
male, Fig. 1 
(2) .. .. 

Hemianax ephippiger. Dorsal 
and lateral as- 
pects of anal 
appen d a g e , 
Fig. 3(3) .. 
Hog Deer, A baby in captivity. 
" Going Mad " . . 
" Surprised, " PI. . . 
" Creeping along head 
down, ears back", PI. 
Hombills, Notes on two 
young Indian, PI. 

(A) Feeding time 

(B) Joan and Helen . . 
Hysudra hades, PI., Fig. xii . . 
Ibex, Abnormal head. Block . . 
Jacoona anasuja, PL, Figs. ix,x. 
Lemonia peilei, PI. 
Lithurgus tibialis, Fig. 5 c? , 

Hind-leg, a. coxa, 
b. trochanter, c. 
femur, d. tibia, 
e. metatarsus . . 

Lyccena dama karinda, PI. 

damone damalis, PI. 

peilei, PI. 



Mesopotamia, Birds of — 



Macropteryx cormiata, Nest and 

egg of 
Magnifera indica 
Mangoes, Instances of syncarpy 

in Magnifera indica . . 
Mditoea didyma casta, PL 

trima persea, PL 

Mesopotamia, Plate i, (A) A 

creek at Makina near Busra. 
(B) From 

Table Mt. Jebel Hamren, N. 

E. of Baghdad 
Plate ii, (A) 



Close to Amara on Tigris 



107 


Plate iii, 


(A) Kentish Plover's 
nest on shelly 
clay, margin 
of large marsh 
below Amara, 








PI 


384 






(B) A salt pan 




113 




about ^ mile 




271 




W. of 




271 




Euph rates 




272 




barrage, PL . . 


384 






^x>; 




272 


Broken 


country on Tigris 






down stream of Samarra 


248 


550 


Plate iv. 


(A) Curious mound- 




550 




like nest of 




550 




Black-winged 




123 




Stilt with 3 




544 




eggs, in a 




123 




shallow inun- 




345 




dation a few 
miles W. of 
Musuyeb on 
the R. Euph- 








rates, PI 


410 


196 




(B) Typical breed- 




345 




ing country 




345 




of S a n d - 




345 




grouse {Pter- 
ocles alchata 




283 




caudacuta) on 




560 




right-bank of 
Tigris near 




560 




Kut, PL 


410 


,S45 


Mesopotamian and Persian 




345 




Myriopods, Pis. 166,168 








345 










2.30 


Microplitii 


ophiusce, PL 


298 




Nest- boxes for birds — 






Plate i. 


Suggestions for bird- 




2.30 




boxes, PL 


460 




Plate ii. 


Suggestions for 




248 




birds-boxes, PL . . 


462 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 

Nilgiris near Ootacamund — 
Plate i. Country round 

Ootacamund ,,. 434 
Plate ii. 

(A) A wooded Nala lead- 

ing down to mar- 
shy ground, PI. . . 436 

(B) A fine Jungle Fowl 

Shola near Oota- 
camund, PI. .. 436 
Nortonia deceptrix, First and 
second segments, 
Fig9. 9-A and 
10-B .. .. 201 
Nyctibatrachus mnctipalustris. 
Tadpoles of, Fig. 
A. Mouth parts ; 
Fig. B, A tier of 
teeth, showing 
the spikes . . 446 

Oorial, PI 340 

A. & B. Oorial, PI. . . 529 

Otogyps caUus, Nest containing 

young . . 285 

Ovis ammon amnion, PI. . . 336 

hodgsoni, PI. . , 336 

poli, PI 336 

vignei, PI. . . . . . . 529 

vignei, PI. . . 340 

Pachmarhi — 
Plate i, Views of Pachmar- 
hi, PI 454 

Plate ii, Views of Pachmar- 
hi, PI 458 

Panther, An interesting inci- 
dent,' Photo 535 

Pararge megaera iranica, PI. . . 345 
Persian Lepidoptera, PI. . . 345 

Pinus longifolia, PI. .. .. 152 



Polyxenus ponticus, PL 

Pseudois nahura, PL 

Rapala sphinx intermedia, PI, 

Fig. xiii 
subguftata, PL, Fig. xv. 



Page 

168 
310 



123 
123 

Rhipidura pectorcdis. Nest of . , 282 
Rup Ganga Waterfalls (Garwhal 

District), PI 147 

Scehphron Wasp, Nests (A) on 
wood of ceiUng, (B) stored 
with spiders, (C) in course of 
construction . . . . 294, 296 

Sheep, Great Pamir, PL . . 336 

Tibetan, PL . . 336 

Strongylosoma persicum, PL 166, 168 
Strymon abdominalis gerhardti, 

PI 345 

marcidits, PI 346 



Thamin {Oervtis eldi), (A) Side 
view of Stag No. 7, PL 

(B) Show- 



ing horns forming 3 parts of 
a circle stag No. 2 . . 

(C) Stags 



Nqs. 5, 4, 3, 2, showing 
greater divergence in the 
horns of the older animal . . 
-(D) An old 



stag with a very wide head 
tops palmated (No. 5) 

(E) A fine 



stag No. 7 from the front 
Tropicoperdix chloropus, PL . . 

Tsaine, Notes on, PI 

Zegris eupheme dyala, PL 
Zephyrus quercus longicauda, 

PI 



269 



269 



269 

269 

1 

540 

345 

346 



ERRATA. 

No. 4, Volume XXVII. 

Page 941, No. 11 for " Lanius erythronotus the rufous-backed 
shrike " read " Lanius cristatus, the brown shrike." 
,, ,, No. 29, lines 1 & 2 delete " very common " to " so 

far South." 
,, „ ,, Ime 5 for " Blanford " read " Oates." 
,, ,, ,, line 10 delete from " Blanford to "up here." 
„ No. 30 /or " Blanford " read " Oates." 
Page 942, No. 45, line 12, for " 2i" deep read "21 feet deep." 
,, 943, No. 78, delete lines 1 to 4 "very common " to "breed 
up here." 

No. 1, Volume XXVIII. 

Page 20, line 5 from the bottom for Orygernis iQadOrtty gomes . 
20, ,, 5 from the bottom for Reicheul read Reichenh. 
11^ ,, 6 from the the top for N. C. Robinson read H.C. 
Robinson. 
Page 50, line 13/o/ being read Being. 

„ ,,16 ddete the comma after copper. 

,, ,, 30 /or bath white rea(^ Bath "White. 

,, „ 40 ,, there read here. 

„ ,, 9 from foot of page, /or " crocea " read " croceus." 

52, ,, 2 for " ticarus " read " icarus." 
„ „ 2/or painted lady read " Painted Lady." 
,, ,, 15 after hanifa, insert " Nordm." 
„ „ 16 ,, magna, ,, " Stgr." 

Between lines 17 and 18 insert NYMPHALIDAE. 

53, line 22 for Limenitis read Liminitis. 
,, ,, 26 after "C" album, L. insert " Subsp. hutchinsonii, 

Robson." 
„ ,,27 after " J " album, insert Esp. 
„ ,. 4:0 for '' kurdistana " read" kurdistanica." 
„ ., 43 ,, " marginallis " read " marginalis." 
,, ,, 6 from foot of page, /or Bo v. read Bdl. 

54, „ 4 /or 28c. read 28a. 

55, Between Imes 1 and 2 insert Genus COENONYMPHA. 
,, line 9 from foot of page after Hb., insert " i. hanifa, 

Nord." 
57, „ 15 delete." 

59, ,, 3 delete about stony hillscrests. 

60, lines 27, 31, 32, 36 & 37, for "palescens" read 
" pallescens." 

61, Between lines 7 and 8 insert NYMPHALID^ 
and below this Genus LIMINITIS. 



ERRATA XXV 

Page 61 line 8 for " Limenitis " read " Liminitip." 
., ,, ,, 28 ,, its read their. 

,, „ ,, 32 after India insert fullstop followed by Capital 0, 
,, „ ,, 15 from foot,/o/' and read end. 
,, „ ,, 13 ,, ,, ,, end read and. 
,. 63, ,, 5 delete N. W. Persia, Karind valley, August 1918. 

and read " Occurs ''for " occurs." 
,, „ ,, 6 from foot, for " cos^a " read "casta." 
., „ ,, 5 ,, ,, enclose Seitz I 62b in brackets. 
'„ 64, „ 13 /or PERAMELS rm^Z PYRAMELS. 
,, ,. ,, 8 from bottom, after May 22nd msert fullstop. 
,, „ ,, 2 ,, ,, for white read with. 

,, 5, ,, 3 from bottom of page delete p. 7. 
,, 65 Transfer the black line and footnote at bottom to 
above the description beginninsr " Vanessa (Grapta)" 
which is just above them. 
,, „ line 6 after album add Esp. 
,, 66, „ 20 for the older name read an older name than 

lunigera. 
,, „ ,,21 ,, -'hamigera'' read' 'lunigera.^' 
., „ ,, 24 ,, " hutchisonni " read " hutchinsonii." 
,, 67, „ 3 insert comma after swamp. 
,, 69, ,. 30 for " didijma " read" persea." 
,, ., ,,31 after or insert a. 

„ 199, Fig. 8 the words " 96 Apis mellifera, L" should be 
mserted at the commencement of the fourth para- 
graph (line 19) instead of under Fig. 8 and should 
read thus " 96 Apis mellifera, !.■. Several specimens 
have been sent by Captain Buxton from, etc." 
„ 266, line 7 " any " should read curry. 
,, 287. ,, 12 from beginning of note " large room " should 

read " large rim ." 
.; 292, Miscellaneous note No. XXXI for " Eulepis eudamip- 
pus o " read " Eulepis eudamippus c? •" 

No. 2, Vol. XXVIII. 

Page 26 from the top for fusciphaga read fuciphaga. 
,, 354, line 7 for figured read recorded and add footnote 
\ " Alpheraky gives a coloured figure of a 
specimen from S. Persia, lent him by Avinoff, 
in Oberthur's Etudes Vol. VII." 
„ „ 17 /or "29 °22rea(Zover°80°40. 
„ „ 7 from foot of page, add over 120 specimens. 
„ ,, 6 ,, ,, ,, ,, after more insert se^. 
359, line 3 /or brown read Brown. 
„ last line, for rom read from. 



ERRATA. 



Page 362, line 2^ for " its " read " Seitz." 
„ 366, „ Ifor comma after appearance read fullstop. 
„ 367, „ Qfor "Gerhardi, i. gerhard", read " Gerhardt, i. 

Gerhardti." 
„ 469, top line (legend) /or page 499 read 469. 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Ablepharus brandtii 
Acanthlon . . 

millsi, sp. n. 

Acanthis cannabina 



fringillirostris 



Acanthodactylus scutellatus 
Acanthopneuste lugubris . . 

■ magnirostris 

Acanthylis leucopygialis . . 

sylvatica 

Accipiter brevipes 



nisosimilis 



Acer sp. 
Acerbas 

nitidifasciata 

Aceros nepalensis . . 
Acesina 
Achalarus . . 
Acherontia styx 
Achoea melicerte 
Acidalia albidentaria 

ochroleucata 

strigilaria 

Acmonorhynchus vincens 
Acontia hueberi 

lucida var. lugens 

Acridotheres tristia 

Acrocephalus arundinaceus zarudnyi 

babylonicua . . 

palustris 

schcenobsenus 

scirpaceus macronyx 

scirpaceus 

stentoreus brunnescens 

streperus 

Acrocera 

Acronycta pontica 
Actinor 
4 



Number, 

.. 253 
.. 477 
.. 431 
.. 228 
.. 228 
.. 252 
.. 145 
.. 455 
.. 322 
.. 322 
.. 425 
.. 164 
.. 424 
.. 424 
.. 561 
.. 33 
.. 39 
.. 319 
.. 465 
.. 33 
.. 184 
.. 298 
.. 181 
.. 187 
.. 187 
.. 91 
.. 181 
.. 180 
455, 461 
. 387 
. 387 
. 389 
. 389 
. 388 
. 388 
. 387 
. 388 
. 376 
. 180 
. 33 



Adelura caeruleicephala 
^githaliscus erythrocephalus 
niveigularis 



^githina nigrolutea 
J^vidLnthe senanthe senanthe 

rostrata 

alboniger 

chrysopygia 

deserti albifrons 

• montana 



- finschii bamesi . . 

- hespanica amphileuoa . . 

■ gaddi 

melanoleuca 

• isabellina 

• leucopyga 
• lugens lugena 
■ persica 

picata 

pleschanka pleschanka 

xanthoprymna chrysopygra . 

cummingi 

• xanthoprymna. 



-^romachus 
JEsalon chiquera 
^schna affinis 

annulata 

caucasica . . 

coluberculue 

erythromelas 

guttata 

juncea 

mediterranea 

mixta 

ocellata 

omithocephala 

parisinus 

parthenope 

petalura 

picta 



111, 



Number. 

.. 277 
.. 142 
.. 142 
.. 454 
.. 398 
.. 398 
.. 402 
.. 401 
.. 399 
.. 399 
.. 400 
.. 399 
.. 399 
.. 399 
.. 400 
.. 402 
.. 402 
.. 402 
.. 402 
.. 400 
401 
401 
401 
33 
164 
486 
492 
487 
486 
488, 490, 610 
.. 115 
111,487 
.. 121 
111, 485, 486 
.. 487 
11, 488, 610 
.. 119 
.. 119 
. 111,491 
.. 487 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



i^schna propinqua 

rustica 

sp. 

tahitenses . . 

viridis 

^schnidse . . 
^thopyga anomala 

dabryi . . 

gouldefe 

ignicauda flavescens 

■ — — ignicauda 

nipalensis horsfieldi 

• nipalensis 

victorise 

— sanguinipecta . , 

saturata 

separaja andersoni 

oara . . 

miles . . 

nicobarica 



seherise 

viridicauda 

vigorsi . . 

Agama nupta var. fusca . . 

persica 

Agapetes larissa iranica 
Agrobates familiaris persica 

galactodes familiaris 

syriaca 

AgrophUas sulplnirails var. algira 
Agrotis cognita 

comes 

golickei 

ipsilon 

pronuba , . 

Alaemon alaudipes . . 
Alauda arvensis 
cantarella 



cmerea 

dulcivox 



Alcedo atthis bengalensis . . 

pallasii 

taprobana . . 

— coerulescens asiatica 

coltarti 



Number. 

. 487 
. 487 
. 492 
. 483 
. Ill 
. 107 
. 87 
. 87 
. 87 
. 87 
. 87 
. 87 
. 87 
. 87 
. 87 
. 87 
. 86 
. 86 
. 86 
. 86 
. 86 
. 86 
. 86 
, 252 
. 252 
53, 54 
394 
393 
393 
180 
179 
171 
179 
171 
171 
240 
239, 278 
239 
240 
239 
314 
314 
314 
315 
315 



NUMI 



Alcedo coerulescens rufigastra 
• — scintillans 



— ■ euryzona 

grandis 

iredalei 

ispida 

■ ■ pallasii 

pallida 

meningting 

Alcippe phfeocephala 
Alectoris grseca 

■ ■ — chukor 

■ pallescens 

Alispa acervella 
Allotinus horsfieldi 
■ — • — subviolaceus 



Alophonerpes pulvemlentus Iiarterti 
Alsocomus elpbinstoni . . . . 254, 

Alsopbylax tuberculata 

Amblypodia . . . . . . 465 

narada 



Ammomanes deserti 



fraterculus 



Amoora rohituka 

Amphidasis flabellaria 

Amphiesma himalayana 

Ampittia 

Anacipeschna donaldi sp. nov. 

jaspidea 



481 



Anapalis sp. 
Anaphseis mesentina 
Anas poecilorhyncha 
Anathana elliotti . . 

pallida . . 

wroughtoni 



Anax ephippiger 
guttatus 



immaculif rons 

■ magnus 

mediterranea 



— - — parthenope bacchus 
Julius 



109, 113, 115, 
109, 113, 



.. 110, 
110, 113, 



— parthenope 110, 113, 119, 



. senegalensis . . 

Ancylolomia affinis sp. nov. 



315 
315 
315 
315 
315 
457 
414 
414 
315 
454 
306 
306 
311 
182 
123 
123 
101 
436 
251 
468 
126 
238 
238 
561 
191 
43 
33 
482 
483 
561 
293 
289 
537 
537 
537 
121 
117 
114 
115 
121 
117 
118 
120 
121 
175 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



XXIX 



Andrena bimaeulata 

cordialis 

■ cyanescens 

dorsata 

flavipes 

gwynana 

hypopolia 

lucens 

■ thoracica 

vetula 

Andi'ocles androcles 

viridis 

Anerastia ablutella 
Anorbinus galeritus 
Anortbura neglecta 
Anser ferus 

■ indicus 

Antilope cervicapra 
Antbidium florentinum 

sti'igatum 

• tessellatum 

Antbracoceros coronatus affinis 

albirostris 

coronatus 

Antbocicbla pbayrii 
Antbopbilodes bapbiabs . . 
Antboscopus pendulinus . . 
• persimilis 



Number. 

192 
193 
193 
192 
192 
192 
192 
192 
192 
192 
31 
31 
182 
319 
144 
289 
289 
530 
196 
196 
196 
318 
318 
318 
92 
183 
247 
247 
376 



Antbrax 

Antbreptes hypogrammica hypogram- 
mica 

mallaccensis malaccensis 

rhodolaema 

simplex xanthocblora 



Antbus campestris . 

cervinus 

maculatus . 

■ — praterisis 

enigmaticus 

riehardi 



rosaceus 

rufulus 

sordidus 



decaptus 



spinoletta 



89 
89 
89 
89 
242 
242 
456 
242 
242 
243 
153, 278 
456 
243 
243 
241 



Antbua spinoletta blakistoni 

coutellii 

trivialis 



Apatura parisatis 

Apbnseomorpha 

Aphmeus 



bypargyrns 



bypargyinis marginalis 

■ ictis maximum 
- lohita 



Apis mellifera 

Apopestes spectrum innotata 

Appias wardi 

Apporasa 

Apporosa atkinsoni 

Aquila cbryssetus . . 

fulva . . 

heliaca beb!aca 

maculata 

nipalensis orientalis 

rapax albicans 

vindbiana 

Aracbnectbra asiatica 
Aracbnotbera affinis modcsta 

cbrysogenys 

longirostra longirostra 

magna aurata 

magna . . 



Araotes 



lapithis 



Araneus sp, . . 
Arboricola atrogularis 

brunneipectus . . 

brunneopecta . . 

brunneopectus 

cbloropus 

cbloropus 



intermedia 

mandellii 

rufogularis 

intermedia 

tickelli 



tickelli 



Number. 
241 
241 
242 
292 
465 
465 
53 
365 
53, 365 

126 

126 

199 

174, 181 



292 

466 

126 

422 

422 

421 

421 

421 

421 

458 

456 

89 

90 

90 

89 

89 

466 

134 

296 

10 

13 

13 

13 

16 

16 

1 

8 

6 

1 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Arboricola torqueola 
Arborophela atrigularis 

brunneopectus 

intermedia 

mandellii 

Archigalleria buxtoni, sp. n. 
Arctomis chrysorrhaea 
Arcyophora denticla 
Ardea cinerea 
Ardeola bacchus 

grayi 

Arenipses sabella . . 
Argya caudata 

malcolmi 

Argynnis hyperbius catetsi 
latona 



maia 



Argyramoeba trif asciata . . 
Arhopala 

abseus 

adala 

agaba 

agnis 

— agrata 

aida 

albopunctata, 

ammonides 

anniella . . 

anthelus . . 

antimuta 

antura 

apidanus 

• aroa 

■ arvina 

■ atosia aricia 

azata 

camdeo . . 

centaurns 

cumolphus fraquhari 

diardi 

duessa 

fulgida 

f ulla 

hewitaoni 

hypomuta 



Number. 

159 
10 
13 
1 
8 
174 
186 
172 
289 
289 
289, 459 
174, 181 
.. 280 
.. 453 
.. 514 
53, 62 
53,61 
375 
466 
129 
131 
127 
130 
129 
127 
126 
131 
128 
127 
127 
129 
129 
127 
131 
127 
130 
126 
126 
128 
128 
131 
129 
131 
130 
128 



Number. 



Arhopala metamuta 

moolaiana 

oberthuri 

oedias 

ormistoni 

pagaiensis sp^ n, 

perimuta 

perissa 

rafflessi . . 

selta 

silhetensis 

sp. 

subfasciata 

tunguva . . 

• vihara 

woodi, sp. n. 

Aria bilineilla 

Arnetta 

Arrhenothrix 

Artipe 

Artipus 

Artocarpus integrit'olia 

Arunena nigerrima 

Aaio accepitrinus . ., 

flammeus 

otus otus 

Asopia ornatalis 
Astictopterus 
Astur badius 

palumbarius . . 

Athene brama 

glaux 

lilith 

noctua bactriana 



Athetis clavipalpis 
pertinax 



Augiades 

Aurotis 

Austroseschna intersedens 

jaspidea 



Autophyla grantis 
Auxacia bilinecla 



INDEX 01 SPECIES. 



Badamia 

exclamationis 

Bambusicola fytchii 
Baracus 
Baspa 
Batrachostomus afflnis 

hodgsoni 

moniliger 

Belenois mesentina 
Berenicornis comatus 
Bibasis 
Bidaspa 
Biduanda . . ' 

nielisa 

nicevillei 

thesmia . . 

— ; — ■ fabricii . . 

Bindahara . . 

phoudes 

Bithys 

Blythipicus pyrrhotis pyrrhotis 

rubiginosus 

Bombylius major . . 

orient alis 

Bos bubalus 

caffer branchyceros . • 

gaurus 

gruniens 

sondaicus 

Bostra marginalis sp. nov. 
Botys anaxisalis 

armenialis 

pentadalis 

Brachyophidium gen. nov. 
■ rhodogaster 



sp, 



Brachypternus aurantius 



38, 



aurantius 
dilutus 
erithronotus 
puncticollis 



Brassica toumefortii 
Britomartis . . 
Bubo bengalensis . . 
bubo nikolskii 



Number. 

.. 33 
.. 139 
.. 289 
.. 33 
.. 466 
.. 325 
.. 325 
.. 325 
52, 345 
.. 319 
.. 33 
.. 466 
.. 466 
.. 134 
134 
134 
134 
466 
136 
466 
98 
98 
375 
375 
529 
263 
529 
334 
540 
177 
183 
178 
183 
41 
556 
41 
456 
100 
100 
100 
.. 100 
.. 348 
.. 466 
155, 457 
.. 416 



Bubo bubo ruthenus 
Bubulcus coromandus 
Buchanetes githaginea 
crassirostris 



Bufo beddomei 

melanostictus 

viridis . . 

Bullis 

Butastur teesa 
Buteo buteo ancpps 

desertorum 

ferox ferox 



NlJMBBR. 

.. 416 
.. 289 
.. 228 
.. 228 
.. 499 
.. 499 
.. 251 
.. 466 
.. 458 
.. 422 
.. 422 
.. 423 



Cabera pusaria 
Caccabis chukor 

kakelik humei 

■ pallescens 

pallidus . . 

saxatilis chukor 



Cacomantis meruliniis passerinus 
querulus. 



Coenonympha saadi 
Calandrella brachydactyla 



longipennis 



Calandrella minor 



heinei 
minor 
persica 



Caliseschna 



micostigma 



Callacanthis burtoni 

Calliaria 

Callimorpha quadripunctaria 

quadripunctata 



Calliope 

pectoralis . . 

Callolophus miniatus malaccensis 
Callophrys . . 
Caloperdix ocellata 

oculea oculea . . 

■ oculeus 



.. 190 
306, 311 
.. 311 
.. 311 
.. 311 
.. 311 
.. 327 
.. 327 
53, 55 
.. 237 
237 
237 
237 
237 
238 
108 
110 
277 
33 
185 
51 
545 
277 
96 
466 
18 
18 
18 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Number, 



Number. 



Caloihamphus fuliginosa hayi 
Calyptomena viridis 
Cameua 

orcusa culta 

ictoides 

Campophaga melanosehista 

Candidus 

Canis aureus 

dukhunensis . . 

lupus . . 

rutilans 

Capila 

Capra hylocrius 

jemlaicus 

megaceros 

sibirica 

Capricornis sumatrensis rubidus 



529, 
268, 

swettenhami 267, 
milne-ed wardsi . 



Caprimulgus aegyptius 

— andamanicus . . 

arenicolor 

•- asiaticus 

atripennis 

— — europseus zarudnyi 

: unwini 



indicus 



324, 
154, 



■ indicus 
jotaka 



kelaarti 

macrurus albononotatus 

- — — • bimaculatus 



niiJalensis 

mahrattensis 
monticola 



154, 



— monticolus 



Caprona 

Capsicum frutescens 
Caradiina pertinax 
Carcharodus . . 

alcese . . 

althese bseticus 

malvte 

Carcharodus malvarum 



53, 

53, 



103 

94 
467 
133 
133 
147 
471 
475 
534 
532 
534 

33 
530 
530 
530 
543 
534 
534 
534 
411 
324 
411 
323 
324 
411 
411 
457 
324 
324 
324 
324 
324 
324 
323 
284 
323 

33 
561 
180 

33 
368 
368 
368 
368 



Carciiiiutes pulchellus amabilis 
Cardepia taylori sp. nov. . . 
Carduelis caniceps . . 

■ — carduelis. . 

— — brevirostris 



■ — harmsi 

loudoni 

major. . 

minor . . 

niedicki 

— volgensis 



siJinus 

Caridagrus concretus 
Carpodacus erythrinus 
Carpospiza brachydactyla . 
Casarca rutila 
Castalius 

decidia 

— — ■ ■ elna 

— — ■ etbion 

rosimon 



roxus 

Catachrysops cnejus 

pandava 

strabo 



Catamecia buxtoni sp. no v. 

jordana var bacheri 

minima bacheri 



Catapcecilma 

elegans 

Catocala elocata locata 

mesopotamica . 

puerpera pallida. 



Catreus wallichi 
Celerio lineata livornica 
nicaea 



Celoenorrhinus 



— aurivittata . 

- spilothyrus . 



Centropus andamanensis . . 

bengalensis bengalensis 

javaneusis. 

chlororhynchus . . 



318 
171 
152 
227 
227 
227 
227 
228 
227 
227 
228 
228 
317 
151 
230 
289 
31 
124 
'24 
124 
123 
124 
123 
123 
123 
172 
180 
172 
467 
137 
3, 180 
180 

173, 180 
157 
184 
184 
33 
137 
33 
330 
330 
331 
330 

290, 457 



17 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



CentroiJus sinensis intermedins 

pairoti . . 

— sinensis . . 



Cephalseschna 



aeutifrons 
lugubris 
masoni 
orbifrons 



268 



271, 



Ceratina cyanea 

Ijevifrons 

nigrolabiata 

tibialis 

Certhia hodgsoni 
Cervulus fese . . 

— grandicornis 

muntjac . . 

Cervus axis . . 

brucei 

cashmirianus 

eldi 

kashmirianus 

poicinus 

schomburgki 

thanain brucei 

unicolor equinus . . 

Ceryle lugubris guttulata. . 

■ rudis . . 

leucomelanura 

rudis . . 

varia . . 

Cettia cetti orientalis 

Ceyx tridactylus macrocercus 

■ tridactylus 

Chsetoprocta 
Chtetura 
Chakura pugnax 
Chalciope hyppasia 
Chalcococcyx maculatus 

xanthorhynchus malayanus. 

xanthor- 
hynchus . . 
Chalcoparia singalensis singalensis 
Chalcostetha chalcostetha . . 
Chamseleo calcaratus 
Charadrius fulvus . , 



10 



Number. 

330 
330 
330 
108 
110 
110 
110 
110 
195 
195 
195 
195 
276 
531 
531 
531 
531 
535 
45 
531 
530 
531 
533 
268 
530 
314 
290 
314 
414 
457 
386 
315 
315 
467 
321 
306 
173 
328 
327 



Charana 



■ mandarinus 



Charasia dorsalis . . 

Charmion 

Chaulelasmus streperus . . 

Chelidon nepalensis 

Chelidorhynx hypoxanthum 

Chelostoma emarginatum 

Cheritra 

freja 



Cheritrella . . 
Chila incertulas 
Chilades galba 
trochilus 



Chilena proxima 
Chilo phragmiteUus 

suppressalis 

Chliaria 



— merguia 
othona 



Chloridea nubigera 
peltigera 



Chlorissa pulmentaria 
Chloropsis jerdoni . . 
Chordeumoidea sp. 
Chotorhea mystacophanes 
Chrysis blanchardi.. 

buxtoni sp. nov. 

■ — cyanopogon . , 

exigua 



fuscipennis 

ignita 

maculicornis 

palhditarsis . 

scutellaris . . 

stilboides . . 



327 

92 

86 

493 

290 



Chrysocolaptes festivus 
gutticristatus 



NUMBEK. 

.. 467 
.. 136 
.. 493 
.. 33 
289, 548 
.. 153 
.. 148 
.. 195 
.. 467 
.. 136 
.. 467 
.. 182 
52, 362 
52, 364 
185 
175 
175 
467 
133 
133 
170 
170 
187 
454 
168 
104 
202 
202 
202 
202 
202 
202 
202 
202 
202 
202 
100 
546 
101 



delesserfei 

- guttacris- 

tatus 

- stricklandi. 

- sultaneus 



Chrysophanus 

Chrysophlegma flavinucha flavinucha 



101 
101 
101 
467 
96 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



ChryBopliIogma mentalie humei 
ChryHopUna . . 
Cidaria ibcuicata 
CigaritiB 

maxima . , 

CiliHHa leporina 

CincrliiH aHiaticiiH 

Circus ajniginoHua ecruginoHiis 

barterti 

cineraceus . . 

oyaneus 

macrourus . . 

mclanoleucus 

CiipluB corrugata . . 

loroyi 

zese iridistincta 

Cirrochioa aoris 

orisBa 

Cieticola cisticola . . 

cursitans . . 

Citrus aurantiuiii . . 
Clamator coramaiuluH 

gland alius 

jacobinus. . 

Cledoobia arincnialis 
Clemmys caHpica . . 
Clcophana bictica diluta . . 
Clytie aronosa 
CobuB coba thomasi 
Coccystes ooromandus 
Cocoa nucifora 
Ccclioxys afra 

argentea . . 

Inevis 

conoidea . . 

coturnix . . 

decipiens . . 

elongata . . 

• hioniorrhoa 

obtusa 

Canonyinpha pamphilus hylas . 
Ccenotephria alfacariata . . 
Coladenia 

dan 

Colias croceuH 



NUMBEB. 

.. 96 
.. 167 
.. 180 
.. 467 
53, :{66 
.. 193 
.. 150 
.. 424 
.. 424 
.. 423 
.. 423 

. 423, 458 
.. 423 
.. 171 
.. 171 
.. 171 
.. 292 
. . 38 
.. 395 
.. 454 
.. 561 
.. 328 
.. 410 
.. 328 
.. 183 
.. 251 
171, 180 

. 173, 181 
.. 263 
.. 155 
.. 561 
., 197 
.. 197 
.. 197 
.. 179 
.. 198 
.. 197 
. . 197 
.. 197 
.. 198 
53, 55 
.. 189 
. . 33 
.. 137 

51,52,535 



Colias odusa. . 

Collocalia francica fiancica 

germaini 

inoxpectata 

fuciphaga bicviroHtiis 

innominata 

lincbi aiiinis 

elachyptera 

unicolor uiiicolor 



Colotis amata 
fausta 



('((lubcr leonardi sp. nov. 
Columba intcrnu'dia 

Ic'Uconota. . 

• rupestris . . 



C()ii(ij)s orythrocephala 
ConKtantia argentalis 
canifusalis 



Contia collaria 

persica 

Contyta profcsta 
(!ophanta 

Copsychus saularia . , 
Coracias benghalensia affinis 

benghalensia. 

indica 



. . 290, 456, 



gaiTula garrula . 

aeraenowi. 

indica 



Coreana 
Ct)rvus corax 



laurencei 

cornix 

capcllanus 

sliarpii 

frugilegus. . 
macrorhynchus 
raonedula . . 
collaris. 



, 276, 290, 



splendens . . 

Corydon sumatiauus sumatranus 
Coryllis indicus 
veraalis 



Cossus araraticus . . 
Crambus ramburiellus 



NCMBEK 

51, 52 
.. 322 
.. 323 
.. 322 
.. 322 
.. 322 
.. 323 
*.. 323 
.. 322 
.. 293 
.. 357 
.. 43 

155, 459 
.. 156 
.. 155 
.. 380 
.. 182 
.. 182 
.. 253 
.. 253 
.. 173 
.. 467 

461, 464 
.. 106 

105, 416 
.. 105 
.. 415 

106, 415 
164, 457 

.. 467 
140, 221 
.. 221 
.. 222 
.. 222 
.. 222 
.. 223 
436, 453 
.. 224 
.. 224 
.. 453 
.. 93 
.. 333 
.. 333 
.. 186 
.. 181 



ISDEX OF HFECIEH. 



XXXV 



XCXBEK.! 



■■TOpax altix«>stris 
eanontc .. 

fnn^»^ns hottoci 

hattoni 



IttS I Cyaoofw anatica raheaeeoa 

dnvaooeli cjaootw 

tobinaoni 



. 172 — 

. 395 - 

. 433 - 
. 3»5 

. 395 - 
. 467 

4^;' '".yanaiyWa 

'*i, %10 CjHodwglm rnfne . . 
^v- Cymboxfajiidiiw affiois 

; : ' naeroAjndatst 

eatOK ., 



— flavifrwM-. 

' fcaoklim f nnklmi 
^- tamjiayi 

— imrtgnita , . 

— fOlNMtUDCtni 



23 



i%i— 



Ajoebaa 




,- v^.^.. -. - 155, 

— ^ bakeri 

eaikGtiue . . 

telepboou' 

— iiii»optenit 

— miciopterw: . - 

— optataB 

— pc4k*cephafaic 

■atsvns 
pa <*yV»D*os5K - - 14^5 436, 



Cypii^m affinis 



eemss 
171 
4>>4 
326 j Cyonus fcmeomriannrw 

4101 J tkkelH 

326 mueolor 



-. 104 

., 104 

104 

104 

105 

105 

lf>4 

105 

.. 545 

., 17% 

iZ 

.. J4 

.. C^ 



457 



■ f«rT*ft. 

Coretis bolt-.. 



C^aocreokt 

Cyamimdes., 

UhT-^ 

pnapa 



aaiatkai 
daviaool 



278 
%6 
561 
'561 
435 
467 
35 
139j 
126' 
126 
545' 
456* 



33,31^ 

123 

.. 154 

., 104 

KM 



. 145* 

- 113 

C'TrtoctntDOS aciataeas aaialsett* - . . ^ 

fa er igot tifc %^ 

iniermedim %^ 

— brawKana '^^ 

flaanuazillam amtomankiK, ify 

flaaunaxillam. *s8 

toteaia* ^ 

«► 

pecfynalk hiaudoti^ - . 88 

— kkwR .. .. H^ 

p^'tocafe - - 68 

zejionka* ^^ 



Dacaboa 

Dafikt aenta. . 
IHObefipa omoo .. 



46^ 
430 

376 



INDEX Oi fiPECIES. 



Danais clirysippus . . 

Darasana 

D arpa 

Dattinia atlinis sp. nov, 

argentalis 

canifusalis 

simplicialis sp.n. 

Daulias 

Decalana vidiora burmana 
Deilepliila nerii 
Delichon urbica 
Dendrocitta rufa 
Dendrocopus auriceps 
Dendrocycna javanica 
Dendrotreron hodgsoni . . 
Deramas 

livens 

Deudorix 

epijarbas 

Dicseum cliryscrrheum chrysoclilore 

■ — — intensum 

— cruentatum cruentatum 

— — ignitum 

— sianiensis 

erythrorhynchus 

ignipectum 

minullum concolor 

olivaceum 

— "subflavum 

— virescens 



trigones tigma rubropygium 

Dichoceros bicornis . . 31 8, 

Dicranophyma gen. nov. . . 

— ■ — ■ — ■ ■ — hingstoni sp.n. 

Dicranura vinula intermedia 
Dicrurus ater 

■ — — caerulescens 

• — longicaudatus 

macrocercus macrocercus 

Dipsas 

Discestra arenaria . . 
Dissemurus paradiseus 
Dissura episcopus 
Doritis appollinus 
Dosithcea elongaria 



Number. 

52,54 

.. 468 

.. 33 

.. 177 

.. 177 

.. 177 

.. 177 

.. 545 

.. 132 

.. 184 

.. 409 

.. 453 

.. 154 

.. 289 

.. 156 

.. 468 

.. 36 

.. 468 

.. 131 

.. 90 

.. 90 

.. 90 

.. 90 

.. 90 

.. 91 

.. 90 

.. 91 

.. 91 

.. 91 

.. 91 

.. 90 

533, 550 

.. 72 

.. 73 
..186 

290, 454 

.. 454 

.. 143 

.. 546 



Draco dussumieri 

Dremomys lokriah garonum subsp. 

■ subflaviventris 



Drina 

■ — donina 

Daipadia 
Dryol^ates auriceps 

■ — ■ cabanisi cabanisi 

~ — — cathparius cathpaiius. . 

■ pyrrhothorax 



darjellensis 

himalayensis 

hyperythrus hyperythru;^ 

marshalli 



macei atratus 
macei 



- pectoralis andamanensis 

— • pectoralis . . 

scindeanus 



Dryophis dispar 
Dumetia hyperythra 



Earias chlorophyllana 
Echis carinata 
Ectropis bistorta 
Edrisa pilicornis 
Elephas maximus . . 
Emberiza buchanani 

■ calandra 

crede 



171, 179 
.. 454 
.. 459 
52, 70 

.. 188 



cmerea 
citrinella 



erythrogenys 



hortulana 



shah 

icterica . . 
leucocephala 
luteola 
melanocephala 



Number, 

.. 493 

nov. 430 

429 

468 

136 

468 

97 

96 

97 

97 

97 

96 

S6 

96 

97 

97 

97 

97 

97 

409 

557 

453 



172, 180 
.. 291 
.. 191 
.. 299 
.. 537 
.. 235 
.. 233 
.. 233 
.. 233 
.. 234 
.. 233 
.. 233 
.. 234 
.. 234 
.. 234 
.. 234 
.. 234 
.. 234 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Emberiza rustica . . 
— schteniclus 



pallidior 

• semenowi 

— stracheyi 

striolata . . 

Entomothera coramanda coramanda 

— -— mizorhina 

Eogenes 

alcides 

Eooxylides . . 
Epeira sp. 
Ephestia calittella 

■ cautella 

— elutella 

inductella 

Epinephele jurtina persica 

Inpinus centralis subsp. 

niandane 

telmessia kurdistana 

— palecens 

Erastria trabealis algira . . 
Ercta ornatalis 
Erebus macro ps 
Eremias velox var. persica 
Eremophela alpestris 

■ — bilopha 

Erionota 

batara 

thrax 

Erithacus rubecula 



caucasicus 
hyrcanus 



Erjrnnis 
Euaspa 
Eublemma parva . . 

uniform is 

Eubolia disputaria . . 
Eucera dentata 

distinguenda 

■ longicorais . . 

nialvas 

— radoszkovskyi 

tuberculata 

Euchloe ausonia 



Number. 

.. 235 
235 
235 
234 
152 
235 
317 
317 
33 
369 
468 
298 
176 
176 
176 
182 



NUMBKR. 



3, 



r 

51,53, 60 
I 51, 52, 59 

53, 60 
5, 60 

53, 60 
172 
178 
173 
252 
241 
241 
33 
138 
138 
407 
407 
407 
33 
468 
172 
172 
190 
193 
193 
193 
193 
193 
193 
348 



EuchlfX' ausonia persica 

belemia 

cbarlonia transcaspica . . 

— ■ gruneri armeniaca 

Eudynamis honorata 

scolopaceus malayana 

scolopaceus 



-, > 
53, 



Eugenia jambolana 
Eulepis eudamippus 
Eumenes coarctata 
esuriens . . 



Euphjria polygrammata 
Eupithecia centaureata 
— — ultimaria 



Euplcea core 
Eurhodope buxtoni sp. nov. 
Eurylaimus javanicus javanicus 
ochromclas 



Eurystomus orientalis calonyx 
taigas 



— isetior 
orientalis 
Euxestes dentula . . 
Euxoa cognita 

conspicua . . 

lasserrei 

— lata golickei 

messaonda matritensis 

— mustelina terminalis subs 

spinifera 

Everes rileyi 
Exoprosopa . . 



Falco 33sa,lon 

insignis 

pallidus . . 

barbarus 

— — biarmicus tanypterus 

buteo . . 

cherrug cherrug 

milvipes 



349 
352 
352 
457 
328 
328 
561 
292 
200 
200 
189 
189 
J 89 
293 
177 
93 
93 
106 
108 
106 
106 
ISO 
171 
171 
170 
170 
170 
171 
171 
J2 

376 



. 164 

. 420 

. 420 

419 

419 

164 

. 419 

. 419 



INDEX OI l-yPECIES. 



Falco feldeggii 

— — juggei' 

naumanni naumanni 

. peregrinate) r . . 

peregrinus . . 

babylonicus 

— calidus 

subbuteo 

tinnunculus tinnunculus 

Felis caraca] 

cbaus . . 

isabellina 

pardus 

tigris . . 

— — uncia . . 
Flammea alba alba 

Flos 

Francolinus chiuensis 

gularis 

_ longirostris 

oculeus . . 

vulgaris 

Fi'anklinia gracilis 
Fringilla cfelebs 

— montifringilla 

'Fringillauda sordida 
Fulica atra . . 



Galerida cristata 

magna 

— weigoldi . . 

Gallinago coelestis . . 

gallinula 

nemorico'a 

solitaria . . 

stenura . . 



Gallinula chloropus 
Galloperdix lunulala 

— spadicea 

Gallus f errugineus 
sonnerati 



NuBir.EK. 

.. 419 

.. 458 
.. 420 

164, 458 
.. 164 
.. 419 
.. 419 
.. 420 
.. 420 

478, 532 
.. 474 
.. 532 
.. 531 
.. 531 
.. 532 
.. 419 
.. 46S 
.. 289 
.. 287 
.. 20 
.. 18 

159, 289 
.. 454 
.. 229 
.. 229 
.. 152 
.. 290 



Gangara 



tbvrsis 



Garrulax albigularis 

Garuga pinnata 

Gauropicoides ratiiesi poninsujaris 

Gavialis gangcticus 

Gazella bennetti 

marica 

sp 

Gazellus benneti 
Gecinulus grantia grantia . . 
viridis . . 



viridis robinsoni 

Gecinus squamatus 
Gegenes 

lefebrei 

nostrodamus 

Gennseus albocristatus 
horsfieldi 



Geocichla cyanonotus 
wardi 



.. 238 

.. 238 

.. 239 

290, 459 

.. 290 

.. 290 

.. 160 

.. 290 

.. 290 

.. 459 

.. 459 

157, 289 

437, 459 



Geometra sestimaria 

centaureata 

pumilata 

■ signaria 

Geron argentifrons . . 

Gerosis 

Gerydus ancon 

biggsii 

— boisduvalii 

croton 

I Glaucidium radiatum 
Gnopharmia colchidaria 



objectaria 

Gnophos colchidaria 
Gomalia 

Gonatedes jerdoni . . 
Gonepteryx farinosa 

centralasiae 

• chitralensis 



Gorsachius melanolophus 
Graculus eremita 
Grammatoptila striata 
Grammodes geometrica 
Graucalus macii 



INDEK OF SPECIES. 



Grus communis 

■ sharpii . . 

Gymnorhis flavicollis 



tiansfuga 



Gymnoscelis pumilata 
G5macantha . . 

bainbriggei . . 

basiguttata . . 

— ■ bayadera 

— f urcata . . 

— hanumana 

■ hyalina . . 

khasiaca 

millardi 

— saltatrix 

— subinterrupta . 

Gynacanthasschna ... 

— sikkima 

Gypaaijtus barbatus 
Gyps fulvus . . 

fulvus . . 

indicus 



Number. 

.. 290 
.. 290 
;^0, 456, 461 
.. 230 
.. 189 
.. 107 
.. 112 
.. 112 
.. 112 
.. 112 
.. 112 
.. 112 
.. Ill 
.. 112 
.. 112 
.. 112 
107, 108 
.. 110 
.. 426 
.. 458 
.. 426 
.. 458 



Halcyon amauroptera 
■ pileata 



— smymensis 



■ fusca . . 
generosa 
saturatior 
smyrnensis 



Haliaetus albicilla . . 

— leucoryphus 

Halpe 

masoni 

sikkima 

zema. . 

Hantana 

■ infemus 

Hasora 

chabrona 

chuza 



Hedychridium hilare sp. no v. 
Hedychrum rutilans 
Helictis millsi sp. n. 
Heliophobus matriten'sis . . 
Heliophorus . . 
— indicus . . 



Heliothis nubigera 
Hemianax ephippiger 
Hemicercus canente 
— sordidus 



Hemichelidon sibirica 
Hemidactylus flavoviridis 
— persicus 



Hemiechinus auritus 
Hemiprocne coraata 

— • coronata 

longipennis 



.. 816 
.. 317 

154, 457 
.. 316 
.. 316 
.. 317 

316, 414 
.. 422 
.. 422 
.. 33 
.. 139 
.. 139 
.. 139 
.. 33 
. . 33 
.. 33 
.. 139 
.. 139 



Henicurus maculatus 
Heodes 

pliloeas 

thersamon kurdistana 

— kurdistanica 

Herodias alba 

garzetta . . 

intermedia 



Herpestes edwardsi . . 

— carnal icus 

ellioti 

jerdoni. . 

jnonticolus 

persicus . . 

lubiginosus 

smithi 

— canens su);sp. i 

Jerdoni . . 

— rusanus subsp. i 

smithi 

zeylanius subsp. 

thysanurus 

torquatus 

. . vitticollis 

Herrula undalis 
Herse convolvuli 
Hesperia 
alveus 



Number. 

..201 
.. 201 
.. 432 
..179 
31, 468 
. . 31 
..179 

109, 113, 121 
..101 
.. 101 
..147 
.. 251 
.. 251 
..474 
.. 323 
.. 323 
.. 323 
..148 
..468 
52, .361 
. . 53 
.. 362 
.. 289 
..290 
.. 289 
. . 23 
-.23 
23. 24 
. . 24 
. . 24 
..475 
. . 24 
. . 23 

n. 24, 25 

. . 24 

n. 24, 25 
. . 24 
.. 24 
.. 23 
.. 24 
.. 23 
.. 178 
.. 184 
33, 468 
53, 369 



xl 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Hesperia geron 
orbifei 



pi-oto 



hilaris 



Hesperopterus tickellt 

He terogr aphis buxtoni sp. n. 

— conveicella 

deserticola 

fulvobasella 

hellenica 

— microstictella 

monostictella 

— — pallida 

subcandidatella 



Hidari 

Hieraotus fasciatus. 



— — — f asciatus 

pennatus . . 

Hierococcyx f ugax fugax . . 
nisicolor 



nanus . . 
■ sparveroides . . 
-varius 
Hippoboscidse 
Hippo tion celciict . . 
Hirschfeldia adpressa 
Hirundinapus caudacuta nudipes . . 

cochinchinensis 

gigantea indica 

Hirundo daurica ruf ula 

er3"thropygia 

nepalensis . . 

rustica 

Hodgsonius phcBnicuroides 
Holcocerus gloriosus mesopotamicus 

nov. 
Homcea arefacta 
Horaga 

moulmeina . . 

Horeites brunneifrons 
Horomis brunnescens 

pallidas . . 

Hulodes caranea 
Hy?ena hyaena 
Hyarotis 



Number. 

53, 369 
.. 369 
53, 369 
53, 369 
.. 450 
.. 176 
.. 176 
.. 176 

176, 182 
.. 176 

176, 1S2 

176, 182 
.. 176 

176, 182 
.. 33 
.. 458 
.. 422 
.. 422 
.. 32G 
.. 327 
.. 327 
.. 326 

326, 457 
.. 370 
.. 184 
.. 351 
.. 321 
.. 322 
.. 322 
.. 409 
.. 456 
.. 153 
.. 408 
.. 143 



subsp. 



186 
173 

468 
137 
146 

lio 
146 
181 

475 
33 



Hydrophasianvis chirurgus 
Hyla arborea savigni * . . 
Hylodes caranea 
Hypcna ravalis var. syriacali;^ 
Hyperalonia . . 
Hyphinomos gen. n. 
fasciata sp. n. 



Hypochrysops 
Hypocolius ampelinus 
Hypolais languid a . . 

pallida elseica 

■ — rama 



Hypolimnas misippus 

Hj^olyca^na 

erylus 



Hypothymis azurea 
Hj'psipetes ganesa 
Hysudra 
hades 



lambrix 



salsala 



lanthia rurilata 
Ibis melanocephala. . 
Icthyophis glutinosus 
Idicapus sylvatica . . 
Ilerda 

Indicator xanthonotus 
Indoxylides 
Indrella ampul a . . 
Inocotis papillosus 

lois 

lolaus 

Irania gutturalis 

Iraota 

rochana 

Isma 

purpurascens . . 

Ismene 

— gomata 

I ton 

semamora 



NUMBEI^. 

.. 290 
.. 251 
.. 173 
.. 181 
.. 376 
.. 74 
.. 74 
.. 468 
.. 381 
389, 390 
.. 389 
.. 390 
.. 293 
.. 468 
.. 133 
.. 455 
.. 436 
.. 469 
.. 131 



.. 33 
.. 138 
.. 149 
.. 289 
.. 499 
.. 322 
31, 469 
.. 103 
.. 469 
.. 557 
.. 289 
.. 469 
.. 469 
.. 408 
.. 469 
.. 126 
.. 33 
.. 39 
.. 33 
.. 139 
.. 33 
.. 139 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



xli 



Itys 

luloidea sp. , . 
Ixalus glandulosuy . . 

signatus 

-— variabilis 

lyngipicus canicapillus 

gvTnnopthalmui? 

hardwickii 

pygmgeus 

semicoronatus . . 

JxTix torquilla japonica 



Jacoona 

anasuja 

Jaculus loftusi 
Jagoria martini 
Jalmenus 
Japonica 
Junonia hierta 

lemonias . . 

— ■ oritlij^a hero 

Jynx torquilla torquilla 



Kerana 

diodes 

Ketupa semeaowi . . 

— - zeylonensis 

Koruthaialos 
• rubecola 



Lahera eryx 
Lamoria anella 
Lampides bceticus 

bochus 

— celeno 

elpis 



Number. 

33 

168 

497 

496 

494 

98 

98 

98, 456 

. 98 

. 98 

. 103 



38 



469 
135 
. 476 
. 110 
. 469 
. 469 
. 293 
. 293 
52, 63 
. 409 



33 I 

138 I 
417! 
457 j 
33' 
138 



.. 136 
.. 175 
52, 364 
.. 124 
.. 124 
.. 124 



Lampides kondulana ccerulea 

— — subdita . . 

Lanius collurio 

— • fuscatus . . 

kobylini . . 

— cristatus isabellinus 

— — — ■ — ■ phoenicuroides 

erythronotus 

excubitor . . 

— — — — • — ■ assimites 

aucheri . . 

fallax 

pallidirostris 



mmor 

nubicus 

senator 

niloticus . . 

vittatus 

Laodamia fusca postalbidior subsp. 
Laothoe kindermanni 
Laphj^gma exigua . . 
Larentia fluviata 
Larus cachinnans . . 
Lasiocampa grandis 

salomonis 

■ • — terreni 

Lasiosticha hieroglyphiella 
Lasius albigenus 

byssinus 

farinosus 

garrulus 

kessleri 

pilipes 

— quadrifasciatus 

Lehera 

Lemonia peilei sp. n. 

pia 

Leptoptilus dubius 
Lepus craspedotes . . 

daya,nus connori 

omanensis cheesmani subsp. i 

Lerwa nivicola 

Leucania corrugata . . 

■ indistincta 

Leueanitis cailino var. picta 



Number. 

.. 124 
.. 124 

.. 249 
.. 249 
.. 249 
.. 249 
.. 249 
.. 455 
.. 247 
. . 248 
.. 247 
.. 247 
.. 247 
.. 247 
.. 248 
.. 248 
.. 248 
147, 455 
ncv. 176 
.. 185 
.. 172 
.. 189 
.. 290 
.. 185 
.. 185 
. . 185 
.. 176 
.. 194 
.. 194 
.. 194 
.. 194 
.. 194 
.. 195 
.. 194 
.. 469 
.. 174 
174, 181 
.. 287 
.. 533 
.. 477 
,. . . 28 
.. 160 
.. 180 
.. 180 
.. 181 



xlii 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Leucanitis picta 
Libellula coluberculus 

ocellata . . 

quadrifasciata . . 

Libytliea celtia 

Licus 

Liminitis livularis Camilla 

Liopicus mabrattensis 

Liphyra biassolis . . 

Listeria 

Lithobius aeruginosus 

buxtoni sp n. 

Lithostege buxtoni 

■ farinata 

Lithurgus chiysurus 

tibialis . . 

Locustella fluviatilis 
Lonostege sulphuralis 
Lophoceros birostris 

gingalensis 

griseus . . 

Lophophorus refulgens 

Loii cuius 

Lotongus 

calathus . . 

Loxostege palealis aoaxiealis 

sticticalis 

Loxura 

atymnus 



Lullula arborea 

pallida 

Luperina lasserrei . . 
Luscinia luscinia 

■ — megarhynchos africana 

• suecica discessa 

— magna 

• ■ palliclogularis . 



Lusciniola melanopogon mimica 

Lutra tutra . . 

Lyofena 

— admetus 

astrarche 

baitonclara 

bellargus 



Number. 

.. 173 

.. 4S6 
.. 487 
.. 487 
53, 66 
.. 469 
53, 61 

98, 456, 463 
.. 137 
.. 469 
.. 165 
.. 167 
.. 188 
.. 189 
.. 196 
.. 196 
.. 387 
.. 178 

. 319, 451 
.. 319 
.. 319 
.. 158 
.. 333 
. . 33 
.. 138 
.. 178 
.. 178 
.. 469 
.. 136 
.. 240 
.. 240 I 
.. 179: 
.. 406 
.. 405 
.. 544 
.. 406 
.. 5'M 
.. 406 
.. 386 
.. 476 
.. 465 
53, 361 

52, 359 

53, 361 
53, 360 



Lycaena dama 
karinda 



damoue damalis 

icarus persica 

• icarus var persica . . 

■ peilei 

LycEenesthes 

emolus 

■ — ■ lycrenina 

Lj'csenojjsis trita 

Licopersicum esculentum 

Lycophotia margaritosa . . 

Lycus 

Lymantria dispar . . 

Lyncornis ccrviniceps bourdilloni 

cerviniceps 

Lyroderma lyra lyra 
Lythria purpuraria . . 



Mabina septemtaeniata 

vittata 

Macaria aestimaria . . 

notata 

signata 

■ syriacaria . . 



Machlolophus haplonotiis 
Macroglossa stellatarum 
Macropteryx coronata 
Mahathala . . 

ameria . . 

Maneca 

Magnifera indica 
Manis pentadactyla 
Manto 

martina 

Montoides licinius . . 
Mareca penelope 
Mannessus . . 

• — lysias . . 

Marshallia . . 

Massaca 

IMatapa 



Number. 

.. 51 
53, 359 
53, 360 
.. 52 
.. 359 
53, 360 
.. 31 
.. 124 
.. 124 
.. 40 
.. 561 
.. 171 
.. 469 
.. 186 
.. 325 
.. 325 
.. 448 
.. 188 



.. 252 
.. 252 
.. 190 
.. 190 
.. 190 
.. 190 
.. 453 
.. 185 
283, 454 
;. 469 
.. 126 
.. 470 
.. 560 
.. 273 
.. 470 
.. 136 
.. 38 
.. 289 
.. 470 
.. 135 
.. 470 
.. 470 
.. 33 



INDEX 01< SPECIES. 



xliii 



Matapa aria 
3Iegachile argentata 

centuiicularis 

flavipes 

iuaritima 

minutissima 

rotundata 

■ schnabli. . 

Megaderma spasma ceylonensis 
Megaleema virens marshallorum 

■ — - virens . . 

Melanastia cerraticornella 
Melanocorypha bimaculata 

• calandra . . 

calandra 

hebraica 

— psammochroa 
Meleita armata 
Melitaea didyma casta 

trivia persea 

Melittophagus er3"throce])halus 

cepbalus . . 
Melophus melanicterus 
Melursus labiatus . . 

ursinus 

Merops apiaster 

■ orientalis beiudschicu^ 

birmanus 

■ orientalis 

■ persicus persicus 

superciliosus javanicus 

viridis 

Merula albicincta . . 

■ boulboul 

casta ne a 

maxima 

■ simillima 

Metasia ochrif ascialis 

ossealis 

Metopoceras omar caspica 

sacra car caspica 

Metoponia pusilla . . 
Micrixalus opisthorhodus 
Microloxia polemia 
Micro plit is eusirus 
6 



NUMBEK. 

138 

197 

197 

197 

197 

197 

197 

197 

448 

LOS 

103 

176 

237 

236 

236 

236 

. 236 

. 195 

53, 63 

52, 62 

rythro- 

.. 314 

. . 456 

. . 288 

.. 288 

:U3, 412 

313, 413 

.. 313 

.. 313 

313, 412 

.. 313 

154, 413 

. 149 

. 149 

.. 149 

.. 277 

.. 436 

178, 183 

178, 183 

171 

ISO 

152 

497 

187 



Microplitis . • 

ophiusae sp. nov. 

Micropternus brachyurus giilaris 
■ humei . 

lantia 

. — mesos 

phaioceps 

Y\ illiamsoni 

Micro pus affinis affinis 

galilejensis 

subfurcatus 

apus pekinensis . . 

iiielba melba 

murinus murinus 

])acificus acuticauda 

cooki . . 

leuconyx 

pacificus 



Microtoridea lissonota 
Migyptes jugularis 

tristis grammithorax 

tukki 

Milvus govinda 

korschun 

■ — lineatus 

migrans migrans . - 

milvus milvus 

Miniopterus fuliginosus 
Molpastes hsmorrhous 

- — ■ leucogenys 

— . — leucotis . . 

Monticola saxatilis 

solitarius transcas])icus 

Mormonia mesopotamica . . 

-neonympha 

Mo.schus moschiferous 
Mota . . 
Motacilla alba 

alba 

dukhunensis 

■ — lugubris 

— persica 

personata . . 

boarula . . 

.-- cinerea .. 



32] 



Number. 

298 

298 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

321 

:l, 410 

321 

320, 410 

320 

320, 410 

321 

321 

321 

320 

299 

99 

99 

99 

458 

425 

425 

425 

425 

450 

454 

280 

535 

398 

398 

173 

173 

49 

470 

245 

245 

245 

246 

245 

246 

243 

243 



xliv 



INDEX 01 SPECIES. 



Motacilla citreoloides 
— — feldegg . . 

■ flava 

— campestris 

■ — — dombrowskii 

flav a 

leucocephaiii 

thunber.iji 

leucopsis 

— melanocephala . . 

— ■ — ■ • melanogriseuis 

melanope 

Mungos mungo 
■ ellioti 



Munia atricapilla . . 
Muntiacus vaginalifi 

Mus gentilis 

Musa sapientum 

Muscicapa artricapilla artricapilla 

— ■ semitorquata 

— ■ — coUaris 

— ■ grisola grisola 

• neumauni 



parva parva 

Mycalesis oculus . . 
Mycerobas melanoxanthus 
Myelois convixella . . 

— ■ deserticola . , 

pallida 

rhodochrella vcrr. hellenica 

Mjaophoneus horsfieldi 
Mvrina 



Number. 

.. 278 
.. 243 
.. 244 
.. 244 
.. 244 
.. 244 
.. 244 
.. 244 
.. 45C 
.. 243 
.. 244 
279, 456 
23 
.. 23 
.. 290 
.. 4C 
.. 477 
.. 561 
.. 384 
.. 384 i 
.. 384 
.. 383 
.. 383 
.. 384 
.. 514 



Nacaduba 



ancyici . . 
andamanica 
aphj^a 
ardati'^ . . 
atrata . . 
berenice . . 
bhutea . . 
■ coelestis . . 



31 



Nacaduba ceylonica 

continentatis 

dana 

euplea . . 

— gy thrion 

hampsoni 

kerriana . . 

kodi 

— macropthalma 

merguiana 

nabo 

nicobaricu?? 

nora 

pactoluH . . 

pav^na . . 

perusia . . 

■ plumbeomicans 

— • promineus 

■ — — sivoka . . 

vajuna . . 

— — viola 

Nadisepa 

Naia tripudianp 

Narathura 

Nemoria pulmentarin 



151 ! Neolycfena 



182 i NeomjTina 
182 



hiemates 



182 1 Neophopteryx serraticornella 
182 ; Neophron ginginianus 



454 
470 



31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
124 
31 
32 
31 



— — - perenopterus perenopterns 

Neopithecops zalraora 

Nepheluim litchi 

Nephopteryx nucleolella . . 

Nesokia buxtoni 

Netta rufina 

Nettium crecca 

Nettopus coromandelianus 

Nilasera 

Noctua chalcites 

comes 

conspicua 

— exigua 

geometrica . . 

litura 



Number. 

.. 31 
.. 31 
.. 31 
.. 31 
.. 31 
.. 31 
.. 31 
.. 32 
.. 31 
.. 31 
.. 31 
.. 31 
31, 124 
.. 31 
31, 124 
.. 31 
31, 124 
.. 31 
.. 31 
.. 31 
.. 31 
.. 470 
.. 553 
.. 470 
.. 187 
.. 470 
.. 470 
.. 136 
.. 182 

279, 458 
.. 426 
.. 123 
.. 561 
.. 182 
.. 477 
.. 548 

289, 459 
.. 289 
.. 470 
.. 181 
.. 179 
.. 179 
.. 180 
.. 181 
.. 180 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



xlv 



NUMDEK. 

Noctua loreyi . . . . • • • • 180 

margaritosa . • . . . . 179 

neoavmpha. . . . . . . • 180 

—ni ". ..181 

. parva . . . . . . • • 180 

peltiger . . . . . . • • 1^9 

segetum .. .. •• •• 179 

— spinifera . . . . . • . . 179 

suffusa .. .. .. ..179 

tanaceti . . . . . . . . 180 

vitellina 180 

Noctuelia fioralis . . . . . . . . 179 

Nomada f ucata .. .. .. ..193 

tigridis sp. n. . . . . . . 19;-> 

Nomia diversipe.s . . . . . . . . 19.3 

— edentata .. .. .. ..193 

■ — rufiventris . . . . . . . . 193 

Nomophila noctuelia . . . . . . 178 

Nortonia deceptrix sp. nov. . . . . 201 

Notocrypta . . . . . . . . . . 33 

feisthamelii .. .. ..139 

Nucifraga hemispila . . . . . . 141 

Nyctibratrachus major . . . . . . 447 

pygmseus . . . . . . 447 

sanctipalustris . . . . 446 

Nycticebus bengalensis . . . . . . 433 

coucang . . . . . . 433 

Nycticoras griseus . . . . . . . . 290 

Nyctiomis amictus. . .. .. ..314 

athertoni .. .. 314,457 

Nymphula affinialis . . . . 178, 183 
■ nigrolinealis sordidior sub sp. 

nov... 178 

m-mphoeata latifaseata sub sp. 

nov 178 

Nyroca bseri . . . . . . . . 289 

ferina 289, 548 

ferruginea . . . . . . . . 289 

• fuligula 289 

rufina 289 



Ochus 

Ocneria signatoria poenitens 

Ocnerogjda amanda 

Ocnogyna Lewii 

Odina 

decor at UH 

ortygia 

Odontoptttum 

— — angulata 

— pygela 



Odynerus chloroticus 

crenatus . . 

melanocephalus 

parietum 

— simplex . . 

trans itoriu.--. 

(Edicnemus scolopax 

Oenanthe, see ^nanthe 

Oeraae 

Oligodon herberti . . 

Oligura castaneicoronata 

Ommatopteryx ocellea 

ramburelki 



Oncodes 

Onryza 

Ophiops elegans var. ehrenbergii 

Ophiusa melicerte . . 

Ops 

cleobordes 

valentia 

Oreicola ferrea 
Oreocincla dauma . . 

imbricata 

— whitehead t 



Oreocosys sylvanus 
Orinhippus gen. nov. 
tibetanus sp. n. 



Oriolus melanocephalus 

oriolus 

trailii 

Orthomiella . . 
Orthonama obstipata 
Orthopcetus . . 
• lalita . . 



NUMBEK. 

.. 33 
.. 186 
.. 186 
.. 1«5 
.. 33 
.. 137 
.. 138 
.. 33 
.. 137 
.. 137 
.. 200 
.. 200 
.. 200 
.. 200 
.. 200 
.. 200 
.. 459 
.. 402 
.. 33 
.. 44 
.. 143 
.. 175 
.. 176 
.. 376 
.. 33 
.. 232 
.. 298 
., 470 
. . 133 
.. 133 
.. 133 
.. 280 
.. 150 
.. 540 
.. 150 
.. 153 
.. 71 
.. 72 
.. 455 
.. 227 
.. 147 
.. 31 
.. 189 
.. 33 
.. 137 



xlvi 



INDEX OF SFEClEs. 



Orthotoinus sutorius 
Ortygernis longirostris 
Osmia coerulescens . . 

'limidiata 

indigotea 

panze)'i 

Otocompsa emeria . . 

tlaviventris 

luscicaudata 

Otogyps calvus 
Otus brucei 

scops pulcLellus 

Ovis ammon hodgsoni 

nahura 

■ orientalis gmelini 

— ■ — vignei . . 

vignei . . 

Oxylides 
Oxyopes sp. 



Pachygiossa melanoxantlia 
Pachymerium caucasicum 

ferrugineum 

Pacliyura etrusca , . 
Paohyzancla pallidalis 
Padiika 
Palseornis 

— cyanocephalus 

nipalensis 

torquatus 

Palamnajus swammerdami 

Palparia ocellea 

Palumbus casiotis . . 

Pamphila 

Panchala 

Paiidesma anysa 

eanysa . . 

Paudion haliaetus . . 
Paniscus lineatus 
Pantoporia ranga . . 
Papilio 



NUMBEK. 

..454 

. . 20 

.. 195 

..196 

..195 

..195 

. . 281, 535 

..454 

>6, 454, 535, 545 

. . 284, 458 

..417 

..417 

.. 335 

. . 336. 339 

.. 529 

..264 

.. 529 

.. 340 

..470 

..296 



92 
167 
165 
474 I 
183 

33 
331 
457 
457 
457 
.058 
181 
156 

33 
470 
174 
181 
426 
299 
292 
471 



Papilio ari.stolocliiye 

chaoR 

demoleus 

dosonaxion.. 

_ Helena cerberus 

niaohaon 

centralis . . 

paris . . 

podalirius 

varuna 

Parantirrhsea marshalli 

Pararge megsera iranica subsp. n. 

Parellelia algira 

Parnara 



ooeia 

inathias 

Parnopes grandior . . 
Parus atriceps 

major. . 

blanfordi 

major. . 

zagrossiensis . . 

Passer domesticus . . 

biblicus 

indicus 

— parkini . 



hispaniolensis 



transcaspicuf? 



mesopotamicus 

moabiticus 

niontanus 

palestinse 

— yatii . . 

Pastor roseus 
Pavo cristatus 

niuticus . . 

Pedestes 

Pelecanus philippensis 

Pelloraeum ruficeps. . 

Peloperdix chloropus 

Pelosia muscerda . . 

— uniformis sp. nov. 



Pempelia cautella . . 

hieroglyphiella 

Penthoceryx sonneratii sonnerati 



NUMBEK. 

.. 293 

.. 292 

.. 293 

.. 292 

.. 292 

51, 52 

52.66 

.. 292 

53. 70 

.. 38 

.. 514 

52, 58 

.. 173 

.. 33 

.. 139 

53, 369 

.. 203 

453, 464 

.. 246 

.. 246 

.. 246 

.. 246 

30, 290, 456 

.. 2.30 

.. 2.;i 

. . 231 
.. 232 
.. 232 
.. 232 
.. 231 
. 233 
.. 232 
.. 232 
226, 455 
289, 459 
287, 289 
.. 33 
.. 290 
.. 454 
.. 16 
.. 185 
.. 185 
.. ]82 
. 1S2 
.. 327 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



xlvi 



Penthocerys sonneratii waite 

— venustus 

Perdicula asiatica . . 
Perdix chukar 

kakelik 

longirostris . . 

oculea 

Pergesa elpenor 
Pericrocotus peregrinus 

speciosus 

Pericyma albidentaria 

profesta . . 

' — - — squalens . . 

Perioechna magdalense 
Pernis apivorus apivorus 

cristatus 

Petronia petronia . . 

exigua 

~ intermed 

Petrophila cyanus . . 
Phalacrocorax carbo 
Phalaena algira 

aurata 

bistorta . . 

circumflexa 

clavipalpis 

■ farinata . . 

gamma 

hyppasia 

— ipsilon 

trifolii 

macro ps . . 

nigro punctata 

notata 

• obstipata . . 

ornata 

politata , . 

— ■ polygrammata 

praelata . . 

pronuba . . 

purpuraria 

— pusaria 

ruralis 



NUMBEK. 

.. 327 
.. 327 
.. 459 
.. 30G 
.. 306 
.. 20 
.. 18 
., 184 
.. 455 
.. 455 
.. 173 
.. 181 
173, 181. 
.. 110 
.. 425 
.. 458 
.. 229 
.. 229 
.. 229 
149, 456 
.. 160 
.. 181 
.. 183 
.. 191 
.. 181 
.. 180 
.. 189 
.. 181 
.. 181 
.. 179 
.. 180 
.. 180 
.. 187 
.. 190 
-.189 
.. 187 
.. 188 
.. 189 
.. 182 
.. 179 
.. 188 
.. 190 
.. 183 



Number. 



Phaltena sacraria . . 

semlrubella 

sericealis . . 

sticticalis 

undalis 

PhaleratuR . . 
Phasianus humia^ . . 
Phaenicophies pyrrhocephalus 
i Phoenicopeidix chloropus . . 
Phoenicopterus roseus 
Phoenicurus erythronota . . 

— gilbraltariensis 

■ — — ochruros ochruros 

— - — ■ phoenicuroides 

phoenicurus mesoleuca 

' phoeni-curus 



semenovi 

semirufa 

titys . . 

Phyllanthus emblica 

Phyllodactylus elisae 

Phylloscopus affinis 

■ ■ bonelli orientalis 

• coilybita abietina 

coilybita 

sindianus 

tristis 



— indicus 

— neglectus lorenzii 
— neglectus 

— proregulus . . 

— pulcher 

— sibilatrix sibilatrix 

— trochilus ever-smanni 
trochilus 



Phylometra chalcites 

— — ■ — ■ — ■ daubei 

gamma 

Pica pica 

bactriana 

Picumnus innominatus avimculorsum 

"- ~ — ■ innominatus 

■ " malayorum 

Picus canus gyldenstolpei . , 



xlviii 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Picus canus hessei . . 

occipitalis 

clilorolophus chlorigaster . 

— ■ cUorolophus . 

eiythropygius nigrigenis 

})uniceus puniceua . . 

.^quamatus flavirostris 

— — squamatus 

striolatus 

\ittatus viridanus . . 

vittatus 

Pieris ergane 

napi 

pseudorapa" 

vapae iranica . . 

Pipistrellus ceylonicus ceylonicus 

coromandra 

mimus mimus 



95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
94 
04 
94 
95 
95 
346 
53 



Plusia daubei 
Podicipes albipeunis 

cristatus 

Polistes gallicus 

hobrseus 

maccensis . . 



NuMBEK. Number. 

95 Plusia daubei . . . . . , . . 181 

..290 

..290 

..199 

.. 200 

..200 

53, 66 

. . 52 

53, 65 

. . 465, 470 

..124 

.. 168 

165, 168, 169 

346 I Pomatorhinus horsfieldi travancoriensis . . 545 



Polygonia " C " albuna 

egea 

— " J " album 

Poiyommatus 

b(jeticus 

PolyxPiius lagurus . . « 
■ponticus . . 



52, 346 



obscurus 



448 i Pontia chloridice 



Piprisoma squalidum 



modestum 
squalidum 



Pipunculus . . 
Pirdana 

hyela rudolpini . 

Pithauria . . 

— marsena . . 

Pithecops hylax 
Pitta brachyura 

— cs&rulea cajrulea 

cucuUata abbotti 

cucullata . 

cyanea cyanea 

■ granatina coccinea 

gumeyi 

megarhyncha 

moluccensis . . 

— — nipalensis 

oatesi . . 

Plastingia 

callineura 

coxissa . . 

naga 

Platalea leucorodia 
Platyplectrurus trilineatus 
Plotus melanogaster 



.. 449 

.. 449 

.. 456 

.. 91 

.. 91 

.. 378 

.. 33 

.. 139 

. 33 

.. 138 

.. 123 
93, 284, 456 

.. 92 

.. 93 

.. 93 

.. 92 

. . 93 

. . 93 

.. 93 

.. 92 

.. 92 

.. 92 

,. 33 

.. loS 

.. 138 

.. 138 

.. 289 

. . 42 



daplidice 
glauconome . 



52, 



Poritia dawna 

— sp. nov. 

erycinoides . . 

phraatica 

g^ta 

geta 

regia sp. nov. 

hewitsoni 

— hewitsoni 

tavoyana 



xarennia sp. n. 

— • — pediada 

phalena . . . . . . . . 125 



.. 453 

348, 369 

347, 351 

.. 52 

.. 347 

.. 34 

.. 37 

.. 34 

.. 37 

.. 34 

.. 37 

.. 31 

34, 292 

.. 36 

34, 124 

35, 36 

.. 125 



phalia 

phraatica 

pleurata 

i-cgia 

sumatrse 

tavoyana 

Porphyrio poliocephalus 

Ponjadia pulverosa 

Pratapa 

Pratincola caprata . . 

maura . . 



Precis orithj^a here 
290 Prinia gracilis lepida 



.. 125 
34, 124 
34, 124 
.. 34 
34,36 
.. 34 
.. 290 
.. 182 
.. 470 
.. 456 
.. 456 
.. 52 
.. 394 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



xlix 



Prinia inornata 

lepida 

socialis 

Prionochilus ignicapillus . . 

maculatus 

Procarduelis nipalensis 
Procris micane 

— solana 

Prodenia litura 
Proparus vinipectus 
Propasser pulcherrimus 

thura 

Psara pallidalis 

Psarisomus dalhousei 

Pseudochliaria 

Pseudogyps bengalensis 

Pseudois nahura 

Pseudolycaena 

Pseudomyrina 

Psittacula alexandri fasciata 

■ ■ calthrope 

caniceps 

columboides 

cyanocephala bengalensis 

cyanocephala 

erythrogenys erythi'ogenys 

tytleri 

eupatria avensis 

eupatria 

— . — ___ indobunnanica 

■ — - — ■ — magnirostris 

nipalensis 

— ■ schisticeps finschi 

— chisticeps 



— torquata 

Psittinus incertus malaccensis 
Psorosa nucleolella . . 
Ptilolcemus tickelli austeni 

tickelli 

Ptyonoprogne concolor 
rupestris 



Pudicitia 

Purlisa 

Pycnonotus gularis 

leucotis mesopotamica 



Number. 

.. 455 

.. 286 

. . 455 

. . 91 

. . 92 

.. ;277 

.. 186 

.. 186 

..172 

.. 143 

..151 

..277 

..178 

. . 94 

..471 

290, 456, 458 

..342 

..471 

.. 471 

.. 332 

..332 

.. 3.32 

..332 

332 

331 

332 

332 

331 

331 

331 

331 

331 

332 

332 

331 

333 

176 

319 

319 

456 

153 

33 

471 

280 

, 382 



Pycnorhamplius affinis 
Pyctorbis sinensis . . 
Pyralis cespitalis 

floralis 

):)olygovalis . . 



sulphuralis 

Pyrameis atalanta 
cardui 



Pyrausta aurata 
cespitalis. 



Pyiotrogon duvauceli 

erythrocephalus 

phalus 

fasciatus 

oreskias uniformis 



Number. 

.. 151 
.. 454 
.. 183 
.. 183 
.. 183 
.. 183 
52, 64 
52, 64 
.. 178 
.. 178 
.. 325 



erythroce- 



Pyrrbocorax alpinus 
Pyrrbulauda frontalis 

— affinis 

■ frontalis 

melanauchen 

— -; syncipitalis . . 



Querquedula circia . 



Ramphalcyon amauroptera 

oapensis burmanica 

gurial 

■ intermedia 

— osmastoni . 



Rana bbagmandlensis 

• gracilis montanus sub sp. nov. 

limnocharis . . 

mysorensis sub sp. 

temporalis 

tigrina 

Jlapala 
jarbas 



— petosiria 

— scintilla 



.. 325 

.. 325 

.. 325 
141, 276 

.. 235 

.. 235 

.. 235 

.. 235 

.. 235 



289, 548 



.. 316 

.. 316 

.. 316 

.. 316 

.. 316 

.. 442 

.. 439 

.. 497 

nov. 444 

.. 498 

.. 444 

.. 471 

.. 132 

.. 132 

.. 132 



INDEX ()T< sl'L'CII-S. 



NUMCEK. 



Rapala sphinx intermedia subs p. nov. 

subguttata . . 

suffusa 

varuna 



— xenophon intermedia 

Raphimetopus ablntella 

Rathinda 

Rattus edwardsi 

listeri garonum sub. sp. nov. 

mackenziei . . 

welisi sp. n. 

Remelana 
Remigia arefacta 

Rhamphocoscj'^x erythrognatlius. . 
Rhapidura leucopygialis . . 
Rhene sp. . . 
Rhinoplax vigil 

Rhinortha chlorophfea chlorophsea 
Rhipidura albicollis 

albifrontata . . 

pectoralis 

Rhizomj's badiu> . . 
Rhizothera ciu'virostris 

loi|girostris longirostris 

Rhodometra sacraria 
Rhodospiza obsoleta 
R ho pal oca mpta 
Rhopodytes diardi . . 

sumatranus . . 

— — — ■ tristis longicaudatus . . 

tristis . . 

■ — viridirostris . . 



Rhynchina eremialis 

ravalis syniocalis 

Rhytidoceros narcondami 

snbruficollis 

undulatus 

Ricinus comunis 
Riparia obsoleta 

riparia riparia 

Ritra 

Rivula sericealis 

Rollulus ocellatus . . 

Rostratula capensis 

Rumicia 



131 

.. 132 

.. 132 

.. 132 

.. 132 

.. 175 

.. 471 

.. 27 

.. 27 

26,27 

.. 26 

.. 471 

.. 181 

.. 329 

322 

.. 29G 

.. 319 

.. 329 

.. 148 

.. 455 

282, 455 

.. 204 

.. 20 

.. 20 

.. 188 

.. 229 

.. 33 

.. 320 

.. 32:' 

.. 32fi 

.. 329 

.. 321) 

174, 181 

.. 174 

.. 319 

.. 318 

.. 318 

.. 298| 

.. 4091 

.. 409 I 

. . 471 I 

.. 174: 

.. 18 

.. 290 

.. 471 





Number. 


Ruralis 


..471 


Ruticilla frontalis . . 


. . 148, 276 


rufiventris 


. . 149, 456 



Saccolaimus saccolaimus 
Salea horsfieldi 
Salebria acervelh; . . 
Saluria maculivitella 
pulverosa . . 



Sancus 



pulligo 



Sarangesa 

hopkinsi sp. nov. 

Sarciophorus malabaricus 
Sarcogrammus atrinuchalis 
indicus 



Sasia abnormis abnormis 
- — ochracea ochracea 

reichenour . . 

Satadra 
Satarupa 

— • — bhagava . . 

Satsuma 

Satp'us briseis magna 

circe 

hermioni syriaca 

— parisatis 

pelopea 

persephone 

telephassa . . 

Sauropatis chloris chloris . . 

davisoni 

occipitalis 

vidali . . 

Saxicola caprata 

oenanthe . . 

rubetra noskae . . 

— ■ — rubetra . . 

torquata maura . . 

— rubicola 

Sceliphron deforme 
madraspatanum 



.. 452 
.. 494 
.. 176 
175, 182 
.. 175 
.. 33 
.. 138 
.. 33 
.. 39 
.. 290 
.. 290 
.. 459 
.. 102 
.. 102 
.. 102 
.. 471 
.. 33 
.. 137 
.. 471 
52,57 
57, 57 
53, 58 
53,57 
53, 56 
52,55 
52,55 
.. 317 
.. 317 
.. 317 
.. 317 
.. 404 
.. 148 
.. 402 
.. 402 
.. 403 
.. 403 
.. 293 
.. 297 



IXDEX OF SPECIE'^. 



Schenobius incertellus 
Scirpophaga proslata 
Scobura 

cephala 

Scolapax rusticola 
Scops bakkamosna 

giu . . 

Scopula nigropunctata 

ochroleucata 

ornata 

Scotocerca inquieta 
Scotogramma tripolii 

chimtera 

Scotophilus kuhli 

Sebastonyma 

Semanga 

superba 

Sepa . . 

Septa noctis 

Serilophus lunatus lunatus 

rubropygius 

Serinus pusillus 
Sermotophora hornigii 
Sideridis vitellina 
Silybura nigra 

pulneyensis 

Simiskina binghami 
— fulgens. . 



harterti . . 

pediada . . 

• phalena . . 

phalia 

pharyge 

pheretia. . 

potina 

Sinapis alba 

arvensis 

Sinthusa 
Siphia parva 
Sithon 

nedymond . . 

Sitta castaneiventris 

■ leucopsis 

neumayer 

— dresseri 



Number. 

.. 175 
.. 175 
.. 33 
.. 138 

160, 2S0 
.. 458 
.. 458 
.. 187 
.. 187 
.. 187 

389, 395 
.. 171 

171, 180 
.. 450 
.. 33 
.. 471 
.. 39 
.. 33 
.. 39 
.. 94 
.. 94 
.. 228 
.. 176 
.. 171 
.. 42 
.. 42 
.. 35 
.. 35 
.. 35 
35, 37 
35,37 
35, 38 
.. 36 
.. 36 
.. 35 
.. 351 
.. 349 
.. 471 
.. 455 
.. 471 
.. 133 
.. 454 
.. 143 
.. 246 
.. 246 



Sftta rupicola 



tschitscherini 



Siva strigula 
Solanum melongena 
Soriculus baiieyi 

caudatus 

radulus sp. nov. 



Spalgis epius 
Spatula clypeata . , 
Spermatophora hornigii 
Sphenocercus sphenurus 
Spilornis cheela 
Spindasis 

Spintherops gracilis 
Spizaetus limnaetus 
Spodoptera abyssinia 
Steiis phsfjoptera . . 
signata 



Sterrha elongaria . , 

pohtata abmarginata 

Stilbum cyanurum 
Stimula swinhoei . . 
Stoparola melanops 
Strix flammea 
Strongylosoma persicum . . 
Strymon 

abdominalis 

ilicis 

caudatula . . 

mercidus . . 



Sturnus vulgaris 



— caucasicus 

— jitkov.- 

— nobilior 

— oppenheimi 

— poltaratskyi 

— purpurascens 

— sophiee 

— vulgaris . . 



Suada 



Suasa 



lisides 



Suastus 
Surendra florimel 



Number. 

.. 246 

..246 

..143 

..561 

..429 

..429 

..429 

..123 

. . 289, 548 

.. 1S2 

..458 

..458 

..472 

..181 

..458 

.. 172,180 

..196 

..196 

..188 

..188 

..203 

..138 

. . 279, 455 

. . 419, 457 

165, 166, 169 

. . 467, 472 

53, 367 

. . 53 

..367 

53. 364 

..224 

..224 

..225 

..225 

..226 

.. 2i>5 

.. 226 

.. 225 

..224 

.. 33 

.. 13S 

..472 

.. 135 

. . 33 

..126 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Surendra queroetorum 
Suruiculus lugubris 

brachyurus 

— — dicruroides 

stewarti 
Sus cjistatus 

sp. 

Suya crinigera 
Sylepta ruralis 
Sylvia althtea 
atricapilla 

communis icterops 

curruca curruca 

• melanocephala 

— — — merzbacheri 
momus 

mystacea 

— - — — nana nana 

nesoria 



simplex 

Synchloe belemia 
Syngrapha circumflexa 
Syntarucus plinius 
Syrnium biddulphi . . 
Systropus 



Taccocua sirkee infuscata . . 

leschenaultti 

sirkee 

Tacbornis batassiensis batassiensis 
— infumatus . . 



Tacupa 
Tagiades 



atticus 

dealbatta 

gana 

helferi ravi 

lavata 

pralaya . . 

trichoneura 



Tajuria drucei 
-longinus 



Number. 

.. 126 

.. 155 

.. 328 

.. 328 

.. 328 

.. 531 

.. 480 

.. 147 

.. 178 

.. 392 

.. 391 

.. 391 

.. 391 

.. 393 

.. 390 

.. 393 

.. 392 

.. 392 

.'. 390 

.. 390 

.. 51 

.. 173 

.. 30 

.. 279 

.. 376 



330 
330 
330 
321 
321 
33 
33 
137 
137 
137 
137 
137 
137 
137 
10 
133 



u 



Tajuria mantra 

tyro . . 

Tapena 

Taphozous melanopogon 

— • longimanus 

Tarache iucida lugens 
Tarachephia hueberi 
Taractrocera . . 
Taragama siva 
Taraka 

hamada 

mendesia 



Tarsiger chrysseus . . 
Tarucus alter atus,. 

ananda 

— - balcanicus areshan 

— ■ bengalensis 

■ callinara . . 

nigra 



dharta 

extricatus 

■ mediterraneie 

— • nara 

plinius 

— — - — - theophrastus 

venosus 

Tatera baihvardi 
Tegostoma baphialis 

paralis 

Telicota 

bambrisje . . 

— — dara 

gola 

paragola . . 

Temenuchus pagodarum 

Tephrina disputaria 

Tephris ochreella . . 

Tephroclystia oblongata 

Teplirodornis pondicerianus 

Teracolus fausta 

Terias hecabe 

Terminalia chebula 

Terpsiphone paradisi 

Tetrao curvirostris 

kekelik 



52 



30 



30,5 



17 



MBEK. 

133 

133 

33 

451 

451 

172 

173 

33 

185 

31 

123 

31 

149 

30 

30 

325 

30 

30 

30 

30 

30 

365 

30 

30 

364 

30 

476 

178 

183 

33 

139 

139 

139 

39 

461 

190 

182 

189 

455 

52 

30, 193 

561 

455 

20 

306 



INDEX 01' SPECIES. 



liii 



Tetraogallus himalayensis 
Tetrastichus opiusie 
Thais cerisyi deyrollei 
Thaljwchares uniformis 
Thamala miniata . . 
Thamuobia cambaiensis 

fulicata 

Thanaos 

— marloyi 

— tages unicolor 

var. unicolor 

Tharrhaleus rubeculoides . . 

strophiatus . . 

Thecla 

Thereiceiyx lineatus hodgsoni 

intermedium 

■— viridis 



— zeylanicus 



— caniceiis . . 

— inornatus 

— zeylanicus 



Theretra alecto cretica 
Thriponax hodgei. . 

— hodgsoni feddeni 

hodgsoni 

. javanensis 



Thrix gama . . 
Th5nnelicus lineola 
Ticherra 

— — acte 

Tiga javanensis intermedia 

■ rubropjrgialis 

shorei . . 

Tinea anella . . 

elutella 

noctuella 

— — phragmitella . . 
Tinnunculus alaudarius 
Tlithyia semirubella 
Torpentis prtelata . . 
Totanus calidris 

hypoleucus 

Tragopan satyra 
Tribura thoracica . . 
Trirhinopholis nuchalis 



Number. 

.. 159 
.. 299 
52, 70 
.. 180 
.. 133 
.. 456 
.. 464 
.. 33 
53, 369 
.. 53 
.. 369 
.. 276 
.. 150 
471, 472 
.. 103 
.. 104 
104, 436 
.. 456 
.. 103 
.. 103 
.. 103 
.. 184 
.. 102 
.. 102 
.. 101 
.. 102 
.. 135 
53, 368 
.. 472 
.. 136 
.. 100 
.. 100 
.. 100 
.. 181 
.. 182 
.. 183 
.. 182 
.. 458 
.. 176 
.. 175 
.. 290 
.. 459 
.. 159 
.. 144 
. . 43 I 



Troehalopterum variegatum 
Troglodytes troglodytes . . 
Tropicoperdix chloropus . . 
Tropidonotus parallelus . , ' 
Tupaia belangeri lepchasub sp. 

■ versuraj sub sp 

Turdus morula intermedia. . 

■ — Syria ous 

■ — musicus 

philomelos philomelos 

ruficoUis atrogularis 

Turnix puguax 
Turtur f errago 

■ — • orientalis 

surat«nsis . . 



nov. 
. nov 



Typhlops diardi 



Udaspes 

■ — folus 

Una . . 

Upupa epops ceyloneusis 

— — ■ — epops. . 

longiro-stris 

■ — laudoni 

orientalis 

saturata 

indica 



Urespheba polygonalis 
Uroeissa flavirostris 
Uroloneha malabarica 
Uromastix loricatus 
Ursus arctus isabellinus 
— — torquatus 
Ussuriana 
Utetheisa pulchella 
Utica . . 



Number. 

.. 142 
.. 408 
15, 16 
.. 43 
.. 428 

. .. 428 
.. 397 
.. 397 
.. 397 
.. 397 
.. 397 
.. 459 

157, 459 
.. 459 
.. 459 
.. 4:3 



.. 33 

.. 139 

.. 31 

.. 320 

320, 413 

.. 320 

.. 4!3 

.. 320 

.. 320 

290, 457 

.. 178 

.. 140 

.. 456 

.. 252 

-. 532 

.. 532 

.. 472 

.. 185 

.. 472 



liv 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Vadebra 
Vanessa cardui 

Ill ticaj 

Vesfw cincta . . 

crabro crabroniform 

germanica 

— orientalis 

Vigna catiang 
Virachola 
Viverra zibetha 
Viverricula malaccensis 



Watsoniella . . 
Wrightia tomentosa 



Xantholaema haematoeephala 



Number. 

.. 472 
. . 292 
369 
369 
534 
199 
199 
199 
561 
472 
532 
265 



33 
561 



malabarica 
rubricapilla 



indica 



Xvlocopa fenestrata 
olivieri 



Yasoda 

— -tripunctata 

Yuhina ^ularis 



457, 463 
105 
105 
105 
195 
195 
195 



472 
136 
143 



Zamacra flabellaria . . 
Zamenis ravergieri 
ventrimaculatus 



Zamesochorus orientalis 
Zanclostomus javanicus 
Zaocj's nigromarginatus 
Zarono jasoda 

zanella 

Zea mays 
Zegris eupheme 

— dyala 

tigris 



Zeltus 
etolus 



Zephyrius 
Zephyrus 



pavo 
quercus 



Zesuis 
Zinaspa 

Zizera karsandra 
otis . . 



longicauda 



52, 



Zographetes 

Zoothera monticola 

Zopliodia suberastriella sp. nov. 

Zosterops aureiventer aureiventer 

ceylonensis 

palpebrosa 

_ cacharensis 

egregia 

elwesi 

nicobariensis 

palpebrosa 

peguensis 



... siamensis 

Z\ ucena dorycnii . 



Number. 

.. 191 
.. 253 
.. 253 
.. 299 
.. 329 
.. 43 
36, 125 
.. 36 
.. 561 
.. 353 
353, 355 

52, 354 
472 
136 
472 
472 

39 
51 

53, 366 
473 
473 

52, 362 

52 

33 

150 

177 

86 

85 

6, 454 

85 

85 

85 

85 

85 

85 

86 

186 



43 



A LIST OF BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED IN THE TAVOY 
DISTRICT, BURMA. 

Explanation of Plate appearing on page 123. 

Page. 

Fig. 1. P&pilio neptuHu.s. Guer.,^ 

„ 2. Cirrodiroa orissa, $ 

„ 3. Mycalesisftiscum, Felder, (S 

.. 4. do. do. do. 2 

„ 5. Arhopala, sp. 9 • • 

„ 6. Arhopala woodi-i, Ollenbach, cJ . . 

,, 7. Arhopala pngaiensis, Ollenbach, cS 

„ 8. do. do. do. 5 

„ 9. Jacoona anasuyi, $ 

„ 10. do. do. ^ 

„ 11. Thrix gama, Tii&i., c? 

„ 12. Hysudra nades, De N., 2 

,, 13. Rapala sphinx int&rmedia, Ollenbach, 

„ 14. Bidwinla nicevillei, Doh., $ .. 

„ 15. Rapala subgtUtata, EL, 2 



894, 


Vol. xxvii 


893 


»» 


886 


j> 


886 


,. 


130, 


Vol. xxviii 


129 


„ 


128 


,, 


128 


>» 


135 


»» 


135 




135 


„ 


131 


5> 


$ .. ..131 


„ 


.. .. ..134 


„ 


132 





^ 



IHE 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Bombay Natuml Histoey Society 



EDITED BY 



R. A. SPENCE, F.Z.S., S. C ELLISON, C.M.Z.S., 
and S. H. PKATER. C.M.Z.S. 




VOL. XXVIII. No 

'IZiOJVAL 



Date of Pwhlication, 30fh December 1921. 



Friee to Non-Members Rs. 15-0-0 

or £ 1-0-0 



LONDON AGENTS: 

DULAU & Co., Ltd., 

34-36, Mar£:aretStre3t, Cavendish Square, W. 



PRINTED AT THK TIMES PRESS, BOMBAY. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

Page 

The Game Birds of India, Bukma and Ceylon. Part XXX (concluded) 
(Genus Arboricola.) By E. C. Stuart Baker, f.l.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.tj. ( With 
a coloured plate.) • » ■'■ 

Scientific Results from the Mammal Survey, No. XXIX. By the late 

R. C. Wroughton 23 

Scientific Results from the Mammal Survey, Nos. XXX and XXXI. 

By Oidfield Thomas, f.r.s 20 

A New Arabian Hare. By Oidfield Thomas, f.r.s . 28 

Notes on Indian Butterflies. By Lt.-Col. W. H. Evans, d.s.o., k.e., f.z.s.,f.e.s. 30 

A New Snake of' the family Uropeltidae. By Col. F. Wall, i.m.s., r' m.g., 

c.m.z.s. ( With a plate) 41 

^OTEs ON Some Notable additions to the Bombay Natural History Society's 

Snake collection. By Col. F. Wall, c.m.g., c.m.z.s. {With a plate) 4£ 

Big Game Shooting of Kashmir and Adjacent Hill Provinces. By Lt.-Col. A. 

E. Ward. ( With two plates) 45 

The Butterflies of Mesopotamia. By Col. H. D. Peile, f.e.s., i.m.s. {With 



a 



plate) 50 

Three NEW Alpine Orthoptera fkom Central Asia. By B. P. Usrarov, f.e.s. 71 
A Few Hints on Crocodile Shooting. By W. H. O. Shortt. {With two plates.) 76 

Birds of the Indian Empire. Part IV. By E. C. Stuart Baker, f.l.s,, f.z.s., 

M.B.O.U 85 

Indian Dragonflies. By Major F. 0. Eraser, i.m.s. ( With text figures.) .... 107 
A List of Butterflies collected in the Tavoy District, Burma. By O. C. 

Ollenbaoh. ( With a plate) 123 

Note on the Nidification and habits of some Birds in British Garhwal. By 

A. E. Osmaston. ( With 3 plates and a Map) 140 

Shakespeare on the Noble Art of Hawking. By Col. C. E. Luard, i.a 161 

Myriapods COLLECTED by Mr. P. A. Buxton. By H. W. Brolemann. {With 

two plates) 165 

Moths of Mesopotamia and N. W. Persia. By Various Authors 17 

Annotated Lists of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Except Heterogyna) and 
Chrysids recently collected in Mesopotamia and North- West Persia. 

By F. D. Morice, m.a., f.z.s. ( With 8 text figures) 

Quaint Beasts and Queer Habits. By Major C. H. Stockley, d.s.o 

The Birds OF Mesopotamia. By Dr. C. B. Ticehurst, m.a., m.b.o.u. {With ttw 

plates) 

Further Lizards and Snakes from Persia and Mesopotamia. By Joan B. 

Procter, f.z.s 

Reviews. (Small Game Shooting around Ootacamund by Rolling Stone). . . 

The Water Fowl of India ani> Asia. By Frank Finn) 

Editorial 

Obituary 







Co? 



JOURN. BOMBAY NAT. HIST SOC 




THE GREEN^LEGGED HILL PARTRIDGE. 

Tropicoperdix chloropus. 

(|- natural siz,e) 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

Bombay Natural History Society. 

December 1921. Vol. XXVIII. No. 1. 

THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BQRMA AND CEYLON. 

BY 

E. 0. Stuart Baker, F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

Part XXX—(contd.) 

{Continued frotn page 664 of Volume XXVII) 
( With a plate). 

Genus— ARBORICOLA. 

Arboricola rufogularis intermedia. 
The Arrakan Red-throated Hill Partridge. 

Arboricola intermedia — Blyth, J. A. S. B., xxiv, p. 277, (1856), (Arra- 
kan) ; id.. Ibis, 1867, p. 159, (Arrakan); Blyth and Wald., Cat., Mam. 
and B. of B., p. 150, (1875), (Arrakan) ; Hume and Marsh. Game-B., 
ii, p. 85, (1879) ; Hume, S. F., viii, p. Ill, (1879) ; Gates, B. of B. B., 
ii, p. 327, (1883) ; Hume, S. F., xi, p. 307, (1888), (E. Manipur) ; Gates, 
Hume's N. and E., iii, p. 440, (1890) ; Ggilvie-Grant, Ibis, 1892, p. 393 ; 
id., Cat. B. M., xxii, p. 211, (1895) ; id. Hand-L. Game-B., i, p. 165, 
(1895) ; Gates, Man. Game-B., i, p. 140, (1895) ; Blanf. Avifauna, B. I., 
iv, p. 127, (1898) ; Stuart Baker, J. B. N. H. S., xii, p. 491, (1899), (N. 
Cachar) ; Gates, Cat. Eggs, B. M., i, p. 43, (1901) ; Harington, J. B. 
N. H. S., xix, p. 310, (1909), (Bhamo) ; Hopwood, ibid., xxi, p. 1215, 
(1912), (Arrakan) ; Hopwood and Mackenzie, ibid., xxv, p. 91, (1917) ; 
(N. Chin Hills). 

Arhorophila intermedia — Hume, S. F., ii, p. 450, (1874), (Arrakan) , 
Gates, ibid, iii, p. 344, (1875), (Arrakan). 

Vernacular Names. — Toung-Kha, (Burmese) ; Wo-gam or Gam- 
toung, (Kachin) ; Daobui or Daohui-yegashi, (Cachari), hirui-whip, 
(Kacha Naga). 



2 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATUliAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

Description — Adult Male. — Similar to rvfogidaris, but with spots 
on cliin and throat so close together as to make these parts appear 
imifoim black, whilst the black bar below the ruious is absent. 

The abdomen is generally a paler slate, and the spots on the crown 
are often blacker and larger. 

Cclcurs of Soft Parts. — Irides brown ; orbiial skin, gular skin and 
gapered ; bill black ; legs red, claws paler and horny. In the breeding 
season all the colours of the soft parts tecome more intensely and 
vividly coloured. The red of the throat and gape is a brilliant red, 
showing distinctly through the feathers, and the legs become a bright 
coral-red as against a salmon or brick-red in the cold weather. 

Measurements. — Wing from 138 to 148 mm., the average of 28 
males, including those in the British Museum, being 145" 5 mm. ; 
tarsus 37 '5 (a very short-legged bird) to 42 mm., averaging about 
41 mm. ; bill from front about 18 or 19 mm. ; tail 52 to GO mm. 

Aehdt Female. — Is very like that of rvfogidaris, but has no black band 
fcelov/ the chestnut neck, and the chin may be rather more profusely 
spotted with black. It dees not, however, seem ever to become uni- 
foim black as in the male. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — As in the makj but paler and duller. Legs 
more yellow. 

Measurements. — The female appears to be decidedly smaller than 
the male, the wing measurements vary between 134 and 143 mm., and 
the average is only 138 mm. 

Young in First Plumage. — Throat dull pale rufous-bro^^^l with only 
faint signs of spotting above, like the adult, but duller ; the crown is 
A ermicuiated rather than spotted with black. The sides are vermicu- 
ated with brown and black, and the centre of breast and abdomen 
are paler and whitish. 

The Young when practically Adult are profusely spotted with white 
all over the breast, abdomen and flanks ; otherwise they are like the 
adult with the throat and chin duller rufous and the legs, orbital and 
pular skin dull yellowish. 

Nestling.- — Eather bright chestnut brown above, dingy white below ; 
sufercilium and cheeks paler, a dark brown line behind the eye 
dividing into two. 

Listnbuticn. — The Arrakan Eed-throated Hill Partridge is foimd 
throughout Assam East and South of the Brahmapootra, through 
Maiiipur, Looshai, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Arrakan, Chin and Kachin 
Hills. Nisbctt found it very common round about Sadon, and met 
with it again at Thandoung ; Harington obtained it round about 
Bhamo, and Hopwood, Mackenzie, WicJvham, and many others have 
obtained it practically all over the Chin and Kachin Hills, well to the 
^!^outh, and it almost certainly occurs in the Northern Shan States, 
but is replaced in the Southern Shan States, Siam and Karen-ne3 by 
ihe next race, tickelli. 



THE GAME BIRBS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON . 3 

Nidification. — This form of rufogularis breeds freely in the Assam 
Hills and in Manipur, Chittagong, etc., at all heights between 1,500 
feet and 6,000 feet, and in the Chin and Kachin Hills apparently still 
higher than this, as it was obtained on Moimt Victoria at about 9,000 
feet during the breeding season. Probably its favourite elevation is 
between 3,000 and 6,000 feet, and most of the nests taken by myself 
both in North Cachar and the Khasia Hills were between 4,000 and 
6,000 feet. 

The breeding season commences in the first fortnight in April, and 
continues until the end of May, but I have also found eggs through- 
out the months of June and July and in the first two weeks of August. 
It is, however, quite possible that many birds have two broods, and 
two such instances at least have come within my own experience. 

It does not seem to be at all particular as to what kind of country 
it makes its nest in so long as there is sufficient cover, and even this 
need not be so very dense. I have personally taken nests from dense 
evergreen forest with the most luxurious undergrowth, and from thin 
bamboo jungle with only a little grass growing in the more open patches 
between the clumps of bamboo. It was common in the beautiful Pine 
forests of the Khasia Hills, and it equally often made its nest in the 
rhododendron and oak forest on the rocky sides of its hills and peaks. 
I also took its nest on more than one occasion in the deciduous oak 
forests in the N. of N. Cachar. Here the trees grew far apart like 
those in a glorified English Park, and their black stems grew straight 
and sombre against a vivid ground of brilliant green grass. For the 
most part the plateau consisted of gently imdulating hills and slopes, 
but in some places it was broken up into rocky ravines and water 
courses in which bushes were more plentiful, and in these the Hill Part- 
ridges bred', often making their nest in some hollow under the shelter 
of a stone or protecting buttress of rock. 

The nests themselves varied very greatly in character. The first 
I ever found was a mere hollow scraped out iiader a projecting stone 
on a steep hill side. Here and there grew scattered trees and bushes, 
but the grass which had been burnt off some couple of months pre- 
viously was only a few inches high, and still sparse and thin. I was 
coming home after a long day's gaur shooting and sliding down the 
steep hill to the ravine at the bottom, practically kicked the bird off 
her nest in the dusk. An equally exposed position was that of a nest 
containing four eggs placed in a bed of fallen bamboo leaves in thin 
bamboo jungle with no undergrowth. In neither of these cases was 
there any nest at all beyond the fallen debris lying on the ground 
beneath the eggs. At the other extreme in description are the cleverly 
hidden and well-made nests which one sometimes finds in grass. I 
have seen nests composed of really well interlaced grass matted down 
into a fine compact cup, whilst the surrounding grass was so arranged 
that as it grew it formed a complete back, sides and roof to the nest. 



4 JOURNAL, BOMBAl NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

wliilst in front it was brought down and across the entrance so as to 
make a regular little tunnel to the nest, sometimes nearly a foot in 
length. How the growing grass was made to serve its purpose I 
could never quite make out, as it did not appear to be interwoven so 
much as matted down until it fitted into position, it really looked as if 
one bird had stood below to fashion the tunnel, whilst the other had 
beaten the grass down above its companion. I only noticed nests of 
this kind w^hen they w^erc made in growing grass, and I never saw a 
domed nest made when the material had to be brought to the nest for 
the purpose of making the sides and roof. 

The hen bird sits very close, and the Nagas always assured me that 
they could make sure of catching her on the nest once they had found 
it, certainly they generally brought me in the hen bird with her eggs 
whenever these were brought in for me. I do not think the cock 
bird assists in the incubation, but he may do so at night, as do so many 
other cock birds amongst the Pigeons, etc. When his vnie is sitting, 
be is generally to be found somewhere round about in the immediate 
vicinity, and I think these birds pair for life, as the same pair may be 
seen year after year breeding in the same locality, if they are not 
disturbed. A pair bred thus in a ravine quite close to my house at 
Gunjong in N. Cachar. The first year the Nagas took the eggs, but 
after I had forbidden this and let the hen bird loose when she was 
brought to me, the partridges continued to breed for three more years 
in the same spot, one year rearing two broods of four, all ten birds 
being found together constantly throughout the following winter. 

The eggs of this bird are just like those of A. r. rufogularis, pure 
white, rather glossy, and generally broad ovals, pyriform in shape, but 
not peg top. The smaller ends are nearly always very pointed, and 
sometimes rather compressed. Narrower oval eggs are not uncommon, 
and exceptionally broad ones about equal numerically. 

The average of 100 eggs is 37 • 4 by 28' mm. 

The longest and broadest measures 43" by 32"0 mm., and the short- 
est and most narrow 33*4 by 26*6 mm. ; in both cases the two greatest 
and least measurements being obtained in the same individual egg. 

The number of eggs in a clutch is imdoubtedly most often 4, some- 
times 5, and very rarely more. It is possible that on the rare occasions 
on which 7 and 8 have been taken they are the production of two hens 
with one husband. I have frequently seen 3 eggs incubated, though 
these have generally been taken very late or very early in the season. 

General Habits. — This very pretty little Partridge may be found in 
practically any kind of cover, whether evergreen forest, deciduous 
Oak, etc.. Pine forest with but little undergrowth, dense secondary 
growth or any kind of Bamboo jungle. It does not venture much 
into the open, except early in the mornings and evenings for feeding, 
but at these times it may often be found at the edges of cultivation 
clearings, more especially in long rice, cotton or mustard crops. It 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 5 

wanders slowly about in small coveys, generally 5 or 6 in number, 
sometimes a dozen or so, in the latter instances the parties being 
formed either of two separate families or of two broods. As a rule 
the individuals will be found close together, but often they string out 
a good deal, and when this is the case they keep in touch with one 
another by means of a soft low whistle constantly uttered as they 
move along. They also indulge in a crooning chuclde which they give 
vent to as they move about, turning over the leaves in their search for 
insects, seeds, etc., and scratching in all the fallen rubbish for odd 
scraps of food. I have often sat in the open forest and watched them 
feeding, and have been much impressed with their habit of conducting 
a sort of follow my leader game. First one bird will saunter casually 
along, scratching here and picking there, and then giving a quick 
little run to another attractive spot ; the next bird comes along and 
carries out almost exactly the same programme, and then another and 
another, until they have all passed out of sight, and one hears their 
low whistle gradually fade away in the distance, as they call to one 
another to " come on." The illustration gives a capital idea of how 
these little birds come out to drink in a more or less open place. With 
moss coveys of game-birds when one of their number has taken the 
plunge and decided it is safe to face the open, the rest at once 
follow suit without further precautions, but with the Hill Partridges 
each individual has to satisfy himself that all is safe before he follows 
in the stept of those ahead of him. 

During the breeding season they split up into pairs, and the old 
birds drive off their last brood to fend for themselves. The call, I 
think there is no difference between that of male and female, is a loud 
double whistle, very clear and musical, and one which can be heard at 
a great distance. They are not fighters, as far as I am aware, but one 
hears their call ringing out morning and evening, all over the forests 
where these birds are plentiful, one bird answering another until the 
sun gets high in the mornings or the darkness begins to close down in 
the evenings. I have already syllablized this whistle as " Wheea-whu" 
the first note rather prolonged, the second short and sharp. 

Although a partridge, one can really hardly consider this a gamebird 
from the sportsman's point of view, for I know of no place where thev 
are sufiiciently plentiful to ensure a day's sport. They fly well and 
fast, and are extraordinarily clever in getting through bamboo and 
tree forest without mishap, and to kill them in cover it takes a rare 
good shot to bowl them over with any certainty, for they twist, dodge 
and turn in every direction at full speed. When out Jungle-fowl 
shooting in N. Cachar, one or two of these birds generally formed a 
portion of the bag, but the number never exceeded a dozen, and was 
seldom half that number. 

They roost either on trees or on bamboos, and I have frequently 
disturbed them from such places during the heat of the day. When 



6 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATUBAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

roostiug, tlie whole covey generally snuggle close in to one another 
on the same perch like a family of Munias or Love-birds, and the pot 
hunter might well be able to wipe out the whole covey at one shot did 
he ever get the chance, but, as a matter of fact, often as I have 
disturbed them from trees, it is but seldom I have seen them before 
they saw or heard me and flew of!. On the rare occasions I have seen 
them I have generally been on the track of big game, and have been 
sneaking along as silently as possible. 

They eat grain and insect food indiscriminately, and also buds and 
leaves of many kinds. I have killed them with their crops full of 
paddy, bajra (a kind of millet), mustard shoots and leaves, and often 
with beetles, grubs, larvae and ants, of which latter they seem to bo 
especially fond. White ants or termites, they, of course, in common 
with almost every bird, are very greedy over, not only seizing them as 
they run about or fall to the ground, but also as they fly from the 
ground, hopping high into the air after them and sometimes fluttering 
a few feet in pursuit of them. 

The Nagas and other Hill Tribes catch these Hill Partridges in 
exactly the same manner as that described by Col. Godwin- Austen, 
and they also take numbers in single spring nooses set with a single 
termite as bait. In these latter traps the birds are nearly always 
lolled, for the bamboo springs are very strong, and as the birds are 
invariably caught by the neck, the jerk back generally dislocates this. 

They form an excellent table dish, rather dry, but very sweet and 
very tender unless extra old. 

They are easy to tame and keep in captivity, and not quarrel- 
some either with other birds or with those of their own genus, but they 
must have ample room, some cover and a diet with a liberal amount 
of animal food, and if insects are vmobtainable, a small amount of 
chopped liver seems to suit them admirably. 

Arboricola rufogularis tickelli, 
TickelVs Red-throated Hill Partridge. 

Arboricola tickelli — Hume, S. F. Game-B., ii, p. 77 and footnote, p. 
78, (1880), (Mooleyit, Tennasserim). 

Arboricola rufogularis — Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B. M., xxii, p. 212, 
(1893), (part) ; Blanf., Avifauna, B. I., iv, p. 126, (1898), (part). 

Arboricola rufogularis — Hume and Davis, )S. F., vi, p. 414, (1878), 
(Muleyit) ; Barnby Smith, Avicul. Mag., iii, 10, p. 294, (Aug. 1911). 

Ver7iacidar Names. — Toung-kha, (Burmese). 

Description — Adult Male and Female. — Similar to rufogularis, but 
with no black band below the rufous of the throat and neck. The 
white of the cheeks and cheek-stripe is perhaps more conspicuously 
white, and the lower parts are decidedly paler, and with far more 
white on the abdomen. I cannot find any distinguishing character 
between the male and the female in colour. 



TRE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON, 7 

Colours of Soft Parts.—" Th( legs and feet appear to be always much 
paler "" (than the Himalayan race) " a pinky and not a bright red. " 
(Hmne). 

Measurements. — Males, wings 158 to 148 mm., average 145 mm., 
females 1.32 to 136 mm., average 134 mm. There are only small 
series of either sex in the British Museum, so that the averages 
mean but little. 

From the measurements available, however, it seems that Hume 
was right in saying that the Tennasserim race is bigger than the Hima- 
layan one. 

Distribution. — Tennasserim, South Shan States and probably 
Eastern and Southern Siam and the Northern Malay Peninsula. A 
specimen in the British Museum collection from the Southern Shan 
States is quite typically of this race. 

Nidification. — There is no account of this bird breeding in a wild 
state, but Mr. Barnby Smith has given us a very interesting account 
of its nesting in captivity. He says : — 

" I moved the partridges into a small run to themsdves, the 
ground being covered with old tussocks of grass and a small 
shelter shed with sanded floor being provided at one end of the 
run, also several branches for perches outside. I gave the birds 
for nesting purposes a lot of dried grass both outside and inside 
the shed. 

" About 10th March nearly all the dried grass inside the shed 
was moved from one corner to another and formed into a covered 
nest, the bottom of the nest being a hollow scooped out in the 
sand. Apparently this nest was not pleasing to the birds, and 
they were soon seen busy pulling about the dried grass I had 
provided outside the shed. 

" By the 18th March they had completed a second nest — a 
curious domed structure. The back of the nest was a large tuft 
of grass, the nest itself being a rather deep, large hollow in the 
ground lined with grass and covered all over (except the 
entrance hole in the side opposite the tuft) with a large mass of 
dried grass. . . It was interesting to note how careful 
the birds were during the nesting period to put dried grass 
from time to time so as nearly to block up the entrance at the 
side of the nest when not in use. The result of this was ex- 
cellent, as when one of the birds had just emerged from the 
nest the round hole would strike the eye, but, when partly 
blocked with grass, the nest was practically invisible. 

" Both birds continued to sit like stones for some time, and 
when I finally disturbed the ne^ I found four eggs in it. 

" These eggs were white and measured 1" 6 by 1*2 inches." 



8 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

Unfortunately both birds proved to be females, so nothing further 
came of their nesting, but Mr. Barnby Smith records : — 

" These Tree Partridges are absolutely hardy (sleeping out in 
the open during the most severe weather without suffering) and 
they are easily kept on grain, without any insect food, though 
they much relish this whenever they can get it. 

" They are very active and sprightly birds, and scratch about 

constantly with the greatest vigour, far more than any other Tree 

Partridge I know. They seldom perch during the day time, but 

always roost a good height from the ground." 

General Habits. — With the exception of what Davison has told us, 

there is nothing on record about the Tennasserim Ked-throated Hill 

Partridge. He remarks : — 

" This species is very abundant about the higher slopes oi 
Mooleyit, keeping to the forest in small coveys of 10 or 12. When 
flushed by a dog or otherwise, they almost always fly up, and perch 
on the surrounding trees, where they squat and commence softly 
calling to each other. I have shot 3 or 4 when thus perched 
before the others have attempted to move, and I have had them 
perch within a few feet of me, and keep staring at me, softly 
whistling all the time. Their ordinary call is a series of double 
whistles, commencing very soft and low, but gradually becoming 
more and more rapid, and rising higher and higher, until, at 
last, the bird has to stop. As soon as one stops, another takes up 
the call. The call is very easily imitated, and, after a covey has 
been dispersed, it is not difficult to attract them by imitating the 
call. 

" I have done so more than once with complete success. The 
birds chiefly call in the mornings and evenings, remaining quiet, 
as a rule, during the day. 

" They feed on insects, small land shells, fallen berries, and 
various seeds, and are fond of scratching about among the dead 
leaves." 

ArBORICOLA MANDELLir. 

The Red-breasted Hill Partridge. 

Arborophila mandellii—Rume, S.F., ii, p. 449, (1874), (Bhutan 
Doars) ; id, ibid, iii, p. 262, (1875). 

Arboricola mandellii — Hume and Marsh, Game-B., ii, p. 83, (1879) ; 
id, S. F., viii, p. Ill, (1879) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Ibis, 1892, p. 394 ; id. Cat. 
B. M., xxii, p. 214, (1893) ; id, Hand-L., Game-B., i, p. 167, (1895) ; 
Gates, Man. Game-B., i, p. 143, (1898) ; Bailey, J. B. N. H. S., xxiv, 
p. 78, (1915) ; Inglis, ibid, xxvii, p. 154, (1920). 

Vernacular Names. — Pao-Er (Chulikatta Mishmi). 

Description. — Forehead, lores and forecrown dull chestnut, shading 
brown on hind crown and nape ; dark, pure grey superciliary stripes 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 9 

from above either eye to the upper neck where they meet ; lower neck 
or extreme upper back chestnut ferruginous with black spots ; back, 
rump, upper tail-coverts and tail olive with narrow black edges, and 
all but the back with bold black central spots ; scapulars and wing- 
coverts like the back but with still finer black bars ; wing quills brown, 
outer secondaries with mottled rufous and brown outer webs ; inner 
secondaries and greater coverts with chestnut edges, faint grey patches, 
and bold, black terminal spots. 

Below chin and throat pale olive chestnut, followed by white and 
black rings ; a small white moustachial streak, sides of head a darker 
chestnut, forming a collar with the chestnut on the neck and spotted 
with black in the same way ; upper breast deep rich chestnut ; from 
lower breast to vent grey, the flanks marked with chestnut in varying 
degree, and also more or less spotted with white ; the centre of the 
abdomen is often paler, and sometimes ashy in tint. Under tail- 
coverts olive, with white spots and rufous tips and markings ; the thigh 
coverts and extreme posterior flanks are often olive with black centres 
and rufous markings. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — Bill black ; irides red-brown. 

Measurements. — Total length about 275 mm. ; tail about 56-58 mm. ; 
wing from 133 to 145 mm., the average of 7 being 137 mm. ; tarsus 
43 to 45 mm. ; bill at front 19 to 20 mm. 

The female only differs in being a little smaller, but the material 
available does not suffice to give details. 

Distribution. — -The hills North of the Brahmapootra from Sikkim 
and Bhutan to the East of Assam. Bailey obtained a specimen on the 
upper Dibong Valley and Needham gave me some specimens from the 
hills North of Sadiya. 

Nidification. — Nothing recorded, but my collectors sent me a skin 
of a female together with 4 eggs and notes to the following effect. 
The eggs were laid on the ground under shelter of a rock, but with 
practically no nest beyond a grass pad, in evergreen forest interspersed 
with Rhododendron and Oak, the ground much split up into ravines 
and cliffs, very rugged and very wet and humid in spite of the elevation, 
which was about 8,000 feet in the Chambi Valley. 

The eggs differ in no way from those of other species of Arhoricola 
and measure about 43 by 34 mm. They are probably quite abnor- 
mally big eggs. 

They were taken on the 3rd June. 

Habits. — The Eed-breasted Hill Partridge is found principally be- 
tween 3,000 and 6,000 feet, descending a good deal lower in the Cold 
Weather, though it never seems to come actually into the Plains. In 
the summer it must often ascend much higher than 6,000 feet, for the 
nest taken for me in the Chambi Valley could not have been lower than 
8,000 feet, and may have been a good deal higher. In some nests 
taken by Mr. H. Stevens at altitudes a good deal over 6,000 feet, I 



10 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XX VII I. 

found featliers of this bird used in the linings on several occasions. 
Mr. Masson also informed mt that it bred on some of the rang( s beyond 
Darjiling, at heights between 7,000 and 9,000 feet, though he failed 
to procure nests or eggs. 

There is nothing known about its habits, but it is undoubtedly a 
bird which frequents dense, damp forests, and probably keeps much 
to those which have streams or rivers running through them. 

ArBORICOLA ATROaULARlS. 

The White-cheeked Hill Partridge. 

Arhoricola atrogularis — Blyth, J.A.S.B., xviii, p. 819, (1849), (Assam, 
Sylhct) ; id. Cat., B. Mus. As. Soc, p. 253, (1849) ; id, J. A. S. B., xxiv, 
p. 276, (1856) ; Jerd., B. of I., ii, p. 579, (1864), (Tippera and Chitta- 
gong); Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 159; Hume, S. F., v, p. 44, (1877); Ander- 
son, B. of" Yunnan, ii, p. 673, (1878) ; (Kacliin Hills) ; Hume and Marsh., 
Game-B., ii, p. T9, (1879), Hume, S. F., viii, p. 3, (1879) ; id, ibid, xi, 
p. 306, (1888) ; Gates ed. Hume's N. and E. iii, p. 439, (1890) ; Ogil- 
vic-Grant, Ibis, 1892, p. 393 ; id. Cat. B. M., xxii, p. 209, (1893) ; id. 
Hand-L. Gamt-B., i, p. 163, (1895) ; Blanf., Avifauna, B. I., iv, p. 127, 
(1898) ; Gates, Man. Game-B., i, p. 145, (1898) ; Stuart Baker, J. B. N. 
H. S., xii, p. 492, (1899) ; (N. Cachar) ; Gates, Cat. Eggs B. M., i, p. 42, 
(1901) ; Stuart Baker, J. B. N. H. B., xvii, p. 971, (1907), (Khasia 
Hills) ; Barnbv Smith, Av., Mag., i, p. 128, (1909) ; Hopwood, J. B. 
N. H. S., xxi, p. 1215, (1912), (Arrakan) ; Stevens, ibid, xxiii, p. 724 ; 
(1915), (Dafla and Miri Hills) ; Hopwood and Mackenzie, J. B. N. H. S., 
XXV, p. 91, (1917), (N. Chin Hills). 

Arhoro'phila atrigularis — Hume, S. F., ii, p. 449, (1874). 

Vernacular Names. — Peura (Sylhet) ; Diiboy, Dubore, (Assamese) ; 
San-hatai, (Chittagong) ; Dao-bui or Daobui-yegashi (Cachari) ; Tnrui- 
whif (Kacha Naga) ; Toung-Jcha, (Burmese) ; Wo-gam or Gam-toung 
(Kachin). 

Description. — Forehead grey, changing to olive-brown on the crown, 
and again into rufous on the nape, all the feathers with broad black 
spots ; the grey of the forehead is produced backwards as a superci- 
liiun, and beneath this there is a black line, connecting with the black 
lores and upper cheeks ; back, rump and upper tail-coverts light olive- 
brown, the feathers edged at the tips, and with bars of black ; scapulars 
the same but greyer and innermost secondaries also similar but with 
bold terminal black bars and edged and mottled with rufous ; wing- 
coverts olive-grey mottled with brown, and sometimes, especially on 
the greater coverts, with a certain amount of rufous ; quills brown, 
inner secondaries mottkd with rufous and brown on the outer webs, 
which are greyish towards the tips. Tail mottled ohve and brown. 
Cheeks from bill to ear-coverts white, passing into rufous on the poste- 
rior ear-coverts, and with a few very fine black shaft-lines ; chin, 
throat and foreneck black ; lower neck black and white ; breast and 



THE GAME BIRDS 01 INDIA, BVBMA AND CEYLON. 11 

flanks grey, passing into whitish on the centre of tht abdomen ; poste- 
rior flanks with white drops ; under tail-coverts rufescent with white 
edges and black spots. 

The spotting on the breast and flanks varies very greatly. A bird 
from Dibrugarh has numerous bold black and white spots on the 
breast, but other birds from the same place are quite normal. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — Bill black ; irides brown or red-brown ; 
orbital and gular skin bright pink, becoming a brilliant deep red in the 
breeding season ; legs dull orange to a bright orangf-red, or red, during 
the spring and summer. The females never have the legs so red and 
they are normally a dull waxy-yellow to a rather dark wax-yellow 
very rarely at all tinged with red. In this sex also the bill is browner, 
especially at the base. 

Measurements. — Total length about 275 mm. ; tail about 60-65 mm.; 
wing 135 to 147 mm., averaging about 140" 5 ; tarsus 42 to 44 mm. ; 
bill at front 18 to 20 mm. Tht female is a good deal smaller ; the few 
properly sexed skins I have been able to examine had wings varying 
from 126 to 130 mm., and averaged only 129 mm. A larger series 
would probably range somewhat larger. 

Distribution. — Assam, South of the Brahmapootra, and also to the 
North-East in the Dafla and Miri Hills, where it was obtained by God- 
win Austen, and recently in some numbers by H. Stevens. It extends 
through Cachar and Sylhet, Tippera and Chittagong into Arrakan, 
the Chin and Kachin Hills. It has been obtained at Mytikyna by 
Whitehead at 3,500 feet, by Bateman at Kamdoung and in the Kachin 
Hills by Anderson. Dr. Coltart and I found it very common in Mar- 
gherita in extreme East Assam, and I repeatedly saw it in Sadiya, 
where Cockburn also got it very many years ago. 

Nidification. — The White-cheeked Hill-Partridge breeds from the 
level of the Plains up to at least 4,000 feet, but is most often found at 
or below 2,000 feet. I have had its eggs brought to me more than 
once in the Barail Hills at nearly 5,000 feet, but it is only a rare breeder 
there. In Cachar, Sylhet and Assam its favourite breeding haunts 
are the broken hills and ravines at the foot of the higher hills, and it 
also nests freely in the scrub-covered hills, or tilaps which lie isolated 
and some distance away from the main hills. In the Khasia Hills it 
is most common at 2,000 feet and under, but is found right up to 
Shillong itself, and I have taken its nest from the hills overlooking the 
race-course at nearly 5,000 feet. 

The breeding season is principally April and May, but in the plains 
a few birds start breeding in March, and in th( higher ranges it conti- 
nues well into June, second broods often being reared in July and even 
August. 

It builds its nest in forest, bamboo or scrub jungle or grassland, and 
does not adhere nearly so strictly to dense tree forest as do so many of 
the genus. I have taken its nest in Cachar in thin scrub and quite 



12 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

open bamboo jungle, in light secondary growth, and in cotton cultiva- 
tion, and in the Khasia Hills I have more than once taken the nest in 
the short grass, anything from one to three feet long, covering so many 
of the hills between 3,500 and 4,500 feet. Sometimes it makes a most 
elaborate nest, this is especially the case when it lays in grass or brac- 
ken covered country. The nest itself is a mere hollow scratched 
amongst the roots of the grass, but it is well filled with grass and leaves 
form a soft pad with a well-formed depression in the centre for the 
eggs. Above the nest the grass is regidarly twisted and interwoven 
so as to form a complete canopy or hood, and behind the grass is suffi- 
ciently beaten down and forced together to make a back wh'ch entirely 
hides the eggs from view. Tn front the same process is repeated, but 
a tunnel is left by which the bird enters and leaves the nest and which 
is often a couple of fett long. When nesting in scrub the nest is much 
simpler and generally nothing more than a well-lined hollow. For 
the purpose of this lining I have never seen anything used but grass 
and leaves and dead fern fronds, but Cripps speaks of twigs in the 
two nests found by him. In bamboo jungle the eggs are generally 
laid on the bamboo leaves which have faUen into some natural hollow 
under the protection of a clump of bamboo, tree or bush. 

The number of eggs Uid is most often 4, sometimes 5, rarely 6, and 
very rarely 7. They are undistinguishable from those of the other 
species of Arboricola, and Uke them, vary very greatly in size. 100 
eggs average in size 37" 6 by 28*4 mm., and the maxima are 42 * 6 by 
28*4 mm. and the minima 32*4 by 26" 2 mm., both maxima and both 
minima being found in the same egg. 

Habits. — This little Partridge is undoubtedly the low-level repre- 
sentative of the genus Arboricola. True it is sometimes found at 
considerable altitudes throughout its range, but typically it is a bird 
of 2,000 feet and under, and, though it may not be found in real plains 
country, it is most common in the broken foot hills of the higher ranges 
and South of the Brahmapootra whenever this broken, hilly kind of 
land is to be met with, the White-cheeked Hill-Partridge is almost siu:e 
to occur. In Sylhet it is found commonly on all the isolated patches 
of hills well away from the main ranges and in the Assam Valley much 
the same obtains. Unlike its brethren also, this Partndge is not so much 
a frequenter of dark, damp forests of mighty, densley growing trees. 
It probably prefers to all other kinds of cover the sparse scrub growth 
which is found in deserted cultivation where the hill soil is poor and 
stony. It is also very partial to bamboo jungle of any kind, and may 
often be found in quite open grassland as long as this is fairly near 
forest or jungle of some kind, for, when disturbed, it always flies 
straight to cover for protection. 

It is generally f oimd in small coveys consisting of a pair of old birds 
and their last brood, for the families remain united until it is time to 
again think of the burdens of house-keeping. They, however, when 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 13 

feeding, straggle a great deal and wander far from one another, though 
they keep in touch by means of the usual soft low whistle. If danger 
is near the whistling ceases at once, and as they lie very close and don't 
rise until almost trodden on, anyone disturbing one bird may easily 
miss the rest. This has probably given rise to the idea so generally 
met with that they are solitary birds. Should one be put up and fly 
off, if the disturber of the peace will only stand absolutely still for a 
few minutes, he will presently hear a mellow low whistle somewhere 
near, and this will be taken up and replied to from all quarters until 
each bird has located his fellows. This call is very soft and quite 
inaudible to human ears unless one keeps very still, but the whistle 
during the breeding season is a very beautiful, loud clear double note, 
audible at very great distances. 

They fly at a good rate, dodge about considerably, and have a habit 
of hurling themselves suddenly into cover or from one side to another, 
which is very disconcerting to a would-be shooter, but often they will 
fly a considerable distance when put up before seeking shelter. They 
perch readily and constantly, but perhaps not so frequently as some 
of the others of their kind, and during the day I think they often lie 
up in scrub and grass rather than roost on trees and bamboos. 

Their food is the same as that of all other Arboricolas, both insects 
and seeds, etc., and for the table they form quite a respectable dish, 
for they are nearly always fat and in good condition. 

Arboricola brunneopecta. 
The Brown-breasted Hill Partridge. 

Arboricola brunneopectus — Tick., Blyth, J. A. S. B., xxiv, p. 276, 
(1855), (Tennasserim) ; Hume, S. F., ii., p. 482, (1874) ; Hume and 
Davis, ibid, vi, p. 443, (1878), (Kyouknyat) ; Hume, ibid, viii, p. Ill, 
(1879) ; Hume and Marsh, Game-B., ii, p. 87, (1879), (Tounghoo) ; 
Bingham, ibid, ix, p. 195, (1880), (Dauna Range) ; Gates, ibid, x, 
p. 236, (1882) ; (Pegu) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Ibis, 1892, p. 397 ; id. Cat., 
B. M., xxii, p. 216, (1893) ; id, Hand-L., Game-B., i, p. 169, (1895) ; 
Gates, J. B. N. H. S., x, p. 112, (1895), (Ruby Mines) ; id, Gams-B., 
i, p. 133, (1898) ; Blanf., Avifauna, B. I., iv, p. 128, (1898) ; Hopwood, 
J. B. N. H. S., xviii, p. 433, (1908), (Chindwin) ; Harington, ibid, xix, 
p. 365, (1909), (Rangoon) ; Barton, J. N. H. S., Siam, i. No. 2, p. 108, 
(1914), (Raheng, Siam) ; Gyldenstolpe, Kang. Sven. Vet., Acad. Hand- 
L., 56, p. 156, (1916), (N. W. Siam). 

Arboricola brunneijKctus—'Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 159 ; Blyth and 
Wald., Cat, M. and B., Burma, ii, p. 325, (1883) ; Gates, B. of Burm., ii, 
p. 325, (1883). 

Arborophila brunneopectus — ^Hume, S. F., ii, p. 449, (1874) ; id, 
ibid, iii, p. 174, (1875) ; Walden, Ibis, 1875, p. 459. 

Vernacular Names. — Wo-gam, (Kachin) ; Toung-kha (Burmese). 



14 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

Description. — Forehead and broad supercilia running down the 
sides of the neck buff, palest on the neck ; lores and two lines above 
and below the eye and a broad patch on each side of the neck, black ; 
crown olive-brown, each feather black-tipped, the black spots some- 
times coalescing so as to make the crown almost wholly black ; nape 
generally blacker than the crown ; back, rump and upper tail-coverts 
bright olive-brown with black bars, varying a good deal in width, but 
always less well-defined on rump and upper tail-coverts ; tail olive- 
brown with black mottling ; scapulars, wing-coverts and inner secon- 
daries chestnut with black drops or bars and large oval patches of pale 
olive-brown ; primaries brown mottled near the tips with rufous, and 
outer secondaries the same with broad rufous edges, becoming chestnut- 
rufous on the inner ones. Chin, cheeks and ear-coverts white or bufiy 
white ; foreneck sparingly covered with black feathers with narrow 
white bases ; breast and flanks brownish buff, the feathers with more 
rufous edges ; flanks with round white spots and black bars ; abdomen 
almost white ; under tail-coverts pale buff with broad black bars or 
spots. 

The feathers of the breast have broad black bases which sometimes 
show through. 

Colours of Soft Parts.— Iris dark brown ; eyelids, orbital skin and 
gular skin bright red, red lake, or bright fleshy red ; legs and feet pale 
bright red ; bill brownish black or black. 

Measurements. — Total length about 280 mm. ; Aving, males from 
132 to 151, and on an average about 144 mm., females, from 122 to 
139 mm., with an average for 13 birds of about 134 mm. ; tarsus 

39 mm., in females to 42 mm. in males ; bill about 20 to 21 mm. ; tail 
60 to 70 mm. 

Distribution.. — Pegu and Eastern Burma, North to the Euby Mines, 
through the Karen Hills into Western, and North- Western Siam and 
the South Shan States. Capt. Yenning shot it 10 miles N. E. of 
Myitkyna, and Harington obtained it breeding near Rangoon. 

Pegu birds are very small, and have the backs much less marked 
w^ith black than have birds from elsewhere, and the brown of the breast 
also seems to be darker and duller. There are, however, only three 
specimens from Pegu in the Nat. His. Museum and the differences 
may be only individual, though I can find none like them amongst the 

40 specimens I have examined from other tracts. 

Nidification. — Although this is a comparatively common bird over 
a great area, nothing is recorded of its breeding habits beyond Haring- 
ton 's brief note " breeds at Tauckhan in June." 

The eggs taken at this place and now in my possession are typical 
Arboricola eggs in every way, and measure about 37 '3 by 28" 4 mm. 
Harington in a letter wrote me as follows : — 

" I have at last got the eggs of A. hrunneopectus, they were 
found by my man at Taukchan near Rangoon in open bamboo 



TRE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 15 

jungle, and were laid on tlie ground in a hollow well filled in with 
bamboo leaves and grass. I went out and took them myself, and 
shot a specimen of this Partridge close by, although not actually 
off the nest, and I have no doubt as to their authenticity." 

These eggs were taken in June. 

Habits. — The Brown-breasted Hill Partridge is a bird of compara- 
tively low levels, and will be found principally in the broken, hilly 
country bordering the plains, and thence commonly up to some 3,000 
feet, and, again, some way into the plains themselves. On the other 
hand they have been shot at some 5,000 feet, and occasionally may be 
found to wander up even higher than this. 

They keep in small coveys of 4 or 5 to 8 or 9 birds, probably just 
the parent birds and their last brood, though possibly two families 
may sometimes join forces. Typically they are frequenters of dense 
forest with heavy undergrowth, but will now and then be seen — as 
with those shot by Col. Haring-ton — in bamboo and scrub jungle. 

Although it has been obtained so often since Hume's days, no one 
has recorded anything about their habits. Darling wrote about that 
time : — 

" There was not a day at Thomigyah that I did not see two or 
three coveys of this Partridge, counting each from 3 to 10, or 
even more birds ; but owing to their shyness and dead leaf colour, 
they are very difficult to secure. They feed among the dead leaves 
on seeds, insects, and small shells, and are very restless, giving a 
scratch here, a short run and another scratch there, and so on, 
uttering a short cooing whistle the whole time. AVhen disturbed 
by a man, they always disappeared into the dense undergrowths, 
but a dog always sent them flying into some small tree, whence 
they would at once begin calling to one another, whistling at first 
low and soft, and going up higher and shriller, till the call was 
taken up by another bird. I often got cjuite close to them, but the 
instant I was seen, away they ran helter skelter in all directions, 
and I could only now and then catch a glimpse of the little fellows 
scuttling through the bushes. Of course they arc entirely a 
forest bird, though they may be seen just at the outskirts of this." 

Gates found this bird and Tropicoperdix chloropus very common in 
the densely-wooded ravines and nullahs of the evergreen forests on 
the Eastern slopes of the Pegu hills, but he never found the two birds 
together in the same area " each species appearing to occupy one 
stream to the exclusion of the other." 

Tickell refers to their making a curious low " pur-r-r " not unlike 
the call of the Button Quail as they wandered about feeding in tho 
undergrowth. No one else seems to have heard any of the other Wood- 
Partridges making a sound of this nature. 



16 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, roL XXVIII. 

Genus— TROPICOPERDIX, Blyth, 1859. 

The birds of this genus are distinguished from those of the genus 
Arboricola by the absence of the chain of peculiar supraorbital ossicles, 
and by having a patch of downy white feathers on each side behind 
the axilla. 

There are only two species one of which is found in Burma. 

Tropicoperdix charltoni appears to me to be a good species and not 
a sub-species of T. chloropus. 

Tropicoperdix chloropus. 
The Green-legged Hill Partridge. 

Tropicoperdix chloropus — Tick., J. A. S. B., xxiv, p. 415, (1859), 
(Tennasserim) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Game-B., i., p. 172, (1895) ; id, Ibis, 
1895, p. 278 ; Blanf., Avifauna, B. I., iv, p. 129, (1898) ; Harington, 
J. B. N. H. S., xix, p. 310, (1909), (Bhamo) ; Gyldenstolpe, Kungl. 
Svenska. Vet. Akad., 50, No. 8, p. 67, (1913), (Siam) ; Robinson, Ibis, 
1915, p. 721, (S. E. Siam) ; id., ibid, 1919, p. 407, (Cochin China). 

Arboricola chloropus — Tick., J. A. S. B., xxviii, p. 453, (1859), 
(Amherst) ; Hume, S. F., ii, p. 482, (1874), (Pakpoon) ; Blyth and 
Wald., Cat. M. and B. Burma, p. 150, (1875), (Jummee River) ; Hume 
and Dav., S. F., vi, p. 444, (1878), (Tennasserim) ; id., ibid, viii, p. Ill, 
(1879) ; Hume and Marsh, Game-B., ii, p. 91, (1879), (Tonghoo) ; 
Bigham, S. F., x, p. 236, (1882), (Pegu) ; Gates, B. of B. B., ii, p. 326, 
(1883), (Pegu) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Ibis, 1892, p. 398 ; id., Cat, B. M., xxii, 
p. 219, (1893) ; Gates, Game-B., i, p. 151, (1898). 

Phoenicoperdix chloropus — Hume, S. F., ii, p. 482, (1874) ; id., ibid, 
vi, p. 447, (1878), (Moulmein). 

Arhorophila chloropus — Hume, S. F., ii, p. 449, (1874). 

Peloperdix chloropus — Hume, S. F., iii, p. 176, (1878). 

Arboricola chloropus chloropus — Gyldenstolpe, Ibis, 1920, p. 735, 
(Siam). 

Vernacular Names. — None recorded. 

Description.- — Feathers of forehead, lores and supercilia dark brown 
with white outer webs ; the supercilia extend down the sides of the 
neck, changing gradually to pale buff with black edges ; crown and 
nape browTi, in some individuals tinged olive, in others more rufous ; 
upper parts brown, tinged with rufous with narrow crescentic black 
bars and the rump and upper tail-coverts with fine black stippling as 
well as a varying amount of buff mottUng ; tail rufous-brown with bars 
and mottle of black ; wing covers, scapulars and inner secondaries 
like the back, but with a few paler mottlings and with more rufous 
on the secondaries ; primaries brown ; axillaries white ; under wing- 
coverts brown and white ; a tuft of downy white feathers on ea.ch flank. 

Chin, throat and sides of head white, each feather with a black spot 
at the tip ; neck and sides bright rufous similarly spotted ; breast brown 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 17 

like the back, immaculate next the neck, with wavy black bars on the 
upper breast, changing to ferruginous red on the lower breast and to 
very pale rufous-white on the abdomen ; flanks brown, mottled, barred 
and streaked with fulvous and black ; the latter often extended on to 
the lower breast, as black margins to the feathers. 

Colour of Soft Parts. — Bill apple-green or horn-green, dusky-red at 
the base and with the tip a little darker ; iris brown or red-brown ; 
eytUds and orbital skin purple-red ; legs dull greenish, greenish yellow 
or apple-green ; claws yellow-horny. 

Measurements. — Wing, males from 152 to 166 mm., average 157, 
female, 148-158, average 153 mm. ; the tarsus measures from 43 to 45 
mm. and the bill from the forehead 18-19 mm. ; tail about 76 mm. The 
total length is about 300 mm. 
" Weight, 8 to 10 ozs." (Hume). 

Distribution. — Eastern Pegu and Tennasserim as far South as Tavoy. 
To the North it evidently will eventually be found throughout Eastern 
Burma and the Western Shan States. Harington obtained it at 
Bhamo and Khamaing, Major Whitehead and Harington both shot it at 
Myitkyna and Major Nisbett got it much further North again at 
Xatha. In Siam Gyldenstolpe reports it as " fairly abundant in the 
Northern Hill Forests ; also recorded from Klong Menao in the Eastern 
parts of the country, and Gairdner states that it occurs in the provinces 
of Ratburi and Pechaburi." It extends East into Cochin China. 
Nidification. — Nothing recorded. 

Habits. — Col. Tickell, who discovered this Uttle partridge in Tennas- 
serim, wrote as follows concerning its habits, etc., in that portion of 
Burma : — 

" It appears tolerably numerous, but, as far as my observa- 
tions go, is entirely confined to the forests on the banks of the 
Zamme River. Unlike its known congeners, it avoids mountains 
and inhabits low, though not humid jungles, where the ground 
merely undulates or rises into hillocks. Like the rest of its tribe 
it is difficult to flush, and runs with great rapidity, jumping 
adroitly over obstacles, and diving into impenetrable thickets for 
security. Early in the mornings these birds come out on the path- 
way, scratching about amongst the elephants' dung and turning 
over the dead leaves for insects. They do not appear to have 
any crow or call, but in the pairing season this may not be the 
case. The Karens do not even know the bird, but this is no 
proof of its rarity, for these people pay no attention to the living 
products of their forests. 

" The sexes are precisely similar in plumage and size ; the 
flesh is rather dry and tasteless." 
Gates' experience of these birds dift'ered considerably from Col. 
'Tickell's, for he found them only in the steepest ravines and valleys, 
and nearly always in dense evergreen growth. 

8 



18 JOUHNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVIII. 

Davison, however, also says that he foimd them most abundant in 
thin tree jungle as well as in thick forest. In Tennasserim, he met 
them generally in pairs, and occasionally in small parties, and he 
describes habits, voice, etc, all as being very much like that of the 
partridges of the genus Arhoricola. 

Harington found them only in dense forests at considerable eleva- 
tions, as did Nisbett and Whitehead, and they were always in the 
thickest of th( evergreen cover and never in thin forest. 

Genus— CALOPEKDIX. Blyth, 1865. 

In addition to possessing no supraorbital ossicles, this genus is differ- 
entiated very definitely both from Arhoricola and Tropicoperdix by 
the formation of its legs. The tarsus is considerably longer than the 
middle toe and claw together, and is armed with one or more spurs. 
The feet are short and the claws, though straight, are much shorter. 
The wing is rounded as in Arhoricola, and the tail consists of only 
14 feathers. 

It ranges from Java, Borneo and Sumatra, through the Malay, 
Peninsula into Western Siam and Tennasserim. 

Very little is as yet known concerning its habits, etc., which will, 
however, probably be found to very closely approximate those of the 
genus Arhoricola. 

Caloperdtx oculea oculea. 
The Ferruginous Wood Partridge. 

Perdix oculea — Temm. Pig. et. Gall, iii, pp. 408 and 732, (1815); 
(Sumatra) ; Gray in Hardw. 111. In. Zool., i, pi. 58, (1830-32). 

Cryptonyx ocellatus — Vig. Zoo^. Jour., iv, p. 349, (1829). 

Pollulus ocellatus— Blyth, Cat., B. ^I. A. S., p. 253, (1849), (Ten- 
nasserim). 

Caloperdix oculea — Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 160, (Mergui) ; Hume, S. F., 
iii, p. 325, (1875), (Bankassoon) ; Hume and Dav., ibid., vi, p. 449, 
(1878), (Malewoon) ; Gates, B. of B. B., ii, p. 329, (1883), (Malay Pen.) ; 
Ogilvie-Grant, Cat., B. M., xxii, p. 222, (1893) ; id., Ibis, 1894, p. 376 , 
14. Hand-L. Game-B., i, p. 129, (1898) ; Eobinson and Kloss, Ibis, 
1910, p. 671, (Trang). 

'Calpperdix ocellata — Blyth and Wald., Cat. M. and B. Burma, 
pfl51, (1875), (Mergui). 

, Caloperdix ocideus — Hmne, S. F., viii, p. 69, (1879), (Malacca); 
Hume and Marsh., Game-B., ii, p. 101, (1879), (Moulmein) ; Hume, S.. 
F., ix, p. 121, (1880), (Kopah). 

Francolinus ocideus — Ogilvie-Grant, Ibis, 1892, p. 50. 

Caloperdix oculea oculea — Gyldenstolpe, Ibis, 1920, p. 736, (Trang 
and Bandon). 

Vernacular Nartws. — None recorded. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 19 

Descnption. — Whole head, neck and lower parts, bright ferruginous 
red ; the crown deeper and more chestnut ; chin, throat and sides of 
head, albescent and supercilia also paler ; upper back black, with two 
sharply defined w^hite bars on each feather ; lower back, rump and 
upper tail-coverts black with bright rufous-pink V-shaped central 
markings ; tail black, the central rectrices with narrow sub-terminal 
rufous bars ; scapulars, wing-coverts and innermost secondaries light 
olive-brown with bold sub-terminal black spots ; quills, grt3^-bro^vn, the 
outer secondaries tipped and edged with rufous mottlings ; flanks 
black wdth w^hite bars ; posterior flanks ferruginous with black drops ; 
centre of abdomen and vent whitish ; under tail-coverts pale ferrugi- 
nous and black. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown, bill black ; legs and feet 
pale dirty-green to rather clear apple-green. 

Measurements.— Tota,\ length about 275 mm. ; tarsus 47 to 48 mm. ; 
bill from front 20 to 21 mm. ; tail 65 to 70 mm. ; wing, males, 143 to 
151 mm. ; average about 146" 6 mm. ; females 134 to 140 mm. ; averac^e 
138-0 mm. 

Distribution. — The Northern Malay Peninsula, extending into Ten- 
nasserim, Siam and Northward to at least 100 miles North of Tavoy 
where it has been obtained by Hopwood. In Siam it was obtained by 
Mr. E. G. Herbert's collectors and Gairdner states that it occurs in 
Ratburi and Petchaburi, 
Nidification. — Nothing known at present. 

Habits. — All that Hume could find to record of this Partridge was 
as follows : — 

" A denizen of dense and uninhabited forest, where the tracts 
of wild elephants, buffaloes and the Saladang (Bos sondaicus ?) 
constitute the only pathways, nothing absolutely seems to be 
known of its habits. My collectors have succeeded in snaring 
a few specimens, and have ascertained that it feeds on insects, 
seeds and berries, but they have never even seen it wild, nor have 
they been able to procure any information about it or its nidifica- 
tion from the Malays." 
Since the above was written over 50 years ago, but little has been 
added to our knowledge. However, recently, Mr. C. Hopwood, Conser- 
vator of Forests, has been so fortunate as to personally come across 
this Partridge in its native haunts. In a letter to me, dated 30th 
January 1918, he writes : — 

" Yesterday I got a fine cock Caloperdix oculea near the head 
waters of the Tavoy River, 100 miles North of Tavoy, which 
extends its hitherto recorded habitat 300 miles or so to the North 
of that given by Davisou, Bankasun, Victoria Point. It is pre- 
sumably to be found over the whole of Tennasserim at least up 
to the Douna Range which forms the watershed of the Tavoy, 
Ye and Thaungyin Rivers. Before I was successful in getting 



20 JOUBNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

this specimen I twice saw Partridge rimning in the jungle which 
were probably this species, not far from where it was got. In all 
three cases the birds were quite alone, at all events I saw no others 
with them, and am sure I should have spotted them had there been 
any others in their company. To-day, however, I came on several 
of these little Partridges feeding on wild figs; there were a dozen or, 
perhaps, 20 birds altogether, out of which I succeeded in bagging 
two, and I hope soon to get more. The birds are not gregarious, 
I think, the number seen together being merely owing to the fact 
of the fallen fruit having furnished so great an attraction. From 
what the natives say, they must be very numerous here." 

Genus— RHIZOTHERA. 

The genus Rhizothera contains but one species of partridge containmg 
two races, R. I. longirostris from the Malay Peninsula, etc., and R. I. 
diditensis from the mountains of Borneo. Its long, heavy and much 
bent down bill at once distinguishes it from all other Indian 
Partridges. It has 12 tail feathers, a short rounded wing, the 5th and 
6th primaries sub-equal and longest, and the 1st about equal to the 
10th; the tarsi are stout and long, and are furnished with short blunt 
spurs in both sexes ; the claws are straight but small, and there is a 
small hind claw. The sexes are different to one another in colouration. 

Very little is recorded about their habits. 

Rhizothera longirostris longirostris. 
TJie Long-billed Wood Partridge. 

Perdix longirostris — Tomm. Pig. it Gall., iii, pp. 323 and 721, 
(1815), (N. Sumatra). 

Francolinus longirostris — Steph. In. Shaws, Gen. Zool., xi, p. 317, 
(1819) ; Gray, 111. Ind. Zool., ii, pi. 45, (1833-4). 

Tetrao curvirostris — Raffl., Trans. Lin. Soc, xiii, p. 323, (1822), 
(Sumatra). 

Rhizothera longirostris — Gray, List Gen. B., p. 79, (1841) ; Kelham, 
Ibis, 1882, p. 4 (Perak) ; Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 183, (1893) ; 
id., Hand-L., Game-B., i, p. 142, (1895) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1893, p. 552. 
(Borneo) ; id., Ibis, 1894, p. 546 (Mt. Dulit) ; Inglis, J. B. N. H. S., 
xxvi, p. 291 (1918), (Tennasserim), Gyldenstolpe ; Ibis, 1920, p. 736, 
(Siam). 

Rhizothera curvirostris— ^lyih., Cat. B. M. A. S., p. 252, (1849), 
(Malacca). ' 

Ortygernis longirostris, Reichenl., Syst, Av., pi. xxviii, (1852). 

Vernacidar Names. — None recorded. 

Description, Adidt Male.— CiovfH and nape rich chocolate-brown, 
palest on forehead ; lores, supercilia and sides of head and neck rusty 
chestnut ; a line from the nostrils through and ov( r the eye black ; a 



TKE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 21 

second black line at the f dge of the base of the upper mandible ; back 
of the neck grey, the feathers boldy edged with velvety black and with 
a few longitudinal and cross bars of chestnut ; upper back reddish- 
brown with black blotches, the feathers margined rufous on either web; 
the feathers on either side of the back with pale buff central streaks ; 
lower back and rump vermiculatc d buff and pale grey with a few 
scattered black specks and spots; upper tail-coverts and tail same, but 
more rufous, and the mottlings forming ill-defined bars on the latter ; 
scapulars mostly buff with rufous brown edges and grey mottling ; 
innermost secondaries chestnut-brown with deep, red margins, black 
spots on the inner webs, buff tips and much mottled with buff and grey; 
wing-coverts buff, mottled with grey and brown ; primaries brown, 
mottled with chestnut-buff on the outer webs ; outer secondaries buff 
with mottled brown bars. 

Chin and throat like the sides of the head but paler ; neck and upper 
breast grey, changing into rufous-buff on the lower breast and flanks, 
and again to almost pure white on the abdomen and vent ; under tail- 
coverts pale rufous. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — " Iris burnt umber ; bill black, legs lemon- 
yellow " (Herbert). 

" Bill black, legs flesh colour, claws horny " (Hop wood). 

Measurements. — Length about 220 mm., tail about 80 to 90 mm., 
wing from 189 to 211 mm., average 10 birds, 197*5 mm. ; tarsus 
55 to 63 mm. ; bill at front 28 to 33 mm. 

Adult jPemafe.— -Differs from the male in having nearly all the grey 
of the neck and breast replaced by rufous-chestnut ; the rump, upptr 
tail-coverts and tail are generally more rusty and less grey, and the 
rusty of the lower part is deeper and more extensive. 

Colours of Soft Parts. — Apparently as in male. 

Measurements. —Wing 180 to 202 mm., average 8 birds, 190 mm. ; 
tarsus 54 to 58 mm., bill 24 (possibly juv.) to 33 mm. 

Young Male is like the female, but retains traces of barring on the 
feathers of the breast and flanks, and probably this barring is still 
more extensive in the quite young bird. 

In this Partridge the depth and extent of the rufous on the head and 
upper parts varies considerably in both sexes ; in the female practi- 
cally the whole of the underparts are sometimes rufous, but occasion- 
ally in this sex and more often in the male the abdomen is extensively 
white. 

Distribution. — S. W. Siam and Tennasserim throughout the Malay 
Peninsula to Sumatra and West Borneo ; but replaced in some of the 
mountains of Borneo by another race, dulitensis of Ogilvie-G-rant. I 
cannot discover any difference between birds from Sumatra and those 
from the most Northern parts of its range. 

There are two birds in the British Museum collection labelled 
" China, " possibly meaning Cochin China. 



22 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

Nidification. — Nothing recorded. 

Habits. — Mr. Hopwood obtained a specimen of this species from a. 
Mi. French, who shot it almost 15 miles from a place called Bokpyin, 
half-way between Mergui and Victoria Point in bamboo jimgle. Bok- 
pyin is about 150 miles South of Mergui. 

Mr. N. C. Eobinson, to whom the bird was eventually sent for identi- 
fication, when returning it, sent also the following note : — ■ 

" The Long-billed Hill-Partridge ... is common over the 
whole of the Malay Peninsula in suitable localities, and also in 
Borneo and Sumatra in slightly modified forms. In the Malay 
Peninsula it is an inhabitant of heavy jungle, usually dry jungle 
in which there is much bamboo up to 4,000 feet. It is very terres- 
trial and partly crepuscular in its habits. Its note is a loud, 
clear whistle, often heard at night." 



(To be continued.) 



23 

SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY. 

No. XXIX. 

A Renaming of '' Mungos mungo ellioti ", Wroughton. 
By the late R, C. Wroughton. 

In 1915, when sorting out the races of the Common Indian Mungoose, 
Herpestes edwardsi, at that time loiown as Mu7igos mungo, I gave to 
the Dharwar form the name of Mungos mungo ellioti* 

But it has now been pointed out to me that in 1851 f Blyth applied 
the name of Herpestes ellioti, to a Mungoose of the H. smithii group 
from South India, thus invalidating my use of the term. 

Using the revised generic and specific names for the Common 
Mungoose, I would propose for the Dharwar race the name of Herpestes 
edwardsi carnaticus, with the same type specimen, B. M. No. 12, 6. 
29, 44. 



No. XXX. 

The Mungooses of the Herpestes smithii group. 

By Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S. 
{Published by 2JS'rniission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

During the course of the Survey a certain number of Mungooses 
have come which have been referred to Herpestes smithii, but they 
exhibit such a range of variation that I have thought it worth while 
to lay out all the available series, in order to see how far the variation 
is geographical. 

The result proves highly interesting, as I find there are no less than 
five definable geographical races, which may all be considered as 
subspecies of H. smithii. 

With regard to the names, we may first take in rotation those given 
in Blanford's Synonymy of H. smithii. Detailed references will be 
found in his work. 

Herpestes smithii, Gray, 1837. Type in British Museum. No 
locality, but the type closely agrees with specimens from the 
Bombay region. 
Herpestes thysanurus, Wagn., 1839. Said to be from Kashmir. 
Far too small to be a member of this group at all. No 
Mungoose with a black tip to the tail has been found in Kash- 
mir, and it is probable there was some mistake as to the 
locality. An African Mungoose of the H. gracillis group 
would better fit the description. 
Crossarchus ruhiginosus, Wagn., 1841. Clearly not an H. smithii 
at all, but synonymous with H. vitticollis. 

* Joiirnal, B. N. H. S., xxvi, p. 52, 1915. f J- A. S. B.; xx, p. 163, 1851. 



24 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII, 

Herpestes ellioti, Blyth, 1851. Carnatic. Synonymous with true 

smithii. 
Herpestes ruhiginosus, Kelaart, 1852. nee Crossarchus rubiginosus, 

Wagn. The Ceylon form. Name invalid. 
Herpestes jerdoni, Gray, 1864. The co-types, which were sent to 
the Museum by Jerdon, are apparently the same specimens 
as those from the " Eastern Ghats inland of Nellore " on 
which also was founded — 
Herpestes monticolus, Jerd., 1867. Co-types and locality as last. 
Herpestes torquatus, (Ell. M. S.) Jerd. Mamm. Ind. p. 136, 1867. 
From Carnatic ; same as smithii. 
Of these names therefore smithii, ellioti and torquatus all refer 
to the form of Western Peninsular India, jerdoni and monticolus to 
that of the Western Ghats, the invalid ribiginosus, Kel., to the Ceylon 
race, while neither thysanurus nor rubiginosus, Wagn., have anything 
to do with the present group. 

The following synopsis will give a clue to the races I should propose 
to recognise : — 

■4. — ^General colour darker and browner. K considerable number 
of hairs on body and limbs tipped with rufous. 

a. Size averaging largest, though bullae generally smaller 
than in next. Colour more richly rufous, the legs 
noticeably reddish. 

Ceylon, 1. H. s. zeylanius, subsp. n. 

b. Size averaging less than a, but bullae generally larger. 

Colour dark, with less rufous tipping, the legs not 
conspicuously reddish, though the ankles often are. 
Central and Western Continental India, from 
Hoshangabad southwards to the Nilgiris, 
2. H. s. smithii, Gray. 

c. Size decidedly smaller ; colour as in b. 

N. E. Rajputana. 3 H. s. rusanus, subsp. n. 
B. — General colour paler and greyer. Hardly any hairs, except on 
head and fore quarters, tipped with rufous. 

d. General colour drabby greyish. Skull normal. 
Eastern Ghats. 4 H. s. jerdoni. Gray. 

e. General colour clear grizzled grey. Hairs of tail 

below tipped with yellowish. Skull usually depressed 
in posterior frontal region. 

S. W. Rajputana ; Bengal. 5. H. s. canens, subsp. n. 
urther notes on new forms — 

Herpestes smithii zeylanius. 
A large strongly coloured animal with a maximum number of reddish 
tipped hairs. Outer sides of hips and legs rich reddish, the red fading 
ofE below, and passing into the blackish brown of the terminal half of 
the foot. 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SVR FEY. 25 

Skull large, but the bullae averaging smaller than in the continental 
animal. 

Dimensions of type, measured by collector ; 

Head and body, 430 mm. ; tail 375 ; hindfoot 74 mm. ; ear 28 mm. 

Weight 31 lbs. 

Skull, condylo-basal length 89 mm. ; zygomatic breadth 49 . 5 mm. ; 
height of crown level with middle of zygoma 25.2 mm ; length of 
bullae 16.6 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon. Type from Mankeni, Eastern Province. 

Tyjje. Adult Male B. M. No. 15, 3, 1, 57. Original No. 531. 

Collected 2nd September 1913 by Major E. W. Mayor. Presented 
by the Bombay Natural History Society. Seven specimens seen. 

The handsomest and most richly coloured form of the species. 

Herpestes smithii rusanus. 

Colour as in true smithii, but size decidedly smaller. Legs not 
markedly redder than the rest, while even the ankles are more brown 
than red. Hairs of proximal half of feet inconspicuously tipped with 
red. 

Dimensions of type, measured on sldn : — 

Hindfoot 73 mm. ; Skull, condylo-basal length 82 mm. ; zygomatic 
breadth 44 mm. ; height of crown 23 mm. ; length of bullae 17.3 mm. 

Hab. of type. Sambhar, Rajputana. 

Type. Adult male. B. M. No. 85, 8, 1, 44. Collected 13th January 
1878 by R. M. Adam. Presented by A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B. 

This appears to represent the extreme in the gradual reduction in 
size from South to North. Whether the smithii type goes further North 
we do not yet know, as the reported locality of Kashmir is apparently 
unreliable. 

Herpestes smithii canens. 

Size about as in true smithii. Colour clear grizzled grey without the 
drabby tone found in jerdoni or the brownish or rufous characteristic 
of the other subspecies ; the general colour almost as in the paler- 
races of the Common Mungoose. 

Almost no hairs tipped with red, except on muzzle and ears. Legs 
and ankles brown, darkening to black on the feet. Tail light grey, 
its long hairs below broadly tipped with yellowish. 

Skull of about the same length as in smithii, but the anterior half 
of the brain case is more flattened above in the two specimens examined. 

Dimensions of type, measured in flesh : — 

Head and body 445 mm. ; tail 410 mm. ; hindfoot 83 mm. ; ear 
32 mm. ; weight 4 lbs. 

Skull, condylo-basal length 88 mm. ; zygomatic breadth 46.5 mm. ;; 
length of crown 22.5 mm. ; length of bullae 18 mm. 

Hab. Mt. Abu, S. W. Rajputana. Alt. 4,300 feet. 
i 



26 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

Type. Old male with worn teeth. B. M. No. 13, 9, 18, 24. Original 
number 3370. Collected 3rd June 1913 by C. A. Crump. Presented 
by the Bombay Natural History Society. Two specimens. 

A far greyer form than any other, evidently a native of a desert 
country. 

A single female mungoose from Hazaribagh is alsa remarkably 
like the Mt. Abu animal, and must be provisionally assigned to the 
same subspecies. 



No. XXXI, 

BY 

Oldfield Thomas, F.E.S. 
{Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

TWO NEW RATS FROM ASSAM. 

The late Mr. Wroughton had submitted to me some of the rats 
recently received from Assam for the Survey Collections and I find 
that the two following need description : — 

Rattus wellsi, sp. n. 

General size, and skull, smaller than in mackenziei (Journ. Bomb. 
N. H. Soc. xxiv, p. 409, 1916), though the hindfeet are as long as in 
that animal. Colour of the same iron-grey above and white below. 
Ears blackish. Hands white, feet with dark metatarsals and white 
digits. Tail with very fine scaling, about 13 rings going to the centi- 
meter ; rather well covered with hairs ; dark brown above and below 
for four-fifths its length, the terminal fifth white all round. 

Skull peculiarly smooth and rounded, with proportionately large 
braincase, the braincase about as large as in the much larger boiversi. 
Muzzle short and narrow. Interorbital space smooth, with scarcely 
any indication of lateral ridges. Interparietal large, strongly angular 
forwards. Palatal foramina shorter than in mackenziei ; buUce about 
as in that species or a Httle larger. 

Incisors pale yellowish, fairly orthodont, the index of the single 
example, 79 . Molars rather more bulky than in mackenziei. 

Dimensions of the type, measured in the flesh : — ■ 

Head and body 197 mm, tail 220, hindfoot 48, ear 33. 

Skull, greatest length 47*5 ; condylo-incisive length 45-2 ; zygomatic 
breadth 23*6 ; nasals 18*7 x4'9 ; interorbital breadth 8 ; breadth of 
braincase 20 ; interparietal 7 • 2 x 8 • 4 ; palatilar length 22 • 5 ; palatal 
ioramina 8*4 ; upper molar series 8*6. 

^a6.— Khasi Hills. Type from Mawphlang ; alt. 5,500'. 



SCIENTIFIC RESULTS FROM THE MAMMAL SURVEY. 27 

2^^^^._Adult female B. M. No. 20-1 1 -l-SG. Original number 431. 
Collected 10th April 1920 by H. W. Wells and presented by the 
Bombay Natural History Society. One specimen only. 

This rat is externally very like a small R. mackenziei, to which 
species it is probably most closely allied. But it is readily distin- 
guishable by its smaller skull, its large smooth braincase and small 
muzzle. I have much pleasure in naming it after Mr. H. W. Wells, its 
collector, who has already done such good work for the Mammal 
Survey. 

Rattus listeri garonum, subsp. nov. 

Essential characters as in true listeri of Darjiling, but the colour 
much more fulvescent, the upper surface, instead of brown (pale mars 
brown) being light ochraceous-tawny lined with blackish, more as in 
R. edivardsi and other members of this group. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and body 232 mm. ; tail 305 ; hind-foot 46 ; ear 30. 

Skull, greatest length 55 ; condylo-incisive length 50 ; zygomatic 
breadth 25 ; nasals 21-5 ; interorbital breadth S'l ; breadth of brain- 
case 20-2; interparietal 7x14-3; palatilar length 23-8; r)alatal 
foramina 8*9 ; upper molar series 9*7. 

^a6.— Tura, Garo Hills, Assam. Alt. 1,400'. 

Type.— Adult female. B. M. No. 20-11 •1-55. Original number 426. 
Collected 26th March 1920 by H. W. Wells. Presented by the Bombay 
Natural History Society. Six specimens. 

Study of the further material now available of this group shows that 
the Darjiling listen, the present Garo rat, and the Chinese R. edivardsi 
are all nearly related inter se, and are together distinguishable from 
the Malay R. vociferans by the greater breadth of the interparietal, 
which is less extended antero-posteriorly, by their more open choanse, 
and by their tails being very much more finely scaled, the rings run- 
ning from 9-10 to the centimeter as compared with 7-9 in vociferans. 

In size however the Chinese form, which extends westwards into 
the Kachin region of Burma, markedly exceeds that of Darjiling and 
Assam, the skull being about 57 — 58 mm. in total, and 53 — 54 mm. in 
condylo-incisive length as compared about 54 — 55 and 50 — 52 respect- 
ively in R. listeri and its relative of the Garo Hills. R. edivardsi is 
also rather less opisthodont than R. listeri, its index about 63° — 65° 
as compared with 53°. 55°. 

The difference in colour from true listeri, is well marked in all the 
six Garo specimens, but two of the same group from the Naga Hills 
presented by Mr. J. P. Mills are somewhat intermediate in tone. 



28 
A NEW ARABIAN HARE. 

BY 

Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S. 
[Published hij i^ermission of the Trustees of the British 3Ivseicm.) 

During a recent collecting trip made by Major R. E. Cheesman 
round the Persian Gulf, he obtained on the mainland opposite 
the island of Bahrein, a small hare allied to the little Lepus oma- 
nensis of Muscat, but very differently coloured. Since there are 
no important skull differences I propose to refer it to that species, 
of which it would seem to represent a desert subspecies. 

In recognition of the pains taken by Major Cheesman to secure 
mammals in this inhospitable part of the world, I would name it 

Lepus omanensis cheesmani, subsp. n. 

Size and general proportions as in true omanenns. Fiir similarly 
short, the hairs on the back about 15 mm. in length. General 
colour light desert colour, pinkish buff instead of the dark drab of 
omanensis. Undersurface pure white, that of omanensis dull 
buffy, though the specimens of the latter may have been dis- 
coloured. Crown like back, pinkish buff. Area round e5^e, 
reaching back towards the ears, whitish, contrasting prominently 
with the buffy crown. Proectote of ear pale buffy without 
blackened tips, the tips being quite black in omanensis ; inner 
fringe buffy whitish ; metentote dull buffy, its edges whitish. 
Nape patch "warm buff." Hands and feet buffy whitish, the 
palm and sole brushes soiled drabby. Tail white, the proximal 
part of the upper surface black. 

" Eye golden yellow " R. E. C. 
Skull as in omanensis. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and body, 380mm.; tail 54mm.; hindfoot 84mm. ; 
ear 94mm. ; Skull, greatest length 70-5mm. ; condylo- 
incisive length 63mm. ; zygomatic breadth 34mm. ; nasals, 
oblique length 26- 5mm.; interorbital breadth on supraorbital 
wings 21mm. ; intertemporal breadth 10-2mm.; palatal foramina 
18*2mm. by 7 • 7mm. ; breadth of palatal bridge 4-4mm. ; tooth 
row (alveoli) 8* 2mm. 
Eab. — Arabia on western shore of Persian Gulf. Type from 
Dohat al Salwa, mainland coast to south of Bahrein Island. 

T^pe.— Adult male. B.M. No. 21.6.23.1. Original number 616 
of the Cox-Cheesman Collection. Killed 31st March 1921. Pre- 
sented. 



A NEW ARABIAN HARE. 29 

This desert hare is readily distinguishable from omanensis by its 
much paler colour, white rimmed eyes, concolor ears, paler nape 
patch and white belly. It will probably be found to be widely 
distributed over the sandy parts of Eastern Arabia, while true 
omanensis is likel}" to be restricted to the neighbourhood of ^luscat. 
where different colour coiiditions would prevail. 

Major Cheesman gives the following note on the capture of the 
hare, "From Ojair to Salwa hares were most plentiful; we saw 
six and one of the men shot one with his rifle — some shot — We 
tried for the others, but they were always gone too far before 
you could get your gun out of the saddle bag, — and shooting 
from a moving camel is not easy." 



30 
NOTES ON INDIAN BUTTERFLIES. 

BV 

Lieut. -Colonel W. H. Evans, D.S.O., R.E., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

{Continued from Vol. XXTII, page 93.) 

29. Bethune Bakor in T. E. S. 1918 has issued a revision of the genus 
Tnruais based on the genitalia. Ho finds that not only are most of the theo- 
phrastus like forms described by Moore and Butler go,od species, but that cer- 
tain additional species exist in India. The following are confirmed as species : 
theophrastus, F.; nara, Koll.; venosus, M.; callinara, But.; extrkatus. But.; altera- 
tus, M. The following are described as new : callinara nigra from Karachi, 
Cutch and Campbellpore ; hengalensis described from an unique male from 
Calcutta and said to be very like the a.uthor's niediterranece from Palestine and 
Algeria, ananda, DeN., hitherto placed in Castalius, is removed to Tarucus 
and a new species dharla, is described from a pair from Darjeehng, as differing 
from ananda in being smaller, markings more separated below,, female with a 
good deal of blue above and not all brown as ananda. vlinius, F., is now-a- 
days considered to belong to the genus Syntarucus. 

Mr. Bethune Baker states that his studies have caused him to reconsider his 
previous conclusions as to what constitutes a species; he does not, however, 
enlarge on this point. I personally think that, as far as the Indian region is 
concerned, we have only one theophrastus like species, but that it is exceedingly 
susceptible to local infiuencf s and that any change in the facies may be corre- 
lated with a change in the genitalia. I have no doubt that if someone studied 
Terias hecabe, he could prove to his own satisfaction that the name comprised 
numerous species. Even Colonel Swinhoe, who is our great exponent of the 
theory that every variety should rank as a species, fights shy now and then of the 
school that rely solely on genitalia examinations — e.g., his treatment of the 
genus Tapena in Lepidoptera Indica. The whole question is very intricate and, 
as an amateur, I am diffident about Avriting on the subject at all. My own 
studies have tended to prove that members of the same species from widely 
separated localities always shew differences in their genitaHa ; whether such 
differences would constitute a bar to free interbreeding, it is impossible to 
say off hand and practically impossible ever to prove ; to me it seems 
best to treat such differences as racial rather than as specific, though 
after the lapse of time their specific value may become established. T. theo- 
vhrastns, however, presents a somewhat different problem ; here we have, 
according to Bethune Baker, a number of different species flourishing in the 
same area. I have caught the species commonly at Jabalpur and Rawalpindi 
and more rarely at several other places. I quite understand that the specimens 
caught in different localities or obtained in the same locality at different sea- 
sons are likely to differ and I know that they do differ, but I do not beheve that 
on the same day and in the same place I could capture more than one theo- 
phrastus like species. I have caught a venosus form concurrently with a 7iara 
form, but no one will persuade me that they were more than ordinary varieties. 
If, however, two series caught at the same season and in the same locahty 
were shown to differ materially in the genitalia, I might be inclined to recon- 
sider my opinion ; I say " might " advisedly, since other factors have to be 
taken into consideration, e.g., a brood produced from a food plant other than the 
normal one might produce an incipient species, wliich under natural conditions 
would soon be swamped by the prevaihng form. I remember at Jabalpur one day 
catching a number of dwarf Tarucus plinius along with the normal form; I will 
aot venture to say how they were produced, but it never occurred to me that 



NOTJES ON INDIAN BVTTERILIES. 31 



the dwarfs were anytliing more than casual varieties. The results of locaJ in- 
fluences are peculiarly noticeable in the genus Parnassius and numerous 
races have recently been named ; the problem is where to stop, I am quite 
sure that if Mr. Bethune Baker were to employ a large gang of collectors hunt- 
ing all over India for T. iheophmstus , he would more than double his list 
of species in a very short time. 

30. Fruhstorfer in Tijd voor Ent, 1918 gives us a revision of the genera 
Castalius and HeliopJiorus (=^ Ilenla), based on the genitalia, together with other 
notes. He puts TaraJca next Castalius, a change that is not justified by the 
habits ; hamada is confined to Japan and Formosa, tb.e Indian race being chris- 
tened mendesia. Orthomiella is sunk to Una, a rather strange proposition, while 
rovorea is described fi'om the Chin Hills as a race of the Sikkim pontis. In 
Castcdius, the species ananda is included ; approximatus. But., is given as 
the Burmese race of the Indian rosimon ; roxana as the Indian race of 
the Javan roxus, manhiena being the Nicobar one ; elna noUteia is named as 
the elna race from India and Burma ; decidia is placed as the Indo-Burmese 
race of the Celobesian caleta. Hew., the Ceylon race being Jiamatiis, M. ; the 
Ajidaraan forins of elna and roxus are placed as iinnamed races. 

HeliopJiorus indicus, Fruh, is given as the race of the Javan epicles flying 
from iSikkim to North Burma ; as a matter of fact epicles occurs as far South 
as the Karen Hills in Burma and also in the Middle Andaman. Birmana 
is given as a new race of the W. Cliiua saphir Blanch, as from Upper Burma. 
Androcles androcles (=^viridis, mibi) is given from the E. Himalayas and andro- 
des coruscans, M., from the W. Himalayas ; Fruhstorfer is no doubt right in 
assuming that Doubleday's types came from the E. Himalayas. 

31. F)'uhstorfor in L?iden Zool. Med. 1916 deals with the genera Li/ccenes- 
thes and Nacaduba, basing his results on genitalia examination. 

andamanicus is named as the race of the Indian emolus. lyccenina is confined 
to Ceylon and lycamhes. Hew., given as the N. Indian race ; he does not toll 
us what we are to call specimens of this spacies from S. India a-nd Burma. 

In Nacaduba several important changes are made and I append a list of the 
Indian species and races. 

pavana, Hors., Java, with races ; nabo, Fr., India and ? Andamans ; vajuna, 
Fr., Siara and Burma ; Ceylon not mentioned. 

augusta, Druce, Borneo, race kerriana, Dist. Tenasserim. 

pactolus, Fd., Amboina, with races; ceylonica, Fruh., Ceylon; race un- 
named S. India; continentaUs, Fruh., Sikkim to Burma; andamanica, Fruh., 
Andamans ; macropthalma, Fd. Nicobars. 

7iora, Fd., S. Moluccas with race noreia, Fd. Indian region. 

alula, Druce, Borneo, race coelestis, DeN., N. India and N. Burma ; unnamed 
race, Andamans. 

dana and hampsoni, DaN., Indian region. 

viola, M. Sikldm to Burma and Andamans ; race merguiana, Fruh, Mergui, 

ancyra, Fd., Assam to Burma and Nicobars. 

berenice, H. S. locality not clear but presumably Malayan, with races ; cey- 
lonica, Fruh, Ceylon ; plumheomicans, W. M., Andamans and India ; aphya, 
Fruh, Siam and Rangoon, nicobaricus, W. M. Nicobars. 

atrata, Hors, Java with race gythrion, Fruh, Indian region (Lep. Ind. Plate, 
658 (3 to 3a.) 

perusia, Fd., S. Moluccas with races ; 2^>'o^ninens, M,, Ceylon (Lep. Ind. 
plate 658 3 c. to 3d.) ; euplea, Fruh, India and Burma, 

The difference between atrata and prominens would seem to need further 
investigation. I have personally no doubt of the specific distinctness of the tailed 
and tailless forms of what DeNiceville treated under the name ardates. In 
J. B. N. H. S. 1910 I described the taillesa female from Sikkim with a yellow 
underside as sivoka. Swinhoe in Lep. Ind. calls the tailless and tailed forms 



82 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATUBAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVIII. 

nora and noreia respectively and I think they might stand as nora sivolca and 
noreia. I am not quite clear what Fruhstorfor's intentions are in respect of 
bhutea, DeN., but I imagine he wishes to unite it to noreia ; bhutea is in my 
opinion a perfectly good species, of which I described the Palni Hills race 
as kodi in J, B. N. H. S., 1910. 

32. Reverdin in Etudes Ent. Comp, 12, issues a x-evision of the genus Hes- 
peria (palearctic), based on the male genitalia. Chapman in Ent. Rec. 
1917-1919 reviews Reverdin's results and gives his own. Amateurs, who 
are interested in the study of genitalia, should read Dr. Chapman's introduc- 
tory remarks. Mr. Pierce's works on the genitalia of the British Noctuidce and 
Geometridae are no doubt excellent, while Mr. Bethune Baker's writings and 
photographs axe full of interest, but nothing I have read has been so clear and 
simple as Dr. Chapman's short exposition referred to above. 

33. Mr. E. J. Godfrey in J. N. H. S. Siam 1916 gives an interesting list of 
the butterflies of Siam and describes a few new races and species of which the 
most interesting is a new Everes, viz., rileyi ; said to be Hke dipora above, and 
parrhasius below ; Bangkok, Siam ; it is the only Everes recorded from Siam. 

34. Hampson in N. Z. XXV, issues a hst of families and sub-famihes of the 
•order Lepidoptera. The Rhopalocera come thus between No. 37. Castniidee 

and No. 44. Euschemoniidae. 

38. Danaidse. (for Nymphalidse). 
Euploeinae. (for Danainee). 
Maniohnae. (for Satyrinae). 
^ginse. (for Morphinse). 
Acraeinse. 

Danainae. (for NymphaUnae). 

39. Asciadae. (for Pieridae). 

40. Cupidinidae. (for Lycaenidae). 

41. Plebcjidae. (for Nemeobidae). 
Plebejmae. (for Nemeobinae). 
Libythaeinae. 

42. Equitidae. (for Papilionidae). 

43. Erynnidae. (for Hesperiidae). 

I suppose some useful purpose is served by this kind of thing but nothing 
annoys the amateur student so much as apparently useless changes in nomen- 
clature. It is a great pity that we have no international authority empowered 
to issue an authoritative hst of known famihes, genera and species ; any altera- 
tions or additions might be proposed by individuals but should not come into 
force unless formally approved by the central authority after due discussion 
in scientific journals. All delving into the records of the past should be vetoed, 
as far as nomenclature is concerned the result would be that the energies of 
many excellent naturahsts would be diverted to useful progressive work, from 
what msbj be termed useless retrogressive work. 

35. All entomological students will welcome Mr. T. R. Bell's important 
contribution towards the classification of the Hesperiidae in a recent number of 
the journal. His results are primarily based on the early stages and of this 
branch of lepidopterous entomology, not only is Mr. BeU a master, but it is a 
deplorable fact that he is the only real student we have ; a Mr. Bell in Tavoy 
and another in Assam would very soon put us all straight. I have devoted 
considerable attention to this family and am acquainted with the habits of the 
imago of most of the known species. I have also examined the structure 
and genitalia of many species, but in this latter branch of study Mr. Ormiston 
of Ceylon leads the way. Mr. Ormiston has published his results as regards 
the Ceylon Skippers, but I understand he has been studying those from other 

• districts and I hope that in due course he will pubhsh his further results. 



NOTES ON INDIAN BUTTERFLIES. 



33 



I think that there is no doubt that the data in which Mr. Be!I reUes are far 
and away the most satisfactory for purposes of classification and that study 
of the habits as well as what may be termed cabinet investigation are httle 
more than confirmatory ; yet, as Mr. Bell points out, there are many species 
and even genera whose early stages are entirely unknown and all we have to 
go on for the present are the habits and the results of examination of the imago. 
I had already worked out a rough classification of the family and find that my 
results accord very closely with Mr. Bell's- I give below the points on which 
we differ. 

(a) I agree with Swinhoe in putting the Ismeninse at the head of the 
family. I quite understand Bell's reasons for putting them after the Hesper- 
iinse, but they differ more from all the other sub-families than the latter do 
inter se. 

(6) Ormiston is of opinion that Hantana infernus is the male of Celce- 
norrhinus spilothyrus and I am pretty certain that he is right, in which 
case it would be wrong to put Hantana in any sub-family other than the 
Celsenorrhinse. Again from genitalia examination it is evident that Achalarus 
is a very close ally of Celoenoi-rihinus, while Gapila and its alUes, with 
their very pecuhar, large trifid clasp, are quite separate and might be classed 
as Capilinse. 

(c) Following the Celsenorrhinse, the Hesperiinse come in naturally 
but, after the Hesperiinse I should prefer to see the Pamphilinse which are 
decidedly allied to the Hesperiinse, I should follow thus — Plastingiinse, 
Notocryptinse, Erionotinse and Erynninse, wherein I would include the 
Baorinse, as the latter group seem barely separable as a sub-family. 

{d) I am surprised to see Baracus near the end of the Erynninte and 
would prefer to see it next Astictopterus, which with its allies seems to come 
better into the Pamphilinie. Pithauria (includes Pithauriopsis) should come 
between Halpe and Parnara, where perhaps Iton is also better placed. 
(Erane is probably a near ally of Notocrypta, Hidari of Erionota and 
Acerbas of Plastingia. 

My arrangement would therefore be as given below and I think it more or 
less brings together the order followed by Watson, Elwes and Swinhoe with 
that given by Bell : I cannot, however, persuade myself to adopt al 
Swinhoe'a new genera. 

Bihasis. Hasora. Ismene. Rhopalocampta. 

Badamia. 

Capila, Crossiura. Ortkopcetus. Calliana. 

Charm iun. Achalarus. Hantana. Celcenorrhinus. 

Coladenia. Gerosis, Sarangesa. Darpa. Tapena. 

C'te?ioptilum. Odontoptilum. Caprona. Satarupa. 

Tagiades. Odina. 

Gomalia. Carcharodus. Hesperia. Thanaos. 

Pamphila. Taractrocera. Ampittia. Aeromachus. 

Ochus. Baracus. Astictopterus. Koruthaialos, 

lambrix. 

Suada. Suastus. Pedestes. Arnetta. Sebastonyma. 

Itys. Isma. Zographetus. Scobura. Sepa. 

Pirdami. Plastingia. Lotongus. Acerbas. Creteus. 
Notocryptinse. Hyarotis. Udaspes. Notocrypta. Oerane. Sancus, 

Kerana, Watsoniella. Tacupa. 

Erionota. Pudicitia. Gangara. 



Ismenina. Ismeninse. 

Hesperiina. Capilinse. 

Cekenorrhinre. 



Hesperiinse. 
Pamphilina. Pamphilinse. 



Plastinsiinse. 



Erionotinte . 
Ervmiinse. 



Hidari. 

Matapa. 

Cupitha. 

Halpe. 

Gegenes. 



Erynnis. Augiades. Telicota. 
Onryza. Pithauria. Iton. 
Eogenes. 



Paduha. 

Actinor. 
Parnara, 



34 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII 



36. A note on the sub-family Poritiinse. 

I have recently returned from a 5 months collecting tour in Burma and was 
fortunate enough to obtain some 200 specimens appertaining to 10 different 
species of the genera Pm-iiia, Simiskina and Zarona. The literature deaUng 
with this sub family is most confusing and I hope that this note will clear up 
most of the doubtful jwints and that the keys will enable collectors to identify 
their cajitures more easily than heretofore. 

I will take in turn the sjiecies of Poritia that have been described from India 
or the Malay Peninsula. 

(a) Sumatra;, Fd, is a very distinct species about which there is no 
confusion. I personally did not meet with it, but Bingham recorded 
it from the extreme South of Tenasserim. Distant's figure in Rhop. 
Mai. of sumatrce 9 var is undoubtedly referable to geta. 

(b) heivitsoni, M., is a well known species. Doherty (J. A. S. B. 1889) 
described some specimens he caught at Myitta, Tavoy, as heivitsoni 
var. tavoyana, but, as he seems to have mixed up this species with 
geta, erycinoides, 2)leurata and possibly others, it is difficult to say 
what tavoyana is referable to. There is however no doubt that 
Burmese specimens of heivitsoni differ from Indian ones in the reduc- 
tion of the blue spotting of the aj)ical area of the forewing and 
tavoyana, might stand as the Burmese race of hewitsoni. I only 
met with this species rarely on the East side of the Dawna range. 
It ia probably commoner in Upper Burma. 

(c) pleurata, Hew, Singapore. The descrii)tion mentions 2 blue spots 
on the black apex of the male, which are missing in the plate. De 
Niceville, Elwes and Bingham have all identified geta as this species, 
but Swinhoe very correctly iwinted out the error in Lep. Ind. At 
the foot of the Dawnas on the East side I caught 14 males and 3 
females of a species I am naming daivna ; it is nearer Hewitson's 
figures of pleurata than is geta, but there are certain pronounced 
differences. It is possible that dawna may turn out to be the 
Burmese race of the Singapore pleurata. 

{d) geta, Faw., Toungoo. This species is well figured by Swinhoe in 
Lep. Ind. and the female by DeNiceville in his Vol. Ill, under 
the name 'pleurata. I found it common in the Karen Hills and the 
Dawnas, rather rare in Tavoy and Mergui. Specimens from Mergui 
(King Island) have the blue ajiical markings reduced and I proijose 
to call them race regia. The sirring form of geta in the Karen Hill 
is larger and greener than the autumn form. 

erycinoides, Fd., was described from a male from -Java and phraa- 
iica, Hew., from a female from Singapore. I feel convinced that, 
as pointed out by DeNiceville in J. A. S. B. 1895, these names 
represent the male and female of the same species. Distant in Rhop. 
Mai. described and figured a male to fit Hewitson's female ; I think 
liis male ijrobably=p/ewrato. Bingham in the Fauna and Swinhoe 
in Lep. Ind. followed Distant but confessed they h.id never seen a 
male phraatica. Bingham seemed to think that erycinoides was 
.merely a blue variety of heivitsoni ; he assigned to it a hewitosni hke 
female and said he had only seen 3 males and 2 females. Swinhoe 
in Lep. Ind. says that Bingham is entirely wrong about erycinoides ; 
he claims to have sjiecimens from Mergui and says that Druce has it 
from Sikkim ; he figures a male, which ho says resembles Felder's 
type exactly and he gives it a female, which differs but slightly from 
Hewitson's figure of phraatica. Now I found a (blue not greenish 
blue as in the rest of the genus) male, matched by a female with 
yellow discal areas, to be very common in Tavoy and not uncommon in 



I 



NOTJ^S ON INDIAN BUTTERFLIES, 



the Karen Hills, the Dawnas and Mergui ; on several occasions 
males and females were taken in coitu. The male agrees faiz-ty well 
with Felder's figures of erycinoides and the female with Hewitson's 
figure of 2->h.raatica, but both sexes were extremely variable. In Da 
Niceville's collection there is a series of this species from Burma, the 
Malay Peninsular, Sumatra and Java. Javan specimens differ from 
the remainder in the much greater extent of the blue areas and 
resemble exactly Swinhoe's figure of male erycinoides in Leji. Ind. 
Felder's figure curiously enough resembles the continental form more 
than the Javan. Fruhstorfer (B. E. Z. 1911) confines erycinoides 
to Java and puts phraatica as the continental race : this is very likely 
the correct course. 
{j) In the Karen Hills in November I obtained a species of Poritia, 
which is not referable to any known species and wliich I j^ropose to 
call Jcarennia. The male is not unhke hewitsoni, but the yellow female 
is very different, while the underside in both sexes is strikingly 
different to that of any other member of the genus. I personally only 
caught 2 males and a single female, but there are other males "in Mr. 
W. Archbald's collection caught both in the spring and the autumn 
and there are 2 males in DeNiceville's collection over the label 
pleurata, which is the dumping ground for all hewitsoni hke spacies 
from Burma. Elwes in P. Z. S. 1892 mentions that Doherty 
• obtained in the Karen Hills 2 yellow females, which he suggests may 
be dimorphic females of pleurata (recte geta), but I think they were 
probably females of phraatica. 

I will now turn to the genus Simiskina, which differs slightly 
from Poritia in the secondary sexual characters of the male and very 
markedly on the underside, which does not have the crowded 
catenulated bands common to every Poritia, 
.{g) phalena, Hew. {—harterti, Doh.) presents no difficulty. I caught one 
pair in the Tavoy district and DeNiceville has a few specimens 
from Katha. Fruhstorfer puts harterti as the Assam race in spite 
of Hartert's own assertion that his unique specimens from the Patkoi 
Hills differed in no way from specimens he caught in Sumatra. 
(h) pediada, Hew., presents no diflficulty. I caught several males and 

females in the Tavoy district. 
■.{i) phalia, Hew., male, Borneo ; potina. Hew., female, Singapore: /wZgrg^js 
District Malay Peninsular were, I think rightly united by Bing- 
ham under the name p)halia, but he figured a variety of the female 
which led Fruhstorfer (B. E. Z. 1911) to call the Burmese race of 
phalia (=^potina and fulgens) binghami. Swinhoe in Lep. Ind. treats 
2}halia and potina {=^Julgens) as distinct species; having never seen 
a male potina, he copies Doherty's figure (J. A. S. B. 1889), while 
for phalia he figures a male from Burma, which differs very shghtly 
from his figures of male potina, and he allots to it a purple female 
from Labuan. Now I obtained several males and females of what 
I call phalia in the Dawnas, Tavoy and Mergui. Except for one 
Dawna specimen the males are pretty constant and resemble 
Hewitson's and Doherty's figures. Females ware very variable and 
every gradation was obtained from Bingham's figure with no black 
shading on the upperside of the forewing along the dorsum, to 
Hewitson's figure with an entirely black inner margin. The aberrant 
Dawna male is not unlike Swinhoe's figure of phalia, but th? blue 
markings are more extended, the discal and sub -marginal sj^ots 
being completely joined in space 1 forewing and in 1 to 4 hindwing, 
while the streak in 1-a forewing extends to the base : the blua 



36 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

colouring is pure blue with no hint at green as is the case with all 
normal males ; at present I intend to treat it as a variety of 
phalia. What Swinhoe's purple female from Labuan is I cannot 
say, but it does not concern us in India at present. 

There are two other members of the genus SimisJcina that may turn up in 
Burma, viz. — pheretia, Hew., Singapore ; male below rather as phalena, but 
above the hindwino is mostly pale blue ; female brown above with the termen 
or the hindwing broadly pure white; pharyge, Hew., Borneo, Malay Peninsular 
and Renong, Siam; not unlike pediada, but easily recognised by the presence 
of a bright blue submarginal hne on the hindwing below. 

On two occasions a male and a female of Zarona jasoda were caught in coitu, 
which puts an end to the doubt that has always existed, as to whether jasoda 
and zanella were different species. A few specimens of both sexes were 
obtained in the Dawnas, Tavoy and Mergui. Fruhstorfer has sunk Zarona to 
Deramas and calls jasoda a race of the Malayan livens; the only difference 
between the two is the secondary sexual characters ; Distant asserted that 
they were present in livens and there are certainly none in jasoda. I have not 
seen livens, but I can quite believe that Fruhstorfer is right and jasoda may 
well be a race of livens, that has lost its secondary sexual characters. 

Cyaniroides libna was not met with. 

Key to Poritia. 

Nole. — All males are very similar and are brilhant blue or green above with 
a broad black apex to the forewing, which, when the spotting is fully devoIojDed, 
bears sub-marginal blue spots in 2 and 3 joining, a diagonal series beyond the 
end of the cell leading to the costa. The presence or absence of a black spot of 
varying size about the middle of vein 1 upf. and of marginal spots uph. are 
variable individual and not specific characters. 

1-a. (6). ^ uph. blue colour extends above vein 4 into space 4, at least near 
the margin. 

1-b. (4-a). ^ upf. cell entirely black. 

1. (2-a). ^ upf. blue colour not above vein 2; green rather than blue; apical 
area f. unmarked. Uph. lower part cell and all 4 blue. $ purple with a black 
apex bearing two rows of purple spots, the outer spots being separated by 
ochereous lines. Below the catenulated bands are even, continuous and parallel 
to one another, not discontinuous and irregular as in the rest of the genus. 

sumatrce, Fd. Extreme South of Tenasserim. (Bingham). 

2-a. (1). $ Upf. blue colour extends into 2 and often into base of 3. 

2. (3) (J ^pli- cell and basal part of 4 blue ; blue rather than green : apex 
unmarked except for marginal spots in 2 and 3. 9 yellow, costa, termen and 
outer third of dorsum f. dark brown, width -1 inch; h. entirely yellow except 
that the costa is whiteish, the base has some dusky brown shading and there is 
a row of dark brown sub-marginal spots. Below white, catenulated bands as 
usual, but differs conspicuously from the rest of the genus in that on the 
upper part of the disc f. and near the apices f. and h. there are prominent large 
bright brown burnt sienna patches. 

harennia, nov. Karen Hills, 3,000 feet. 

3. (2). $ ujih. lower part of cell and all 4 blue, with a dark streak at end 
cell; green rather than blue. $ upf. pale purple blue in la, 1 and centre of 2 with 
an orange patch in 3, sometimes extending into 2 ; cell black and apical spotting 
r.s in the $ but better developed ; uph. black except for a rather small blue 
discal patch. Below smoky grey to pale cinnamon. 

A. upf. apical spotting Avell developed in both sexes. 
hewitsoni heicitsoni, M., Kuma,on to Assam. 

B. Ditto much reduced and sub -marginal spots absent. 



3 



NOTES ON INDIAN BUTTERFLIES. 37 

hewitsoni tavoyana, Doh., Burma. 
4-a. (1-b). $ upf. cell all blue. 

4. (5). $ uph. lowei' part cell and all space 4 blue ; green rather than blue. 
2 pale blue obscurely shot with violet, black areas as in ^ but apical spotting 

■more developed ; uph, sub-marginal dark spots prominent. Below pale 
cinnamon, but sometimes smoky grey in $ . 

A. Apical spotting well developed, especiaUy spots beyond cell in J . In ^ 
blue colour always extends into 3 upf. 

geta geta, Faw., North Burma to Tavoy. 

B. Apical spotting much reduced, ^ spotless and 2 only with sub-marginal 
spots in 2 and 3. In ^ blue colour does not extend into 3 upf. 

geta regia, nov. Mergui. 

5. (4). (^ uph. lower part cell and basal half space 4 black ; blue rather 
than green ; upf. the lower edge of the cell is narrowly black from the middle 
to the outer end and the blue colour extends into 3, apex only obscurely spotted; 
uph. marginal spots and sub-marginal dark fascia better developed than usual. 

2 rather pale blue with a green tinge, when looked at sideways ; extent of blue 
area and spotting as in male, but latter much more developed ; upf. base dusky, 
leaving a prominent blue spot in middle of cell ; uph. costal margin dusky 
and there is sometimes a blue spot in 5 near the margin. Below cream}' white, 
catenulated bands rather faint. 

dawna, nov. Eastern Dawnas, 1000 feet. 

6. ( 1 -a). $ uph. cell and whole of space 4 black ; rich royal blue with no 
tinge of green, thus presenting an entirely different appearance to the rest 
of the genus ; ujjf . a narrow blue streak inside the cell from the extreme 
base of the lower edge to the middle ; the spotting on the black apex is usually 
very well developed (in the Javan race the apical and the discal blue areas 
merge) but specimens occur, which are entirely black on both wings except 
for a few blue spots. $ above dark brown with an orange yellow discal 
patch upf. and a discal fascia uph of very variable extent, also uph. some 
more or less obscure orange sub-marginal patches and an ochi-eous sub-terminal 
line. Below ^ smoky grey ; § creamy white. 

erycinoides phraatica, Hew., Burma. 

Key to Simiskina. 

Note. — Males are very ahke above, but the pattern is quite different to Pori' 
tia ; black with brilUant blue or green markings. Upf. a streak from vein 1 
to vein 4 along and below the median vein, outwardly irregular and produced 
outwards in space 2 ; 2 or 3 spots beyond the end of the cell and a complete 
sub-marginal series curved inwards at the upper end; a short diagonal streak in 
the middle of 1-a with a small spot above its outer end in 1. Uph. a streak in 1 
from the base to the disc and discal spots above its lower end in 2 and 3; sub-mar- 
ginal spots in 1, 2 and 3, the former being the largest and sometimes conjoined 
to the streak in 1 ; costa broadly pale brown. Below there is a dark line at 
the end of the cell on both wings, a curved discal and a similar post discal line. 

1. (2-a). Below a white band across both wings in both sexes. $ above 
markings brilliant green. § above brown with a prominent white discal spot 
upf. 

phalena. Hew. Assam to Burma. 
2-a. (1) Below no white band. 

2. (3). ^ above markings brilliant green ; Unf. apex only slightly if at 
-all paler. 5 uniform dark brown above. 

pediada, Hew., South Burma. 

3. (2). (J above markings brilUant blue, sometimes tinged with green : unf. 
apex conspicuously paler than the rest of the wings. $ orange yellow ; upf. apex 
and termen dark brown and sometimes with dark brown shading of varying 



3 JOURNAI, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. AX VIII, 



width and intensity along the dorsum and a thin line at the end of the cell ; 
uph. entirely orange yellow, sometimes suffused with brown scales at the base 
and on the side disc and forming brown sub-marginal sj^ots. 
phalia, Hew, South Burma. 
37. I have to note the following additions to the Indian List. 

(a) Cirrochroa orissa, Fd., Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo. 
Discovered by Messrs. 0. C. Ollenbach and W. A. Wood in Tavoy.^ 
Caught by mo on King Island, Mergui, in December. It differs 
from all other members of the genus in having a very broad pale 
yellow band across the forewing. 
(6) Papilio varuna. White, Malay Peninsula, Two females caught by 
me on Iving Island, Mergui, in December. It differs from the race 
astorion, Wd., in that the female has a very large white patch on the 
lower part of the disc upperside forewing. 

(c) Arhopala ormistoni, Eiley. The Entomologist, May 1020. This 
is a new species obtained by Mr. W. A. Ormiston at Nakiadenya 
near Galle in April. It is said to be nearest to alitceus and mirahella. 

(d) Mantoides licinius, Druce, Borneo. Discovered by Messrs. Ollenbach 
and Wood on a hill at Pagaiye in Tavoy and a pair obtained 
by me on the same spot in December. In general ajipearance 
and size like Cheritra freja, bixt the long tail is at vein 1 and the 
short tail at vein 2, not the other way about as in freja ; also the 
white area at the anal angle is greater. Below the general tone 
is pale yellow brown except along the dorsums of both wings,, 
where it is white. The male has pronounced secondary sexual 
characters, viz., a large polished area on the disc of the hindwing 
upper hind and a pouch at the end of space 6 ; on the underside of 
the forewing there is a prominent upturned tuft of hairs from the 
middle of the dorsum, which is highly convex, nearly to vein 2 
and overlying a dull lead grey jmtch, denuded of scales. 

(e) Jacoona unasuja, Fd., Malay Peninsula. Obtained by Messrs. 
Ollenbach and Wood and subsequently by me at the same place 
and month as Montoides licinius, to which group it belongs, as re- 
gards shape and tails, but the male has no secondary sexual char- 
acters. It is a much larger insect, being 2 inches in expanse and 
the male is very magnificent above, being dark brown with a bril- 
liant dark blue area at the base and a similar pre-apical patch on 
the forewing, a blue streak on the hindwing from the base to near 
the centre of the terraen and there is the usual anal Avhite patch. 
The female is without the blue areas. The long tail is 1 inch in 
length and the short tail a quarter of an inch. Below it is white,, 
the forewing being for the most part pale yellow brown, shading to- 
bright ferruginous at the tcimen and the apex. 

(/) Bidv.anda nicevillei, Doh, ff-malo. I obtained a few males of this 
very distinct species at Kanbauk and Pagaiye, Tavoy, and a single 
female at Pagaiye, in Dec. mber. It is very similar to the female 
of the commoner Bidiianda mzlisa, M.; above there is the same blue- 
ish white patch at the ar.-il angle of the hindwing but on the fore- 
wing there is a large red discal patch. Below the two species are 
very alike differing constantly as follows. On the forcAving of 
melisa there is white patch on the dark discal area beyond the cell, 
below which there is an irregular and more or less double dark 
streak to vein 1 ; on the hindwing the inner of the two dark lines 
at the end of the cell is much thicker and partly coalesced to the 
outer line. On the forewing of nicevillei there is a very narrow 
white line on the dark area beyond the cell, below which there is 



NOTES ON INDIAN BUTTERFLIES. 



39 



an even single ochreous streak to vein 2, continuing as a broader 
but single, dark brown streak to vein 1 ; on the bindwing the two 
lines at the end of the cell are even and well separated. 

(k) Semanga superba, Druce, Malacca and Borneo. A single female 
of this species was caught by Mr. E. Fowle on King Island, Mergui 
and IS now m my collection. It is a close ally of Catapcecilma 
elegansas regards shape, size and tails ; in facies it is starthngly hke 
the widely separated Ilerda epicles. Above it is lilac blue with 
brown borders and there is a broad sub-marginal ochreous band 
along the lower part of the termen of the hindwing. Below it is 
ochreous yellow with a narrow brown discal line on the forewing 
and the outer half of the hindwing is reddish brown, interspersed 
with black spots and pale silver blue dashes. 

(i) Some time ago Mr. G. H. E. Hopkins sent me some specimens of 
a small Sarangesa he had captured during the cold season at St 
Thomas Mount, Madras. It is a close ally of Sarangesa sati, De N ' 
but in my opinion differs sufficiently to be accorded specific rank 
and I will call it hopJcinsi, nov. Above inky black frosted 
over with minute white scales ; unspotted (saH bears numerous 
small hyaline white spots). Below dark brown and spotted after 
the same manner as sati and purendra, but the spots are smaller 
and fewer. The cilia are prominently chequered. Expanse 9 to 1 
inch. 

(i) Isma purpurascens, El, Pulo Laut. Several specimens caught by 
me at the foot of the Dawnas on the East side in January It is 
very similar to Isma proiodea, but is purple washed below 

(k) Sepa noctis, Stg. One male at the foot of the Dawnas on the "!i!ast 
side in January. It is a rather small plain bro^m skipper with a 
pointed forewing. 

(I) Accrbas nitidijasciata, El, Labuan and Borneo. Two males obtained 
at the foot of the Dawnas on the East side. A rather large 
dark brown skipper bearing white spots on the forewing and distin- 
guished by having on the underside of the hindwing a broad curved 
silver white band with even edges from the costa to the dorsum 
In anthea this band is very irregular outwardly ; anthea also differs 
m having no cell spots on the forewing and in having a discal white 
band on the hindwing above. 

(m) Telicota paragola, De N. King Island, Mergui. Several specimens 
were obtained in January. Above this form is exactly as typical 
gola, but below there is a very marked difference, though it is only 
one of degree ; the ground colour is very dark brown and the yellow 
bands on both wmgs stand out conspicuously ; in the typical form 
the ground colour, except along the dorsum of the forewing, is over- 
laid with yellow scales so that the yellow bands are not nearly so 
conspicuous. • "^ 

38. I am glad to be able to announce that Mr. N. D. Riley of the British 
Museum has undertaken the preparation of Volume III of the Butterflies 
m the I^auna of India series. Its publication will supply a long felt want and 
I am certain that the work could not have been placed in abler hands. 

39. Swinhoe in A. M. N. H. S. 1919 describes ; 

(a) Zephyrus pavo, De N., male from Simla as an insect, which is green 
above. He is wrong. The male of paro was obtained by Col 
Tytler in the Naga Hills (J. B. N. H. S. XXIV 125) and closely 
resembles the female ; I have a pair in my collection. This species 
IS certainly not to bo caught anywhere near Simla and Swinhoe's 
insect is a variety of syla, ataxiisox birupa. 



40 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

{h) Tajuria driicei, Swin, female from the Shan States in Burma, said 
to be very Hke Tajuria jehana. 

(c) Lijcmnopsis trita, nov. fiom Murree. The N. W. Himalayas are 
too well known for anj^one to expect to find a now species of this 
genus and trita, I have no doubt is merely a vp^riety of ccelestina 
or huegeli. . 

(d) Arunena (nov.) nigerrirm, nov. from theKhasi Hills. A plain black 
skipper with no markings and an expanse of nearly 1 J inches. Swin- 
hoe places the genus in his sub-family Astictopterince but neither in 
his description of the genus nor of the species does he give any 
comparison with its nearest alUes ; so, as there is no figure, further 
identification will be hopeless unless he lodges the type in the 
British Museum. 



JouRN. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 






D 




A.— Upper surface of head. 
B. — Side view of head. 



C. — Uuder surface of head. 
D.— Under surface of tail. 



BRACHYOPHIDIUM RIIODOGASTER. 
(Enlarged about 6 times.) 



41 
A NEW SNAKE OF THE FAMILY UROPELTIDAE. 

BY 

Colonel F. Wall, I.M.S., C.M.G., C.M.Z.S. 

{With a plate.) 

Among a small collection of snakes in St. Joseph's College, Bangalore, 
I discovered a small Uropelt which is not only a species new to science, 
but constitutes a very well marked genus, combining the characters 
of Plectrurus, Pseudoj^lectrurus, and Platyplectrurus. 

Brachyophidium, gen. nov. 

General characters. — Body short, of considerably greater calibre 
posteriorly than anteriorly, cylindrical, smooth. Head small. Snout 
narrowly rounded. Eye in an ocular shield. No mental groove. 
Neck not constricted. Tail short, strongly and increasingly more 
compressed from base to apex. 

Lepidosis. Nasals. — Meeting behind the rostral. Internasals. — 
Absent. Prcefrontals.—k pair. Supraoculars. — Absent. Prceocular. — 
Absent. Ocular. — Present. Postocular. — Absent. Temporal. — 
Present. Supralabials.—Yom. Infralahials.—¥om. Sublinguals.— 
Absent.— Oos-to^s. In 13 rows anteriorly, in 15 rows at midbody to 
vent. Smooth. Last row enlarged ; about three-fourths the breadth 
of the ventrals. Supracaudals.— Smooth.. Terminal Shield — Small, 
compressed, ending as a single point. 

Ventrals. — Moderately developed. Anal. — Divided, about twice 
th-e breadth of the last ventral. Suhcaudals. — In pairs. 

Brachyophidium rhodogaster, spec. nov. 

General characters. — Snout narrowly rounded. Nostril in the anter- 
ior part of the nasal. Eye more than half the length of the ocular. 

Lepidosis. — Rostral. — Deeper than broad, portion visible above 
equal to the suture between the nasals. Nasals. — Large, in contact 
behind the rostral. Prefrontals. — Long, nearly as long as the frontal, 
in contact with the nasal, 2nd and 3rd supralabials, and ocular. 
Frontal. — As long as the snout, much longer than broad, equal to the 
parietals ; the ocular sutures about one third the parietal sutures. 
Temporal. — One ; shorter than the ocular, about half the parietals. 
Supralabials. — Four, fourth longest. Infralahials. — Three, the first in 
contact behind the mental. Costals. — Two head-lengths behind the 
head 13, midbody 15, two head-lengths before the vent 15. The 4th 
row divides about four and a half head-lengths behind the head. 
Ventrals. — 143. Anal. Divided. Suhcaudals. 7 pairs. 

Length. — 178 mm. (7 inches). 

Dentition. — The maxilla has 10 ? teeth. 



42 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATVUAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXV III, 

Colour. — Head blackish-brown above. Body dorsally uniform 
blackish-brown. An ill-defined and rather obscure pale spot on the 
neck behind each parietal shield. Ventrally roseate from chin to vent, 
including the ultimate row of costals. A median pink subcaudal 
stripe. 

The specimen is a gravid female, and contained three eggs about 12 
mm. long. 

It is unfortunate that there is no record of the date of capture or 
the locality where found. However I found specimens of Platy- 
plectnvrus trilineatus, Silyhura pulneyensis, and S. nigra in the collec- 
tion, and as it is known that specimens were received from Shemba- 
ganur everything points to its coming from the Palnai Hills. 

My thanks are due to Father Accouturier for allowing me to present 
the specimen to the British Museum. 

The accompanying figure shows the detail of the lepidosis but the 
specimen is rather shrivelled, and the eye may not be quite accurate. 



JouBN. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 







H. Green, del. 



Bale k UanielEEOD, Ltd. 



COLUBER LEONARDI 
Sp. n. X 2 



A CORRECTION. 

i-!i;i 7u 1^' ^ """^'''^ ^"'^''''^ -should read "Touches .ix 
shields; the mternaso-rostral sutures louPer than the nLoroL^.T 
and he naso-labial, less than both the lasl tak l.ge^""I^^^ 
nasals. Two; the suture between them half thnf 1.1+,,' T 
pr^Wal fellows, less than one qnartlrThe '"slp^^^^^^^^^^ 
The figure shows ; the nostril wronelv „lacprf Thi« ;v,r, j >. 
the suture behind. The shield heh^i^l tt' JlltZ Z. 
loreal as the wrongly placed nostril nrakes it .^^.a" 

„ ,^rT' !•' ^^^I'. COL„ i.M,S. 

23rd March 1922. 



43 



NOTES ON SOME NOTABLE ADDITIONS TO THE BOMBAY 
NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY'S SNAKE COLLECTION. 



Col. F. Wall, I.M.S., C.M.G., C.M.Z.S. 

{With a plate.) 

Our Society is indebted to Mr. P. R. M. Leonard for some valuable snakes 
collected at Sinlum Kaba, Burma, Lat. 24" Long, 97 '^ at an elevation of 6,000' 
feet : — These include the following : — 

Typhlops diardi Schlegel. 

One typical mature specimen. 

Cylindrophis rufus (Lam'enti). 

One halfgrown 9 ? Ventrals 202. Subcaudals 5 on the I'ight, 6 on the left 
side ; the 2nd and 3rd entire. 

Tropidonotus parallelus Boulenger. 
An immature specimen 289 mm. (llf inches) long. Ventrals 160. Subcaudals 
83. Maxillary teeth 22 ? Syncranterian, coryphodont. 

Amphiesma himalayana (Gunther). 

Two small specimens, one 292 mm. (11^ mches) and the other 222 mm. (8f 
mches). Both quite typical. 

Trirhinopholis nuchalis Boulenger. 

One specimen 298 mm. (llf inches) long. The tail 28 mm. (1^ inches).. 
Costals 15 in the whole body length. Ventrals 126. Anal entire. 
Subcaudals 21, the 2nd to 7th entire. The loreal is absent. (Possibly confluent 
with the posterior nasal ?) Labials 5, the 3rd only touching the eye. (The 
3rd is long and appears to be a confluence of the normal 3rd and 4th.) The 
nostril is placed equally m both nasals, and occupies the upper three-fourths 
of the suture, so that the generic name is not at all appropriate. Light brown, 
above, most scales fuiely bordered with black, thus producmg a reticulate 
pattern. The belly is pale yellow (white ?) with many, scattered, very small 
blackish spots. The sagittal mark on the nape is conspicuous. 

Zaocys nigromarginatus (Blyth). 

One fine adult. Ventrals 196. Subcaudals 130. 

Coluber leonardi, spec. nov. 

Lenght 279 mm. (11 inches). Tail 41 mm. (If inches). Costals two head- 
lengths behind head 19, midbody 19, two head-lengths before vent 17 ;. 
smooth, with double apical facets. Ventrals 223 ? (damaged). AnaL Divided. 
Subcaudals 53, divided. Rostral. Touches six shields ; the in ternaso -rostral 
sutures longer than the naso-rostral, and naso-labial, half that between the prt^e- 
frontals, less than both taken together. Internasals. Two ; the suture between 
them less than one quarter the intsrnaso-prsefrontals. Prcefrontals. Two ; the 
sutiu-e between them subequal to the iirsefronto-frontals. Frontal. Touches six 
shields, the supraocular sutures rather longest ; length equal to snout, two- 
thirds the parietals. Supraocidars. Equal to the prsefrontal and internasal, 
rather less than the frontal, three -fifths the parietals, rather greater than the 
anterior temporal. Nasals. Touchmg 1st and 2nd supralabials. Nostril wholly 
in the anterior shield, and occupymg the median two-fourths of the suture. 
Loreal. Absent. Prceocular, One. Postoculars. Two. Temporals. 1 + 2 ; 
the anterior touching the 5th and 6th supralabials. Supralabials 7 ; the Svd. 



44 JOURNAL BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

and 4th touching the eye, 6th longest. Posterior sublinguals about three- 
fourths the anterior ; touching the 5th and 6th infralabials. Infralabials 6 ; 
the 6th about three-fourths the length of the posterior sublinguals, and 
subequal to the breadth of those shields ; in contact with two scales behind. 
Maxillary teeth about 20(?) Syncranterian ?, coryphodont. 

Dorsally the prevailmg tmt is a pale brown. The scales are more or less 
finely black-edged, producmg a reticulate effect. The whole back from the 
nape to the taU-tip is crossed with black-edged, buff bars involving three or four 
scales in the length of the snake, the intervals involving two or three scales. 
The bars are dislocated dorso -laterally, and pass to the ventral edges. The 
belly is buff with squarish, black, lateral, irregularly distributed spots (like 
some Oligodon). The tail is buff beneath, with a few small central blackish 
si)ots. The head is buff. A consijicuous well-defined black V, shaped 
like a tuning-fork, has its base on the nape behind the parietals, its arms ex- 
tending to the prsefrontals. A similar well-defined black postocular streak 
meets its fellow over the nape. There is a black subocular spot on the 3rd 
and 4th supralabials, and another similar one on the 6th and 7th passes below 
the gape. There in a black spot at the meeting of the mental, and 1st infra- 
labials, and another on the confines of the 4th and 5th infralabials. 

I associate Mr. Leonard's name with the species, which appears to me very 
close to C. porphyraceus Cantor. 

Oligodon herberli Boulenger. 

A very fine example of this rare snake, described by Mr. Boiilenger in 1905 
has been received, the first representative in our collection, and only the third 
known. It measured 400 mm. (I foot, 3f mches). The costals are 13 in the 
whole body length. Ventrals 208. Anal divided. Subcaudals 38. The ab- 
sence of internasals is a notable feature of this species, and it would appear 
that they have been absorbed into the anterior nasals, for these shields ex- 
tend remarkably on to the top of the snout. The light vertebral stripe in this 
specimen is regularly constricted bilaterally at intervals, to form a chain of 
spindle-shaped beads. The maxillary teeth are dubiously 7 in number. 
These are syncranterian and strongly coryphodont as in other members of the 
genus. There is an edentulous space anterior to the teeth. Mr. Leonard is 
to be congratulated on securing so many interesting rarities. 



45 



BIG GAME SHOOTING OF KASHMIR AND ADJACENT HILL 

PROVINCES. 

By Lt.-Col. a. E. WARD. 

(With two plates.) 

DEER. 

Omitting the chital or spotted deer which is only to be found in His Highness' 
Game Reserve in the Jammu Province, the Kashmir Stag, the Barking Deer 
and the little Musk Deer are the only representatives. 

The Kashmir Stag — Cervus cashmirianus. 

His Highness' Game Reserves, called locally Rukhs, and the introduction of 
Game preservation laws have prevented the total destruction of this grand 
animal. 

At the present time the number of deer is on the increase in the Rukhs ; from 
these there should be a chance of their spreading into the neighboming hills. 
The migration from the Rukhs is handicapped by Game license-holders who in 
the autumn watch for stags in the immediate vicinity of the closed ground, 
and in the winter by poachers who are constantly on the look-out. 

Now if we remember the difficulties experienced in preserving game at home 
over a small area, we can imagine what has to be faced in the case of tens of 
thousand square miles of country. It is useless to imagine that poaching in 
Kashmu' can be stopped. 

Leopards take many deer, both stags and hinds. Bears are always on the 
look out for new born fawns. The Indian martens when hunting in families will 
pull down fawns of six or eight months of age. The destructive agencies at 
work prevent any large increase of the Kashmir stag, hence it is doubtful whether 
there is a larger number than existed say ten years ago. 

In the early daj's of the shooting season it is necessary to visit the birch 
forests, for the big stags are sh}^, they have been driven by the flocks of goats into 
the high mountains and crags and until these flocks come down, the large horns 
are hard to get. Still grand heads are to be got. 

Owing to the kindness of Major Wigram and from perusal of the Rukh 
records, the present list has been made. 

The weight of the horns is really the only true test. A long point on top will 
often give a false idea of the true size. Again some horns are very thin and 
good or bad grazing has much to say. In a favourable season horns are 
heavy, in a dry spring they run smaller. 



) 






Divergency at 












tips. 






In- 


Length of 
horns. 


Girth above 
brow antler. 




Tines. 




dex 






Sportsman. 


No. 






Greatest. 


Tip to 
tip. 






1 


51 i" 


6V' 


4U" 


21" 


6x5 


G. 0. G. Rogers, 
1918. 


2 


50" • 


6h" 


44" 


20" 


7x6 


Game Department, 
1920. 


3 


48" 


6 " 






5x5 


A. E. Ward in Sind 
Valley. 


4 


41 h" 


6" 


50" 


•• 


5x5 


Etherington Smiib, 
1910. 


5 


471" 


61" 


39i" 


22" 


6x6 


P. B. Vandertro, 














1910. 



46 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



In- 
dex 

Ko 



Length of 
horns. 



Girth above 
brow antler. 



Divergency a t 
tips. 



Greatest 



Tip to 
tip. 



Tines. 



Sportsman. 



6 


47'' 
47" 


6r' 
1 


46" 

48" 


29" 
23 


6x7 
6x6 


A. E.Ward in Sind 

Vallev. 
F. L. Edge, 1918. 


8 


47" 


51" 


45" 


28r' 


5x4 


Major Fardell, 1918. 


9 


46 i" 


61" 


45 " 


19^" 


5x5 


Sir HariSingh, 1918. 


10 
11 
12 


my," 

46" 
46" 


6i" 
6" 


36" 

43" 


15" 

17^'' 




Major P. Radclj'ffe, 

1918. 
Miss I\Ianners Smith, 

1917. 
Genl. Bemers, 1920. 


13 


46" 


7" 


50" 






Aziz Khan, Liddar. 


14 


46" 


5|" 


42" 


12" 


6x6 


Sir Hari Singh, 1917. 


15 


46" 


er' 


50" 




6x6 


A. E. Ward, Liddar. 


16 


46" 


6" 


39" 


10' 




H. C. Pallant, 1917. 


17 

18 
19 


46" 
46" 
431' 


6,1" 
6^' 

11" 




•• 


6x5 
6x6 
5x5 


Dachgam Rukh, 

1918. 
A. E. Ward, 1912. 

A E. Ward, 1912. 



The photographs are of two stag heads both under 46, but they are showy 
^jDecimens. 

The Maharaja Kumar of Tikari lately shout two every large heads, the 
measiu-ements are not just now available. 

There is available a long list of horns of 44" in length, some are grand trophies, 
ttey are mostly ten pointers. The last head entered is probably the thickest 
recorded. Barasingh seldom have heavy short horns ; as they pass out of their 
prime the tendency is for the horns to become thin and irregular. 

In the Society's Museum there is a fourteen- point head and its history is as 
follows : Many years ago it was brought together with a second one for sale to 
Kotsu in the Liddar. Aziz Khan, who has a 46" pair of horns (No. 13 in the 
list), said he had shot both the stags. In those days it was lawful to shoot and 
sell horns. From Aziz Khan the head passed into Monsieur Henri Dauvergne's 
possession, and at one time was in the Murree Brewery house at Rawalpindi. 

The shooting season extends from September 15th to March 15th but few 
heads are out of velvet'early in September, and some of the bigger animals drop 
their antlers early in March. 

The local Shikaii is a necessity ; he must know every deer path, every pool 
which is used for soiling or for drinking at. The rutting stag eats little but 
bathes and drinks frequently. It may be that a travelling beast is met with, 
but as a rule it will be necessary to be up early, and wander far before the much 
longed for call is heard. 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Plate i. 




THE KASHiMIR STAG i_CERVUS CASH NUBIAN US). 



BIG GAME saOOTING OF KASHMIR. 47 



Half a century of wanderings after game gives curious instances of sport, 
Once or twice wandering stags have come to their fate, on other occasions faulty 
■arrangements have caused the loss of good trophies. 

On a cold day in October a stag had been tracked for miles. It was wounded in 
the leg, at intervals it laid down. Twice it was blundered upon but did not give 
a chance and at last the tracking had to be given up. About ten o'clock on 
the same day, the time when deer return to the heights, having drunk in the 
streams below, the disappointed si^ortsman was sitting behind a rock when a 
stag called faintly at interval?. Then the sound increased, and eventually 
the fo3t fall could be heard coming nearer and nearer. Through the dense 
forest a royal head appeared and emerged into the open, and the finest twelve 
tine stag obtained during many years' shooting was easily killed. On another 
occasion an old stag came along a foot-path to within ten yards of the rifle 
which was pointing at it, but to slay it would have been unfair. Both these 
chances came about under similar circumstances, that is by waiting on a deer 
path below the cliffs where deer conceal themselves during the day. 

One of the finest ten-point heads was shot by mere chance. Late in the evening 
tliis stag was driven down hill by a messenger returning to the camp, and 
crossed the sportsman who was also going back to his tents. It galloped down 
hill and gave a long but char shot. Luck was good, and although the dead stag 
rolled with great velocity down a grassy slope and fell with a thud into the rocky 
bed of the river below, not the least damage was done to the horns. 

Many tales could be told of successful sport, but it is well to relate failures, 
and the first of these to be told is how a famous fourteen-point stag got off 
Tinshot at ! 

As every one knows, stags fight in the rutting season. Many of these combats 
take place and as the clash of the horns causes a noise which travels far, it is not 
uncommon to have a chance of looking on whilst the stags settle their differences. 

For three days, the fourteen-pointer had been seen, but not in any place 
where a stalk was likely to succeed. On the fourth day two stags were fighting 
not far from the bivouac on a steep slope of grass surrounded by fir trees. The 
two were busily engaged with their horns locked — one was a strong, heavy- 
antlered ten-pointer and the other the fourteen-tined animal. For a time the 
horns were so closely locked, that the big stag could not be recognised. Suddenly 
the fight was susjjended and now came the error of judgment for it was 
imagined that the fourteen-pointer must win, and if the victor, he would give an 
easy shot. 

The stags stood apart almost at the same level, when suddenly the ten-pointer 
managed to get a little advantage on the hill slope, and dashed at his adversary 
hustling him down amongst the trees, and the chance of getting the trophy 
had vanished. Once only in the same jungles has the big headed beast been 
seen, and no one can now say what head of horns he carries, probably his 
prime will soon be over and the horns will be short and thin. 

A very disappointing termination of a stalk took place lately. At the time 
when the 'stalkeress' had reached the game a second stag showed itself and in 
response to an excited shikari's entreaties of " shoot, shoot" the small stag 
was shot, for the" lady" had not seen the big one ! The Kashmir shikari is an 
excitable creature, and has to be restrained. 

This was the last adventure of the big stag, for he was brought to bag by 
another gun on the following day, and proved to be a beauty. 

Up to the last week in October, the advantage is with the sportsman. The stags 
are careless, they are in pursuit of the hinds, and it is even practicable to get them 
to draw near by breaking a dry stick, which they imagine to be the approach of a 
mate or perhaps a rival. Again some of the shikaris can imitate the roar or call, 
but this plan however seldom answers. Of course the hinds are on the alert 



48 JO UliNAL, B 0MB A Y NA TUBAL HIST. SO CIETY, Vol. XX VI 11^ 

■whilst a small stag who is hanging about in the outskirts of the herd may 
give an alarm. Still there is no doubt the rutting season is the easiest time 
in which to get trophies. 

In November the dry leaves cover the ground, the stags have mostly gone 
back to the upland meadows or to the horse-chestnut forests from whence the 
flocks and herds of cattle have departed, and the hunter and the hunted are on 
more even terms. A good pair of antlers obtained in November cause a satis- 
faction which is superior to that obtained by a similar trophy got from a calling. 

stag. 

Tracking in the snow may be undertaken. Some of the heads entered in 
the list were obtained in mid -winter, but it is however very hard work, far too 
strenuous for most men who have been for long at an office desk. The stag as- 
lontras the snow is not above his legs cares little, and plods steadily up hill, but 
however deep the snow may be he gallops down in a long succession of bounds. 

After a most trying climb lasting for hours, a fine stag was suddenly found 
resting under an overhanging rock. He was up and galloping down hill at once, 
but by a fluke he was hit and fell. A big Tibetan dog broke loose and seized 
the stag, as far as could be seen, by the head or ear. The stag jumped up and 
rushed on, and as he bounded was missed and a long follow had no result. 

The only method of having sport in mid-winter is to build a shed, or live in a 
village and from such headquarters to take the chance at game seen in a position- 
favourable for a stalk. Now and again the hunter may manage to get along on 
the surface of the crusted snow which will not carry the heavier animal, but 
this seems to be taking rather a mean advantage. It is under these conditions 
that the leopard gets an innings. Sneaking along and concealing itself as only 
a cat can, it rushes suddenly on its prey. If the deer gets a start it is possible 
but not likely to escape. Such an escajDC was once seen from the verandah of 
a hut in one of the Rukhs, but this was a sight which is witnessed once in a 

life time. 

It is very doubtful whether the call of the Barasingh gives any intimation of 
the age— Kashmir Shikaris say they can teU. In the deer paddocks near Srinagar 
stags of all ages have been kept, and beyond that the low moan, generally 
made when the animal is lying down, comes from an old stag, nothing has been 
learnt. Three-year old and ten-year stags seem to call alike, and all at times 
conclude the roar with a long deep whistUng noise Avhich almost approaches a 
squeal. This squeal is often (without the moaning sound) but not invariably, 
the call of a pricket. 

For the habits and description of the Kashmir deer, also for all the rest of 
the Game animals the reader is requested to wait for the second series of articles 
on 'Natural History.' 

The Barasingh played a curious part in the introduction of trout into the Vale 
of Kashmir. Many years ago an urgent appeal for this deer was sent from 
Europe. Some were required for ' Woburn,' some for Loos, and others with the 
view to improving the Red deer. Mr. Chance came to India on behaK of Mr. 
Jamrach, he delivered the animals in England and had only one casualty, 
which occurred in the docks. 

The deer presented at Woburn were apparently acceptable, for the Duke of 
Bedford kindly sent trout to Kashmir on two occasions. 

In order to capture full grown stags and hinds it is essentially necessary to 
choose suitable ground. A well wooded southern slope under a ridge of hills 
yvith. a pronounced low dip in the range is an ideal place. On the southern 
slopes of the mountains few trees grow, they are covered with grass. 

The herd of deer having been located in the northern woods are slowly driven 
upwards by a few well trained men during the day time when the breeze blows 
upwards, in other words the deer are "given the wind." If not hustled too much 



joiirn., Bombay Na.t. Hist. Soc< 



Plate II. 






THE KASHMIR STAG (CERVUS G ASH MI RI AN US). 



BIG GAME SHOOTING 01 KASHMIR. 49 

they will work their way to the lower part of the range. When close to the top, 
the beaters fire a gun or shout, the herd breaks into a gallop, and dashes wildly 
down the southern side. 1 here in the grass are set long lines of plaited nooses 
made of sound leather and attached to ropes which are in lengths of about 50 
or 60 yards. These ropes are pegged down, but not too strongly. The deer get 
their feet entangled in the nooses, drag up the pegs, and make off Avith a line of 
rope and nooses, but before going far they are pulled up by the bushes, and 
it is then the fun begins for nets have to be employed. Stags are easier than 
hinds to net, for as a rule they lower their heads, and the horns get into the 
meshes, but the hinds use their feet and strike out violently. 

Once in the nets, the hard work is over, a collar with ropes on opposite sides 
is fixed on the neck, and the hinds can be led away. The stags have 
generally to be picketed on the sjDot, otherwse they plunge about and knock 
themselves and their captors out of time. In a day or two the deer will drink 
water in which parched flour has been mixed. They are easily tamed, and 
seldom die. 

Another way, but a laborious one is to catch the fawns before they can run. 
First they are fed on goat's milk squeezed from a sponge, then from a baby's 
bottle, and finally a nanny goat is a foster mother. Most of the deer at Pandra- 
than paddocks were thus reared. In captivity the Hangul breeds freely. 

Barking Deer — Muntiacus vaginalis. 

The Muntjac or Jungli Bakri has a very wide distribution, hence is well 
known to many sportsmen long before they come to Kashmir. 

This small deer is rarely to be met with in the 'Vale'. One came out in a beat 
at Achabal, another Avas found by the State Shikar dogs in a small enclosure 
which was round some rice stalks in the vicinity of Koolgam. Both these had 
probably strayed from the Pir-Panjal for the Barking deer is fairly common 
in the outer ranges. 

The horns obtainable in the hills of Janmiu and Kashmir are smaller than 
those of the United Provinces, rarely exceeding five inches, whilst 6" to 7^" 
are recorded from Gharwal and elsewhere. 

If a specimen is required, it will most likely have to be got in the Jhelum valley 
near or below Chakoti, there the Barking deer was plentiful, but now is scarce. 

The head when artistically set up is pretty, especially when the neck is slightly 
curved. 

The MrsK Deer — Moschus tnoscJdferous. 

The (Roos) of the Kashmiris — " Kastoora " of the United Provinces is more 
harried than is any other animal of the forest. Commerce calls for the musk 
pod and pays highly, hence every winter the shikaris issue out with nets, dogs 
and guns and kill this deer. 

Special laws are supposed to protect the Musk deer, and special license has 
to be obtained from the Game Preservation Department if the sportsman Avishes 
for a specimen in order to complete a collection. 

The male is distinguishable from the female by canine teeth about 2" long 
which show very plainly, but remember it may only be shot under the special 
sanction. 

There are many Musk deer in the Kukhs, some are easily shot whilst driving 
is in progress, but the pursuit of them is not as a rule authorized. 

Recollections go back to the days when many Musk deer were to be seen here 
and there on the Ibex ground, and when a small bore rifle was used to bring 
them to bag and to the kitchen, for the venison is quite good eating. 

Tracking the sharp pointed slot in the snow was interesting, but there the 
sport ended, for the long hair on the skin is very easily broken and will not stand 
wear and tear. 

{To be continued.) 



BO 

THE BUTTERFLIES OF MESOPOTAMIA. 
By H. D. PEfLE, F.E.S. 

(With a plate*.) 

As but little appears to be recorded on the butterflies of Mesopotamia and 
theii- habits, the following notes on some 44 species recently taken there, and on 
some 44 others taken in the adjacent highlands of North West Persia and Kur- 
distan by members of the Society may be of interest to collectors. 

The forms here mentioned include those taken by Major T. D. Broughton, Pv.E., 
Captain P. A. Buxton, R.A.M.C, Major F. C. Fraser, I.M.S., Lieut. -Colonel 
C. H. Watney, LA., by myself and a few others. 

Many of these notes were hastily put together when on Field Service ; 
being now in England I have, through the kind permission of Dr. 0. J. 
Gahan at the British Museum of Natural History, South Kensington, been so 
fortunate as to have had my collection, most of which has now been set up, 
gone through by Capt. N. D. liiley who has found a number of forms t© be 
new, including a very interesting new Lycsena whose males are orange-yellow 
instead of the usual blue. I have also to thank Capt. Riley for permission to 
quote from his notes on my specimens many of which are now incorporated 
in the National Collection. Some specimens were at first identified by 
Lieut.-Col. W. H. Evans, D.S.O., K.E., and by Mr. H. T. G. Watkins whom 
also I have to thank for notes upon variation, races, etc. 

Mesopotamia, situated between the Persian Gulf to the South, the moun- 
tains of Armenia and Persia to the North, East and South East, and deserts 
on the West and South West, may be divided into : — 

1. A plain of river-silt with immense stretches of marsh and desert, ex- 
tending from the Persian Gulf to about 300 feet above sea level, and 
Avith the Euphrates, Tigris and Karun winding through it. 

2. An upland region of undulating sedimentary plateaux, alternating 
with ridges of sandstone, conglomerate and gypsum ; extending from 
about 300 feet to a little over 800 feet elevation, and gently rising 
to meet the foot-hills near the border ; the gypsum often standing 
out conspicuously white in the landscape. In the spring this region 
is a gorgeous carpet of flowers, among the earliest being small mari- 
golds, patches of a mauve stock ; white, blue and several shades of 
purple anemones. Clumps of a large crimson ranunculus and poppies 
make a rich mosaic with various yellow and mauve crucifers ; white 
and yellow marguerites ; blue irises, borage and lupins, and pastures 
gold "with buttercups. Later, sprays of rue, and later still, when 
all these are long over, a lowgrov/ing thistle here makes stretches of 
yellow upon the plateaux. This thistle, common everywhere, here 
makes up with the sharpness of its long needle-like spines for the 
a: most complete absence of stinging nettles both here and in the 
hii^hlands beyond the border: Hquorice, a luxuriant jungle in the 
lower alluvial region, continues as rather a stunted plant up onto the 
plateaux of the highlands. Tamarisk spreads along the margins 
and beds of the rivers. There too and in moist hollows umbellifers 
cover immense areas. The green stems and leaves and white flower- 
clusters of the latest of these {Amm.i visuaga, Lam.) stand out conspi- 
cuously brilliantly, when almost all else has been dried up and with- 
ered by the summer heat. In Macedonia, as remarked by Mr. Mace 
in the Eniom.')lofjist, the same conditions occur. Flowering mint 
along the margins of water-channels attracts large numbers of butter- 
flies both, in Mesopotamia and in the highlands. 



The plat ■ has not been received in time to be included in this number, and will be issued later- 



BUTTERFLIES OF MESOPOTAMIA. 51 



Beyond the border to the North and North East are steep limestone mountain 
ranges rising from about 2,000 feet, as at Paitak at the foot of the Takigerra 
pass in Persia, where in August the satyr — S. parisatis— settles in scores in the 
water-worn holes of the limestone cliff, uj) to plateaux at 5,000 and 6,000 feet, 
such as the Kerind Valley, with peaks of 8,000 feet on either side, or 11,000 feet 
as near Kermanshah. At four to five thousand feet stunted and other 
hill-oaks are found ; and one may come across the silk cocoons of some large 
moth, related to the ' moon moth ', attached at about 5 feet from the ground to 
some thorny bush, about which the crimson and yellow leaves of autumn produce 
a wonderful effect against the grey-blue of the limestone rocks and boulders 
of the hill side. Near the streams in the gorges and beautiful clefts 
through the ranges are walnut, mulberry and other fruit trees, the haunt of 
the magnificent fritillary, A. maia, and of the familiar Purple Hair- streak 
{Zephynis quercus) of England. In the glades many richly coloured blues are 
found, such as Lyavna dama, and C. thersamon, the latter a tailed copper, shot 
with purple. 

Hiimidity. — This in the lower or alluvial region is fairly high from November 
to April, and low from June to September, when in the undulating uplands it 
is very low. 

Temperature. — In both regions January is usually the coldest month, and 
there are frosts at night in the winter. Rareh'-, as in four days in February of 
1920, when the rain was late, there is snow. The mean daily temperature varies 
from about 40° F. in the cold season to about 90" in the Summer. The maximum 
reaches to over 130" in the shade in July in the alluvial region and to 120" or 
more in the higher region in August. 

These conditions would account for so called ' Wet ' season fornis in Feb- 
ruary and October, and extreme Dry forms met with in June in the uplands 
M'hereas in the highlands beyond a comparatively ' Wet ' season form is still 
to be found in July, as instanced by the bath white {daplidice) one of the com- 
monest forms in some parts of Mesopotamia. 

The butterfiy species of Mesopotamia are comparatively few. In the alluvial 
region such as at Amara they probably do not exceed a dozen in number. But 
on the uplands of undulating plateaux and " Jebels," as the low hill ridges 
are called, and on the foothills, some 40 forms occur to my own knowledge. 

On these uplands the earliest broods appear towards the end of January, but 
cold may delay them a month or more, as in 1920 ; and in the Spring, especially 
early in May, with the wonderful profusion of flowers there is a corresponding 
abundance of butterflies, that is of indviduals of some half dozen or so species, P. 
macliaon, Colios croceus ( = edusa) SyncMoe heUmia, etc., being there seen in 
astonishing numbers. But in June the numbers rapidly diminish here, as the 
heat asserts itself, whereas in the highlands in July the abundance of 
lepidoptera is again amazing. The satyrs, Epinephele jurtina and E. lupimis, 
for instance, rise up in fluttering clouds accompanied by numbers of the 
gorgeous "Jersey Tiger" Callimorpha quadripunctata (= /tern), as one 
moves about beneath the trees. In October some new broods appear, but 
not in such numbers as in the Spring. A few, such as the smail cabbage 
white (rapce), bath white {daplidice) and clouded yellow {crocea = edusa), 
continue almost throughout the year. 

In character the butterfly fauna of Mesopotamia, like the flora, which of 
course largely determines it, is much more English than that of the fauna ot 
say, the South of France, and the fact that a large proportion of the forms are 
either the same as or nearly akin to English species at once strikes the collector; 
machaon, for instance, is the only Papilio found below the highlands ; and other 
examples of English forms are rapw, daplidice, croceus ( =^ edusa), pamphilus 
and atalanta ; besides the more widespread brown argus (aslrarche), megara. 



62 JOUJINAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

ticarus, and jlava ( = thaumas) ; and of course the ubiquitous painted lady 
(cardui) and long tailed Blue (boeticus). 

It is noteworthy that although P. machaon, Melitea j)ersea and Euchlos are 
found together on stony ridges as in India, their other associate there, Ypthima 
bolanica, is not represented in Mesopotamia by any of its genus. 

The Editor has asked for Keys and brief descriptions so that collectors 
may recognize their captures. 

A. Forms from Mesopotamia : — 

Danaiu.e. 

1. Danais chri/sippiis, L. 

Satyeid^e. 

2. Pararge viegcera, L. Subsp. iranica, Riley. 

3. Satyrus telephassa, Hb. 

4. „ persephone, Hb. {=antke, O.) f. hanifa. 

5. ,, briseis, L. Subsp. magna. 

6. EpinepheJe lupinus. Costa, ssp. centralis, Riley. 

7. Precis {Junonia) orithya, L. Subsp. here, Lang. 

8. Pyrameis cardtii, L. 

9. „ atalanta, L. 

10. Polygonia egea, Cr. 

11. Melitcea trivia, Suhs]). p>ersea, KoU. 

Papilionid-E. 

12. Papilio machaon, L. Subsp. centralis, Stagr. 

13. Thais cerisyi, Bdv. var. deyrollei, Ob. 

14. Doritis apollimis, Herbst. 

PlERID-E. 

15. B-'lenois mesentina, Cr. 

16. Pieris rapce,'L. Subsp. iranica, LeCerf. 

17. Pontia daplidice, L. 

18. ,, glauconome, Klug. 

19. ,, chloridice, Hb. 

20. Euchloe ausonia, Hb. Subsp. persica, Ver. 

21. „ belemia, E. 

22. „ charlonia, Subsp. transcaspica, Stgr. 

23. Zegris eupheme, E. Subsp. dyala, Peile. 

24. „ ,, Subsp. tigris, Riley, 

25. Colias croceus, Fourc. ( = edusa. Fab.) 
20. Teracolus {=Coloiis) fausta, 01. 

27. Lycmna astrarche. Berg. 

28. ,, icarus, Rott. Subsp. persica, But. 

29. Heodes {Chrysophanus) pMceas, L. 

30. Zizera karsandra, Moore. 

31. „ Otis, Fab. 

32. Chilades galba. Led. 

33. ■ ,, trochilus, Frey. 

34. Lampides {Polyomnmtus) boeticus, L. 
3o. Tarucus theophrastus, Fab. 

30. ,, balcanicus, Fr. areshanus, B. Baker. 



BUTTERFLIES OF MESOPOTAMIA. ,53 

HeSPERIIDxE. 

37. Carcharod,us alcece, E. 

38. Gegene-s >iostrodamus, Fabr. 

39. ,, lefebvrei, Rambur. 

40. Thyvielycus {Ado])ce) lineola, Ochs. 

41. Hesperia geron, Watson. 

42. ,, proto, Esp. 

43. ,, alve-us, Hbn. 

44. Parnara mithias. Fab. 

B. Additional forms from N. W. Persia and Kurdistan : — 

45. Agapetes larissa, Subsp. iranica, Seitz. 

46. Coenonympha pampMlus, L. f. hylas, Esp. 

47. ,, saadi, Koll. 

48. Satyrus peloj)ea. King. 

49. ,, hermione, L. Subsp. sijriaca, Stgr, 

50. ,. circe, F. 

51. „ (Nytha) pa7'isatis, KoW. 

52. Epinephele jurtina, L. Subsp. persim, LeCerf. 

53. „ telmessia, Subsp. kurdistana, Ruhl. 

54. ,, ,, Subsp. palescens, Butler. 

55. ,, mandane, Koll. 

56. Limenitis rivularis, Hcop. {=camiUa, Anctt.) 

57. Argynnis maia, Cr. {^pandora, Schif.) 

58. „ latona, L. {^lathonia, Auctt.) 

59. Melitcea didyma, Subsp. casta, Koll. 

60. Polygonia {Vanessa) " C " album, L. 

61. ,, ,, egea, Subsp. "J" album. 

62. Libythea celfis, Fuess. 

63. Papilio podalirius, L. 

64. Pieris napi, L. pseudorapce, Ver. 

65. ,, ergane, Hbn. 

66. Euchlce gruneri, H.-S. Subsp. armeniaca, Chr. 

67. Oonejiteryx farinosa, Z. 

68. Lycoina dama, Stgr. Subsp. karinda, Riley. 

69. ,, peilei, B. Baker. 

70. ,, damone, Ev. Subsp. damalis, Riley. 

71. ,, admetiis, Stgr. 

72. ,, bellargus, Rott. 

73. ,, baton. Berg. Subsp. clara, Stgr. 

74. Heodes {Chrysophanus^thersamon, Esp. kurdistana, Riley. 

75. „ „ „ Esp. 

76. Cyaniris argiolus, L. 

77. Aphnceus e^yar gyrus, marginallis, Riley. 

78. „ aatmas, Klug. hypargyroSj Butler. 

79. Cigaritis maxima, Staud. 

80. Zephyrus quercus, Dal. longicauda, Riley. 

81. Strymon (Theda) abdominalis, Gerhard, i. gerhardti, Stand. 

82. „ ,, ilicis, E. caudatula, Zell. 

83. ,, ,, marcidus, Riley. 

84. Eogenes alcides, Herr. Schaeff. 

85. Thanaos marloyi, Bov; 

86. Carch(irodus althece, bogficus, Rambur. 

87. Hesperia orbifer hilaris, Staud. 

88. Thanaos tages, L. var. unicolor, Freyer. 

The eight forms named by Riley, one by B. Baker and one by the writer, 
were found to be new. 



54 JOUM^AL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIl. 

DANAIDiE. 

Genus DANAIS, Latr. 
D. chrysippUS, L., Seitz. Vol, 1-28 c. F. Br. Ind. (Bingham), Vol. I, PI. 1. 

Key : TaA\Tiy brown, f.w. with white bar of spots near apex. Terminal 
margin of wings black with white dots. 

The Mesopotamian form is f. chrysippns. 

Seen in small numbers in June and again in Oct., Nov. and December ; fre- 
quents thistles and mint flowers. 

Localities — Basra and Kut-el-Amara, seen occasionally (Major T. D. 
Broughton) ; Kizil Robat ; Khanikin, S. E. Europe, S. Asia, the whole of 
Africa and Malayan and Australian region. 

ab. alcijypoides, M., one example taken at Kizil Robat, Nov. 17th at mint, 
having two-thirds of disc of hindwing white. The writer has not come across 
in Mesopotamia the Asclepias species which is the usual food-plant in India. 

Genus AGAPETEvS, Billb. 
A. larissa, Hb. Subsp. iranica, Seitz. 

Key : An irregular broad discal cream white band across both wings ; basal 
and postdiscal portions of wings black, an oblong black spot in centre of 
forewing. 

Upper side s forewing ground colour, cream white ; basal third mostly black ; 
a sinuous black line across cell, the outer and posterior portion of the cell within 
this line cream white ; an oblong black spot in centre of wing, between veins 
3 and 4, and another black blotch to its inner side anteriorly. Apex black 
with two large spots of the ground colour a submarginal row 7 spots of the 
ground colour one in each interspace and connected with a corresponding sub- 
marginal row of small conical spots. 

Hindwing. — Basal third black except for a bar of the ground colour from its 
centre forwards. A broad angled discal band with indications of two ocelli in 
it posteriorly, a submarginal row of conical cream white spots and black 
marginal line. 

Under s ide i darker cream tinted. Foremng a sinuous black line across middle 
of wing, and two black blotches near jjosterior angle. Hindwing i there are 
indications of three black ocelli posteriorly and of one anteriorly ; and of a row 
of black sagittate markings beyond these. 

This form from the Karind valley in N. W. Persia is fairly normal and 
almost devoid of markings beneath. It is in June and July very 
common at 5,300 ft. By July 13th the great majority of individuals 
seen had the wings very much torn, apparently by the long needle like spines of 
the yellow thistle which it frequents. It is a heavy flier and very easily caught. 
None were seen later than July. The species seen by Lt.-Col. Watney on June 
18th in the Bazian Pass in S. Kurdistan was probably this. 

1 ^, 14 9 9 from the Karind valley, July 13-17, 1918 ; all except 8 9 9 
are now in the British Museum. Capt. N. D. Riley remarks on them as 
follows : — 

" Figured in Seitz PI. 39b as parthica and placed as a race of hylata. Men. 
In his description of hylata Men. expressly states of the wings ' base imma- 
culate ' and from the rest of his description hylata can only be the Taliche 
form of titea. Similarly his teneates is obviously the Taliche form of japygia. 
I am not able to separate iranica except as a race of larissa." 



BUTTERILIES OF MESOPOTAMIA. 60 

Ccenonympha saadi, KoU. 

Harir, lo-K! July, 4 $ . 

Note by Capt. Riley : — " Badly worn, certainly not var. mesopotamica , 
Rnhl. which is a much more faintly and differently marked form. The 
markings approach mesopotamica in these specimens in appearance, mainly 
owing to their worn condition." 

Ccenonympha pamphilus, ssp. hylas, Esp. 
1 $,Suwarra, July 1919. (Capt. Aldworth). 

Genus SATYRUS. 

A. Bands above tvhite . .briseis. 

(Brown tinted forms of $ of briseis may be distinguished 

from the following species by their uniform reddish tinted 
underside) 

B. Bands above brown tinted ., .. .. .. . .hermione, 

(The pale band on the hind wing above is much nearer the 

margin and not central as in briseis). 

C. Bands above taiony. 

a. Band containing white dots. 

a\. Band of f.w. broadly divided at the white dots ; 

underside earth brown pelopea. 

61. Band not broadly divided underside greyish . .telephassa. 

b. Band without white dots persephone. 

S. telephassa, Hb., Seitz. l'43c. (87 examples). 

This grayhng is of a rather dark grey brown ground colour with a subter- 
minal irregular tawny band on both wings, containing in f.w. two black, usually 
white centred, eyespots in interspaces 2 and 5 and between them two white 
dots, and in h.w. 2 minute, but complete spots in interspaces 1 and 2, the white 
centres being more prominent. There is always in f.w. a sharp angle or tooth 
of the ground colour encroaching on the band on its inner side and rarely 
dividing it ; on the h.w. the band does not reach the costa. 

(S with a black and very distinct band or sex-mark in the cell. The 9 
is of course without this and is also a good deal larger. 

Underside of h.w. grey striated with darker, and usually with a fairly 
distinct narrow whitish angled postmedian band. 

Expanse: — J 60 mm. (2 1 in,) $ 70 m.m. (2J in.). Common both in 
Mesopotamia on the Dyala at Kizil Robat and a few by the Tigris at Baiji ; 
N. W. Persia, Harir and Kermanshah common. 

Kizil Robat, March to May ; Khanikin, October ; N. W. Persia, Earind 
Valley, July, August, September ; Buxton notes Qasvin, September, wopi 
females found flying among dessicated plants. 

S. persephone, Hb., Seitz. r42e, Ochs. over 70 specimens. 

Larger and darker than either telephassa or pelopea and the S 6 are shaped 
as § $ and of the same size. 

(5 with band light ochreous, tinted in places with tawny. The eyespots 
Avithout white centres, and the dots absent. The prolongation of the band to 
costa of f.w. from the upper eyespot is narrow and well marked. On the h.w. 
it does not nearly reach tornus. 

$ with the band bright tawny. 

S without sexmark. 



56 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

Underside more boldly marked on both wings than in the other spp. hindwings 
with a white subterminal line as well as a white postmedian band, which is 
bordered inwardly with a black line. Expanse 72 mm. 

Capt. Kiley, having examined .57 of the specimens from Fathah (=Baiji) 
and Ivizil-Robat, remarks: — "All are referable to the form Tianifa, Nordm. 
The typical pure white banded form does not seem to occur ; the majority 
of the females have the bands uniformly rich fulvous, but in 3 females and 
in most of the males they are much broken or almost replaced by pale 
yellowish. It has. been suggested that the dark ochreous and the light 
forms are seasonal. In Kedosand Yezgat in Asia Minor both extremes seem 
to occur at the same time, and the species appears to be single brooded 
as in S. Russia. Col. Peilo's specimens are certainly all of the Spring 
brood and all dark ; it is unfortunate he was unable to secure any of the 
Autumn brood. (As mentioned below, 1 when without a net put up a few 
one evening at Nineveh late in October when at Mosul tor three days only. 
H.D.P.) A further character in addition to the white veining of the 
underside which may serve to separate 8. persephone from 8. enervata in the 
male sex is the great prominence of the black sex-mark of the latter across 
the bases of areas lb (part) to 3." 

Localities : — Mesopotamia — Bank of Dyala at Kizil Robat, April, May 1919, 
32 specimens. Bank of P^. Tigris at Baiji near Fathah. April-May 1920, over 
40 examples. 

In typical j^ersephone the veins of h.w. are white below and the bands above 
often wholly white. 

Lt.-Col. W. H. Evans to whom specimens of persephone from Baiji (on the 
right bank of the Tigris) were sent, remarks in epistola : — " The localities Seitz 
gives are — 

anthe. — Black Sea, S. Russia, Armenia, Afghanistan and Persia. 
enervata. — C. Asia, Altai, Thian Sham and Turkestan. 

The veins underneath in Chitral specimens could hardty be described as 
white. In yours they are just beginning to be so ; so perhaps yours are half 
way to enervata and my Chitral ones (same as C. Asian which I have seen) 
are enervata. Above there seems no difference whatever. In the Spring, 
Chitral ones are tawny, some males being nearly white. In the Autumn they 
were all white, with signs of being tawny. The tawny form is ah. hanifa." 

So far in 1919 and 1920 only the spring brood has been taken, but the writer 
one evening in October 1919 at Nineveh put up some dark graylings probably 
of this species, anthe, Ochs., is from Russia, and always in the type has white 
veins on the underside of h.w., but the form enervata is without these and is 
much more tawny and regarded as separate by Elwes, but placed under anthe 
in Seitz. 

S. pelopea, Klug. Seitz. 1-43 f. 

■ Similar to telephassa but smaller, and the band lighter in colour, ochreous 
or earthy brown, not tawTiy, and always in forewing broadly divided by the 
ground colour below the first eyespot, and in hindwing reaching the costa. 
The sex-mark of the c5" is much more obscure, and the white dots of forewing 
in both sexes more distinct. 

Underside of hindwing more brown than grey and more uniformly marked. 

Expanse. — J 54, 5 66 mm. 

N. Persia : Karind, Harir and Kermanshah, July 16th to September, nineteen 
examples, 5 d, 14 §. 

Capt. Riley notes on these sjiecimens : — " Much nearer typical pelopea from 
Syria than to any of the named forms, persica, schahrudensis, tekkensis. &c., 
the underside not quite so red, more mixed with grey and white, the latter 



BUTTERILIES OF MESOPOTAMIA. 57 

coloui- especially prevalent across the disc of the wing, bordering the zig-zag 
transverse line. 

This whiteness or paleness is the most conspicuous feature of the specimens : 
they are mostly rather worn." 

S. parisatis parisatis, Koll. 

28 specimens from Paitak, the Takigerra pass and Karind Gorge, from 
mid July to mid September; and one ab. from Harir mid July 1918. 
Capt. Eiley notes :—" These all belong to the typical form of the species, 
which was described from P'arsistan, the S. E. end of the mountain system 
which divides the Persian plateau from Mesopotamia and the Persian 
Gulf. It is characterized by l*s generally small size, the somewhat inde- 
finite inner margin of the white marginal border of the forewing and the 
rather strong development of the common white band of the underside. 

The general tone of the underside is very grey and white." 

LeCerf (Ann. d'Hist. Nat. 1913) has overhauled this species excellently 
and set right a great deal of confusion. The only point which still seems to 
need investigation is the locality of his type-specimens of S. parisatis var. 
parcis, which he describes from Nepal (Tola). It is the B. M. forms from 
Upper Kumaun, Kangra, Kalapani near Abb.ittabad, Mandi, Mussoorie, 
Murree and Urni, but not from further East, nor can I find any record of its 
having been obtained further East." 

Common in N. W. Persia from 2,-500 to 6,00C ft. settled in large numbers 
in holes in the side of a limestone cliff, and at water on the road and on 
stones around springs. In the open they had to be approached cautiously, 
but a sweep of the net into the fluttering crowd in a large hole in a rock 
secured about a dozen at once. An aberration taken at Harir, 16th July 
1918, has:— 

Underside transverse fascia absent from forewing replaced by a dusky 
black band on hindvving. 

Localities.—^. W. Persia— Paitak, 2,500 ft. at the foot of the Takigerra 
Pass ; by the Greeco-Persian arch in the pass, August 7-8th ; and the 
Karind valley 5,300 to 6,000 ft. mid July to 19th September 1918 ; Kur- 
distan, Suwarra, July 1919. 

S. circe, L. 

A fine famale, taken by Capt. T. P. Aldworth at Suwarra (5,400) early 
July 1919. 

S. briseis, L., sub-sp. magna, Stgr., Seitz. I. p. 124. 51 specimens. 

d Upperside forewing ground colour sooty brown with a cream white discal 
band broken up into spots by the dark veins. Apical cream patch divided 
by a black spot and the band containing in the third interspace another spot. 
Costa and terminal margin dingy cream ; two dark blotches divided by 
discoidal cell. 

2 differs in being larger, with larger eyespots, and with underside usually 
reddish stone-colour. The hindwing being almost uniformly so. 

2 dimorph {pirata, Hb.) with dull chestnut instead of cream bands, other- 
wise like the normal form of the 2 • 

Very common at 6,000 ft. in N. W. Persia, from about the middle of June 
to end of September. On 27th June 1919 a male in fresh state was taken at 
Kizil Robat in Mesopotamia, the strong wind blowing at the time having pro- 
bably carried it from the direction of the Persian hills. At Suleimanyeh in 
S. Kurdistan a worn male was taken on September 1st, 1919 ; and on September 
21st (1918) a worn female was taken at Harir at 5,800 feet in the Karind valley, 



58 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

N. Persia. These dates give some indication of its time of occurrence. Most 
were taken in shady spots by stone walls, rocks and roots of trees ; where they 
were difficult to detect. When put up they flew only a few yards and we>e 
easily secured by dropping the net over them with the tail of the net held up 
when they invariably rose up into it. 

Localities ; — Mesopotamia : Kizil Robat, the Dyala. N. W. Persia : Karind 
valley 5,300-6,000 ft. S. Kurdistan : Bazian Pass, Suleimanyeh. 

Of 3H specimens examined from the localities above mentioned, 
Capt. Kiley remarks : — " 6 $ are of f. pirata, Esp. All are referable to 
the ssp. magna, Sfcgr. Underside very sand}!. The 1 S from Suleimanyeh 
has white band of forawing so wide that the blind ocellus of forewing 
upperside in area 2 is completely separated from the marginal dark border 
(as in the $)." 

Buxton notes, Qasvin, 16th .July-6th September 1919. 

S. hermione, ssp. syriaca, Stgr. 

1 (5,1 $, Suwarra ; early July 1919, ex. Capt. Aldworth, 

Capt, Riley notes: — "Recorded from Lenkoran (S, E. Transcaucasus) 

by LeCerf. N. Syria nearest locality in B, M. Seitz gives Mesopotamia, 

i.e. (probably) Malatia. 

Genus PARARGE, Hb. 

P. megaera, L., Subsp. iranica, Riley, and variety from Mesopotamia. 

Compared with English specimens, eyespots somewhat larger, both the dusky 
ground colour and the tawny marks are paler in tone, these last also reduced in 
area. The postmedian tawny band of h.w., which is well marked in English 
specimens and sometimes united with the tawny patches surrounding the 
eyespots, almost obsolete. Underside greyer, less brown. 

18 specimens ; Kizil-Ilobat. :2 J J ; 'iord March. 

Karind Gorge, J, 2 9 9 ; Harir 3 S6, 10 9 9, July and August. 
All except o 9 9 now in the British Museum. 

Of these Capt. N. D.Riley remarks :—" Underside of hindwing lighter 
yellowish than in true lyssa, Bois., in that respect agreeing with Herrich- 
Schaeffer's description of megcerina. Herrich-Schaetfer states, however, 
that the upperside of megoirina is that of Hubner's fig. 914, i.e., lyssa. The 
upperside of these specimens is more that of Staudinger's transcuspica, i.e., 
with the much obscured hindwing, but the underside of the hindwing 
is much darker than in that form. The specimens are rather smaller than 
transca.spica and lys.sa in the British Museum. Specimens referred by 
LeCerf to var. megcerina are probably of this race. I can only regard 
megcerina as a form of hjssa with yellower underside to the hindwing. 
The ' differences ' given by Herrich-Schaeffer apply equally well to any 
form of megcera. 

In addition there are in the British Museum 1 c? , 1 2 , from Mungereah 
Mountains, and 1 d , 1 $ from Gulek Taurus, which latter though rather 
larger than the others agree in all other respects. 

One of the 2 males taken by Col. Peile at Kizil-Robat is unusually dark 
on the upperside, the distal yellow spot in area lb of forewing being almost 
entirely obscured by black and the fulvous markings being of a very dark 
shade. The other male taken on the same day is quite normal." 

Capt. P. A.Buxton notes:— "2 d,2 J , 26-30th March, MenziL These 
are not lyssa, they are very bright and red on the i;pperside," 

Lt.-Col. Watney took a $ at Kizil Robat, February 1919, 



BUTTERFLIES OF MESOPOTAMIA. 59 

The dark Mesopotamian examjile was taken about the crest of the ridge of 
the Jebel Kizil Robat about stony hill crests. The $ probably at rather lower 
elevation. Others were taken about the stone walls of vineyards at 
Harir in N. W. Persia. 

iocflZj^ies:— Mesopotamia— Kizil Robat, r^ 2, 2 1- Feb.-March 199i, N. W. 
Persia, Harir, Karind valley, J 1, ? 5, 13th-15th July 1918. 

Genus EPINEPHELE, Hb. 

, E. lupinus, centralis, Riley. 

(5 not unlike jurtma J but smaller, fore wing more sharply pointed at apex 
of a snuff-brown on costa and terminal margin, which shows up the black 
brand more. Ocellus at apex of f. w. often blind. Hindwing more dentate. 
Underside of forewing tawny with grey margins and ocellus at apex small and 
pupilled. Hindwing below grey striated and speckled with darker with 
traces of a darker central band but no eyespots. p ground colour dark-grey 
brown, with the terminal area sharply marked off and containing in f. w. two 
blind eyespots in pale yellow suffused rings. Occurs, but seems to be rare, in 
Mesopotamia, but in N. W. Persia is abundant in company with E. jurtina : at 
Kizil Robat a few males and a female were taken in April and May 1919 on the 
bank of the Dyala and one male on the plateau nearby : and three females by 
the Dyala at the Jebel Hamrin on June 25th in 1918. 

Although the male at first sight somewhat resembles a dull meadow brown, 
the females of the two species are very dissimilar. 

Lupinus sometimes settled on leaves in half shade some 5 or 6 feet from the 
ground. 

Regarding oS specimens from Mesopotamia (11) ; N. W. Persia (Karind 
Valley and Kermanshah (45), and Suleimanyeh (2). Capt. N. D. Riley makes 
the following interesting note: — " Staudiger's description of E, lycaon var. 
intermedia, runs as follows : The almost universally common species 
E. lycaon is a species very variable as to size, nature of hair-scales, 
colour, etc. 

The large examples from S. E. Europe with the forewing more lightly 
covered with long hairs was described long ago as var. lupinus, Costa. In 
the lower lying (hotter) districts of Central Asia and Asia Minor as well as 
in S. Russia (according to Alpheraki) an intermediate form occurs which 
I call intermedia. Specimens are much larger than typical German lycaon 
and almost as densely hairy as the still larger lupinus, but darker and 
mostly with a broader (shorter) androconial stripe (or rather patch) on the 
forewing. Also on the underside of the hindwing they are almost always 
much lighter (more greyish-white) than lycaon, especially examples from 
Samarkand, almost like typical htpinus. 1 have this var. intermedia from 
Samarkand, Margelan ; also one specimen each from Saison and Lepsa 
(presumably taken in other hotter districts) I must include with them. In 
the same way examples from Amaria and Achai Tekka District would be 
best included here, although the Amaria specimens are darker on the 
underside. 

From this typical Staudinger description it at least appears that true 
intermedia is the Samarkhand, Margelan race. Hence Turati's margelanica 
must fall as an absolute synonym of intermedia. In Mesopotamia, Kurdis- 
tan and Western Persia occurs a race somewhat similar to intermedia but 
characterised by its smaller size, greyer appearance (the females particu- 
larly being very dark above, with very little orange as a rule) and the 
greater uniformity of the markings of the underside of the hindwing, the 
banded appearance of intermedia being absent or almost so, in the majority 



60 JOURNAL, BOMBAr NATURAL HJST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIll. 

of specimens. This may be known as ce»<m7is. (Types: B. M. Types No. 
Rh. 16^) (5, 0-r)-19; 170 9, 7-5-19, Kizil-Robat, L. bank of R. Dyala, 
H. D. Peile). Somewhat similar, but characterised by very much darker 
underside to the hindvving, larger size, longer and yellower hair-scales 
occuDjang a more extensive area, is the Asia Minor race [captus, B. M. 
Types No. Rh. 171, d , 1-7-18; 172, 9, 24-6-18, Kedos N. V. L. Rybot). 
This race is very intermediate between luj)inus and ceMtralis in all respects. 
It is also in the B. M. from Brussa, Kilishlar, Gulek and Yazgat and, 
according to Staudinger, occnrs at Amasia. Finally the race from Cyprus 
may be mentioned, it represents the extreme in depth of colouration in 
both sexes above and below, with the only exception of the male of 
mauritanica, Oberth , which is blacker above. The female has, by compari- 
son, an almost sooty appearance above and the yellow markings are of a 
very deep shade (qy^naca, B. M. Types No. Rh. 173, d" , 24-5-09 ; 174, 9, 
9-5-09, Nicosia, Cyprus, J. A. Bucknill)." 

Buxton records " lupinus, Costa, ^ 6th September 1919, 5 18th July 
1919, Qasvin, determined by genitalia, bad specimens." 

E. jurtina, ssp. persica, LeCerf. 

3 (^,14 9 J from Harir and Karind where it is far less common than 
E. lupinus centralis in company with which it is found there. 

Capt. Riley notes : — " All agree with LeCerf's description and figures 
A tendency to reduplicate the apical ocellus of forewing is rather marked." 

E. telmessia kurdistana, RuM. 

Three females from Sideimenyeh, Kurdistan, 31st August and 1st Sep- 
tember 19J9, taken among bushes on the bank of the Kalisan river. 

Smaller than palescens, the female above darker purplish grey, forewing 
with the fulvous area small and turning into a light yellow ring above 
eye-spot. Underside hindwing more uniform light grey, striated with 
darker, and without the well marked broad pale postmedian band of 
palescens. 

E. telmessia palescens, Butler. 

N. W. Persia: Karind Gorge, 13th July 1918, 2 9 ; Paitak, 6th August 
1918, 1 9 ; Harir, 10th August 1918, 1 9- 

Capt. Riley notes : — " LeCerf appears to have overlooked Butler's 
description of E. palescens, as his area's seems to be identical with it. 
Palescens was described from Dizful in N. W. Arabistan." 

In this race the fulvous discal band also extends towards the base, and 
the hindwing beneath have a purplish grey basal half and a broad post- 
median almost w^hitish grey band, and with some yellow markings or 
suflFusion on its inner side. 

E. mandane, KoU. 

2 d", 24 9, Hari, 15th July to 16th August 1918. 

Can be told at a glance by the long blind eye-spot at apex of forewing. 
It has underside similar to davendra, but the white central line of hindwing 
is curved gently, not angled at all. {Wagneri, the race from N. Kurdistan, 
has ground-colour deeper, and the apical spot on forewing shorter.) 

Capt. Riley notes regarding the above specimens : — " Typical mandane as 
described by Kollar from Farsistan, S. W. Persia. 8 9j have an addi- 
tional blind ocellus on forewing in area 2 on upperside, and one of these 
has a furthur supplementary one in area 6." 



BUTTERFLIES OF MESOPOTAMIA. 01 

Common about stony ground and at flowering mint by water at o,300 to 
6,000 ft. in the Karind Valley, N. W. Persia. Among stones in the open 
it is rather wary, but when settled at mint is easily caught. Taken from 
mid July to mid September 1918. There being only 2 males to 24 females 
taken seems to indicate that the season was rather late for this species. 

Limenitis rivularis, Scop. (=camill3, Auctt ; drusilla.) 

Of 9 ^,8? examined, taken in the Karind Valley 5,300-6,000 ft. from 
13th July to 12th August 1918. Capt. Riley notes : — "LeCerf only gives var. 
reduda, Stgr. from Persia. These specimens are by no means referable to 
that form, which is represented in the B. M. by 2 /, from Hadschyabad 
(Haberhauer), 1 ,^, " Caucasus " (Lederer) and 1 c? Derband (Christoph). 
They are not separable from the European form unless perhaps by an 
average reduction of the red mai-kings of the underside." 

In perfect condition in mid July ; common in August, and fond of settling 
on projecting boughs about eight feet from the ground, in a glade, now and 
again sailing about between the trees and often returning to the leaf it 
had left. Many settled on stones by a spring on August 12th at Karind 
Grorge. One taken 9th September at flowering mint, and one seen 19th 
September 1918. Taken also by Capt. Aldvvorth at Suwarra^ Kurdistan, 
July 1919. 

Genus ARGYNNIS, Fab. 

A. maia, Cr. (=pandora, SchifE ) 
Seitz. l-71c. (pandora ) 

This very handsome fritillary is common in the Karind Valley and at Ker- 
manshah in Persia. At 6,000 ft. in a beautiful gorge said by some to be the 
garden of Omar Khayyam, numbers were, in July 1918, sailing about the wal- 
nut-trees and, with the "Jersey Tiger" moth (Callimorpha quadrvpundata 
^=liera) greatly enhanced the beauty of its surroundings. Very common in 
mid-July, it was rather less so in August, and a few only were seen there on 
19th September. 

Both sexes are fond of resting suspended with closed wings on the underside 
of walnut-leaves on the sunny side of the trees. As one strolled 
beneath the trees they sailed away to sjjort with others, three and four 
together in a glade or about the cascades in the gorge below. Within an 
hour twenty in fresh condition were taken settled on the underside of 
leaves. They settled also among the pale green young foliage of apricot trees, 
and at thistles. Pairs were seen mated in mid-July. Males were observed at 
thistles on the open hillside at Kermanshah at the end of August, and Major 
Broughton, who also took it there, found it common in September 1918, in 
gardens flying round willows and fruit-trees. When settled on the underside 
of leaves of walnut and apx'icot, with the sunshine coming through the leaves 
they were very inconspicuous, only the green and silver being visible, particu- 
larly with the wings seen edge-ways from below. A large wild viola grew in 
the glades in the gorge, but no fritillaries were seen about these plants. 

Localities.—^. Persia, Karind Valley 5,300-6,000 feet; Kermanshah. 
Occurs in South Europe and Asia Minor. According to Kirby the larva feeds 
on the wild heartsease. 

The habits of this species in Macedonia are mentioned by Mr. H. Mace in 
the Entomologist, Vol. LIU, p. 64. 



(^2 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

A latuna, L. (=!athonia, Auctt.) 

Buxton notes having taken it at Menzil, 2,000 ft., 30th March 1919, 
common but worn. 

Genus MELIT^EA, Fab. 

M. trivia, Sehitf., Sub-sp. persea, Koll. Seitz. 1, 66d. 

In the Brit. Mus. and by Lt.-Col. W. H. Evans, this form is classed under 
trivia, Schiff., but Lt.-Col. Bingham (F. Br. Ind. Butt. Vol. 1. p. 453), described 
it as a race of didyma, Esper. trivia and didi)ma, like all forms of Melitea, vary 
greatly and are both widespread. 

Key : Bright tawny with scalloped black marginal band and small black 
spots above. 

Underside apex of f.w. cream dotted with black, hindwing cream-white 
with broken curved bands of tawny and small black spots, the terminations 
of veins prominently black. Female, larger than male and hindwing beneath 
more cream tinted. 

Usually rather scarce where it is found, though in March rai'ely one may 
secure a dozen in a morning. The dry-season or June -July brood is apt to 
be scarcer in collections than the other owing to the excessive heat, the 
forbidding region where it occurs preventing much collecting. For these little 
butterflies seem to delight in the hottest sunshine, with a temperature even in 
the shade of 120" F. ; and the males being very small are particularly difficult 
to follow with tlie eye in the glare and with perspiration streaming over one's 
eyelids. Indeed with a prospect of getting possibly a few little Melitea, 
or very likely none, for one's trouble, the collector needs to be an enthusiast 
to go out into the heat and glare on these stony hills in June or July. These 
butterflies must no doubt find dew or flowers of some sort on these seemingly 
bare hills where they can renew the moisture of their small bodies in this 
awful heat, where almost their only companions seem to be the large spiny- 
tailed lizards {Uromastix loricatus). 

The habits of Persea here are like those of the race on the N. W. Frontier 
of India on the Jebels or low hills at 400 to 600 feet elevation in Mespotamia, 
the males settle on the stony ground at the crests of the ridges, now and again 
rising to sport with some passing butterfly, and again settling with wings 
spread to the sunshine. 

Usually when put up they soon settle again near the same spot. Being 
small they are not very easily seen when settled ; so on coming up to a 
hill-crest it is best to watch the sky-line when a Melitea may be seen 
to rise up to meet some rival and settle again on the ground, where the net with 
tail and held up may be dropped over it. If the end of the net is not held up 
the butterfly is apt to damage its wings against the stones. Females are mvich 
the rarer end may be met with unexpectedly : perhaps settled on the ground 
near a camp, or at a flower. Freshly emerged examples were taken on 16th 
March 1919 ; on 21st May worn specimens only were taken. The previous 
year some in fresh condition were taken on 27th June. 

An autumn brood, such as occurs on the N. W. F. of India, is probable also 
in Mesopotamia. Females were seen flying along the sides of stony ridges without 
settling, while the males kept often settling, about the crests both in Meso- 
potamia and on the North West Frontier of India, where too a mated pair were 
taken settled on the ground of the summit Avith a second male hovering about 
them. So these stony hill-crests would appear to be their mating places, ths 
males waiting there to waylay the females as they come by. Lt.-Col. 
Watney took this Sp. at Baghdad far from any hills on April 19th, 1919. A 
pale form var robertsi, Butt., also occurs on the N. W. F. of India. 



B U T TERFLl ES OF MEtSOP TA MIA . 63 

Localities : — Jebel, Kizil Robat, on Dyala, 16th March to 9th April, 21st May 
1919. Jebel Hamrin, Dyala, 27th June 1918. At Fathah on Tigris, 11th April, 
19th June 1920. Baghdad, 19 th April 1919. 

N. W. Persia; Karind valley. August 1918, occurs also on N. W. Frontier 
of India and Afghanistan. 

Spring Brood .-—Kizil Robat, 16th March to 3rd April, 32 c? , 3 9 ; 
Fathah, nth April. 

Summer Brood. — Fathah, right bank of Tigris, 17th June 1920 ; Jebel 
Hamrin, bank of Dyala, 27-28th June 1918. 

Capt. Riley notes: — "The summer brood is constantly smaller, much 
lighter and sandier, the black markings very much reduced in size and 
depth, above and below." 

M. didyma. casta, Koll. 

Harir, 9th August ISjlS, 1 J ; 12th August 1918, 1 ?. 

Capt. Riley's note continues : — "Taking Kollar's descriptions of casta and 
persea in conjunction it appears very obvious, especially as he also records M. 
phoebe, that one must refer to the Persian race of didyma, the other to that 
of trivia. And, from p,n examinq,tion of the series of both species from 
Mesopotamia and Persia in the B. M., I am convinced that, contrary to the 
general xisage, persea represents the race of trivia and casta that of didyyna. 

I give below a translation of Kollar's description (Deustch. Akad. Wissen. 
Wien, I, p. 50, 1850). A character I have found of use in separating these 
two species is the position of the black marks in areas 2 and 8 of the 
hindwing underside, between the orange bands. These markings are 
generally, in each area, three in number, and in trivia the middle one is 
nearer the distal one ; in didyma nearer the proximal one." " 

Kollar Deut. K. K. Akad. Wissen Wien, I, p. 50, 1850, 

Melitcea casta — Wings above fulvous, the costal strigte of forewings and 
a broad submarginal fascia common to both wings and the margin itself 
black ; hindwings pale yellowish, with two very pale fulvous bands, the 
broad stripes and the series of black marginal spots less distinct 
Exp. 15'"-17'". 

Next to 31. didyma, from which, however, it differs most in that the 
wings above have fewer black bands and spots, and that the bands of the 
underside of the hindwing have almost disappeared. 

Melitcea persea — Wing above fulvous ; forewings with three black macular 
bands, hindwings with two ; below, the apex of the former and the whole 
of the latter pale yellow ; the macular bands of the forewings (below) 
conforming with those of upper surface, the hindwings with two pale 
fulvous bands and black lunules and spots. Exp. alar. 17.'" 

Similar to the preceding but the markings of hindwings on the underside, 
which is casta in very similar to didyma ; in this manifestly differs and 
comes closer to M. didyma (sic !, 'i some other species intended) from which, 
however, it ought to be separated owing to the failure of the black spots 
especially at the bases of the wings. 

persea must be trivia, ssp. 
costa ,, ,, didyma, ssp. 

Genus JUNONIA (Precis). 
J. orithya, L., Seitz. 1.62b. ssp. here, Lang. 

Key : Bases black, outwardly broad bright blue, with a white apical bar 
on the forewing. There are two red ocelli on each wing near the margin. 
Common near Basra and Shaiba ; scarce at Kut (Major Broughton, R.E.). 



64 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

Baghdad, Octobei-, several taken ; Babylon, January ; Amara, May ; Baiji 
near Fathah, in June ; Khanikin, October. 

Buxton took this at Amara in May, July, September, October and November. 
Baghdad, 31st October 19i^0— 5th November 1920, 1 (^, 6 $ . 

Key to the fonns of Pyrameis, &c. 

A. Upp. f.w. apex black with white spots. 

a. Vermilion band across both wings. P. atalanta. 

h. Upperside hindwing, terminal half sallow yellow . . P. cardni. 

B. A conspicuous small white L. shaped mark on underside 

of hindwing . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygonia egea. 

C. A large conspicuous white C. on U. h. w. .. .. . .P. c-album. 

Genus PERAMEIS, Hb. 

P. atalanta, L., Seitz. 1. 62c. 

The " Red Admiral." 

Black velvety ground A\ath transverse bands of dark vermilion on f.w. and on 
hindwing an outer marginal band of same enclosing four black spots. Apex 
of f.w. velvety black with one large white spot and five smaller ones. H. w. 
with a small double blue spot at tornus. Underside of f.w. as above, but bands 
pale, parallel and f oUo-n^d by some bluish markings. The apex stone-coloured ; 
of h.w. richly mai'ked with dark and light brown, bluish and stone colour. 

A few taken at Kizil Robat on the Dyala in November 1918 at mint flowers 
• and hibernated specimens in March. Mosul " 3 or 4, all a very small variety " 
(Capt. Aldworth). 

Localities ; — Mesopotamia — Kizil Robat, Mosul. Throughout Europe, N. 
Africa, W. Asia, N. America, Hamarin Isles. As with other migratory butter- 
flies, it varies little geographically. 

P. cardui, Lin., Seitz. 1. 62d. 

Larva. Blackish brown, with a longitudinal pale interrupted line on each 
side. The segments armed with short branched spines. Feeds on thistles 
and Artemisia. Pupa " tuberculate : head bluntly cleft, pale ochraceous or 
brown, more or less spotted with yellow." 

Abundant in Mesopotamia, esi^ecially in April. Basra abundant, Sheik 
Saad, common in April 1917, disappearing during hot weather (Major T. D. 
Broughton, R.E.). Amara, May 1918. Kizil Robat on R. Dyala 1919. 
January 20th and Feb. 19th common ; March 6th in thousands at flowers, rather 
worn ; April 4th a fresh brood appearing : 10th abundant, many flying West : 
19th abundant both battered old ones and a handsome bright new brood ; May 
10th larva found on leaf of small thistle, pupated, imago emerged May 22nd" 
Khanikin, Sept.-Oct., both old and new broods. Baiji on right bank of Tigris, 
common in worn states in March 1920 ; fresh bright ones later. 

S. Kurdistan. Svileimanyeh, Sept. 1st. Jujar Nov. 22nd, a few seen. 

This -butterfly is widespread about the world. 

Genus POLYGONIA. 

P. egea, Cr. Seitz., Vol. I , p. 1, 64 c. 

Pale golden fulvous white marginal row of j^ellow spots above. Small white 
L shaped mark on underside of hindwing. 



BUTTERFLIES 01 MESOPOTAMIA. 65 

f. egea. 

5 ^, Karind Gorge, 13-17th July, 12th August 1918. 

1 9, Mosul, 24th April 1919 (ex. Aldworth). 
Tak3ii on walls and rock facing the sun, about 1 p.m. 

f. J, album. 

2 $, Karind Gorge, 14-I7th July 1918. 
Capt. Riley remarks on these as follows : — 

"The two forms are very distinct. It will be noticed that on 17th 
July 1918 both forms were caught flying together." 

It may be of interest here to publish a note on the Central Asiatic forms 
of this genus which was made by M. Andre Avinoff whilst on a visit to the 
(British) museum shortly before the war. He says: " Polygonia egea 
{triangulum) is found in Europe ; in the South, from Caucasus it begins to 
get darker and generally runs into the form of Central Asia. It is not 
the interposita of Sfcaudinger, as the interposita is the C. album form with 
some character of egea (I saw the type and studied the form by the Turkis- 
tan material). Grum-Grshmailo gave the naiiie undina (Rom. Mem. IV., 
p. 424) to the egaa of Turkistan but he was not quite right on the distri- 
bution (all he says about Osh and Margelan). In reality undiiia goes to 
Chitral by Bokhara and flies together with interposita. The series of the 
British Museum contain both species {egea does not go on the South), 
interposita is darker in Chitral, Goorais, Thundiani (cognata) and brighter 
and less dark in the South Himalaya (Nepal, Sikkim to Ta-tsien-lu) (where 
it is) the agyiicula {^=tibetana, Elwes). The interposita is very near to 
C. album, but it may be a distinct species." A. Avinoff'. 

From this and the series in the B. M., and in fact from Stauclinger's 
original description* it is evident that interpositi has nothing to do with 
egea but is a good species or the central asiatic race of C. album. What 
has generally been known as interposita must in future go by the name 
undina, Gr. Gr. 

" Vanessa (iJrapta) C. album var. interponta, Stgr. B'our specimens received from 
Ala Tan necessitate my setting up a var. interposita, to which I now add also the 
spscimea from the Saigon District and one from the Altai District (Ustkameno- 
gorsk). The specimens have above as dark an outer marginal area as the North 
American form faunus, which name Strscker simply places as a synonym ol: 
ly. flZiitJH; which name, however, in spite of the presence of intermediates,' might 
very well be maintained for this nearctic form. The underside of this central 
asiatic var. interposita resembles more the ab. (var. ?) /. album of egea, Cr. with the 
dark underside tor which I at lirst took it. The C-mark especially is never so 
completely round or large as always in typical C. rtZ6;«7i, but forms a somewhat 
blunt angle as in egea or even only -streak slightly bent below. Cert;iinly this 
(mark) also varies in C. album and in all other Grapta species. In the North 
American faunus it is almost as bent as in C. album. Egea ab. J. album is 
ho vever on the uider^ide much more longitudinally streaked and above has never 
such a dark outer margin as has interposita. The G. album which are dark below 
are mostly brighter and in particular are vithout the brighter outer margin such 
as interposita shows. On this account these cannot either be referred to var. 
faunus f^W of which have a broader outer margin above, especially to the hind- 
wing. Since examples from Kashmir and India also have this, and also in the 
males the very round C-mark (the females have mostly only a dash) I refer them 
VAi\\f.v to faunus than to interposita. Two males from Vlargelan are very peculiar, 
one of them agrees completely with interposita, the other is above almost exactly 
as light as egea ab. /. album. Also bjlow it (the latter) agrees almost completely 
wth it in all respects and al-o the other specimen is just as much longitudinally 
streaked; the G-m'trk is reduced to a dash. These two examples belong more 
io egea V[:S.n io C . album ; but I ref ?r ihem both to interpostia. Unfortunately 
I have no C. album from Amur or Japan before me.'''' 

* Staudinger. Stell. EnU Zell. 1881, p. 386. " 

9 



66 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVlll. 

My own impression is that it is a good species. It is very much like 
agnicula, Moore, but has hind margin of the hindwing very broadly black, 
enclosing, usually, five very small pale spotS' — in a^mcwZa these pale spots 
form a band — and the underside is somewhat, especially in the female, 
reminiscent of egea. The fact that with it in various parts of Kashmir 
cognata flies at the same time, and that cognata is pretty obviously a race 
of C. album, tends to support this view. Intergrades to agnicula occur, but 
not to cog)iata. The position in the Himalayas seems to be that there are 
three species, viz. : — 

1. P. egea undina, Gr. Gr. Chitral, Hunza. 

2. P. C. album cognata, Moore, Thundiani : Kulu ; Nandar ; Simla 
Champur. 

3. P. interposita interposita, Stgr. Chitral ; Ladakh ; Kylang ; Kulu 
Gervais ; Pungi Dugi ; Goolmerg ; Gurwhal. 

P. interposita agnicula, Moore, {^tibetana Elwes) Nepal ; Sikkim 
Tibet to Ta-sieu-lu and Washan. 

It may be well here to correct an error in Seitz. Macrolep, I., p. 208 
with regard to the Japanese forms : — 

Fentoni is not a synonym of hamigera. It is the older name for the form 
with the light brown underside ; hamigera being based on a specimen of the 
form with slightly narrower fore wings and more melanic upperside, an 
extreme of the form in fact". 

P. C. album, L. f. hutchisonni, Robson. 
I 2, Karind Gorge, 12th August 1918. 

Genus LIBYTHEA.. 
L. celtis, Esp. 

1 9 J Karind Gorge, 16th July 1918, taken at small tree ; another seen. 
Underside coloration of hindwing more uniformly grey than in European 
specimens ; more like some Chitral specimens. 



PAPILIONID^. 

Genus 1— PAPILIO. 

Key. a. Hindwing. — No central dark band ; a post-discal broad 
black band dusted with blue. Large 
terra- cotta- red and blue tornal spot. 
Ground colour bright yellow. machaon. 

h. Hindwing. — Two black bands traversing hindwing cen- 
trally. Ground colour yellowish white, podalirius. 

P. machaon, L., ssp. centralis, Stgr. 

19 (5, 22 2 examined. 

Capt. Riley notes : — "A variable series, but not separable from centralis, 
Stgr. On the whole the specimens are very pale in colojr, more especially 
the bred specimens." 

Expanse. — 3-7 inches. 

machaon in Mesopotamia averages larger than type and than the race from 
Mussoorie in the Western Himalayas, though perhaps not so large as some 
found in Sikkim. 



BUTTERFLIES OF MESOPOTAMIA. 67 



Mesopotamia provides at least five food plants of machaon, three of 
them in great abundance, so that, with the vast extent of swamp in places 
somewhat like the Norfolk broads, and of plateaux, it is found commonly from 
near sea level by the rivers, to the highlands across the northern border. In early 
spring it is fond of cruising around the crests of stony hills or " jebels " and of 
settling at flowers or on the ground there. But it is most plentiful in May, 
about the banks and beds of the rivers and on the neighbouring plateaux where 
its food-plants abound. In April and May a low growing deep-yellow flowered 
rue is common on the table land at about 400 ft. elevation, the plant consisting 
mostly of the flower-sprays which grow to about a foot in height, each plant 
separately, but in groups forming yellow patches on the plateau. This plant 
was identified at Kew as Euta tuberculata, Linne. The whole plant has an un- 
pleasant smell, and, when picked or handled, leaves as intensely bitter sub- 
stance on the fingers. It occurs less plentifully on the banks of the rivers. 
Larvse were most easily to be found by searching plants growing at the margin 
of old trenches. They were conspicuous and, as with all Papilio larvse, extruded 
the orange-coloured osmeterium emitting a strong ' Tom-cat ' like odour when 
disturbed. The larvse fed on the flowers. As this plant began to go to seed, 
an iimbellifer, Ammi majus, Linne, came into flower ; and on this eggs were 
laid by machaon singly on flower buds at the margin of young flower-clusters. 
This plant was common about moist patches and in hollows ; and when young, 
is very slender, so that one saw a machaon repeatedly hovering about what 
at first appeared to be a grass-stem but on closer inspection proved to be an 
umbellifer. As this plant began to go to seed, another — identified at Kew as 
Ducrosia anethifoHa, D. C. — which seemed to be local and not common, came 
into flower on the banks of the Dyala ; the leaves being rather stiff and a little 
like split miniature palm-leaves. The whole plant is a yellowish green, flowers 
paler, and all parts having an aromatic parsley or carrotlike smell. It grows 
in clumps and singly about conglomerate rock. 

Two larvse only were found on this, both having remarkably white bands 
instead of yellowish or green ones, so that they were very conspicuous. While 
A. majus and this last mentioned plant were going over, a fourth food-plant, 
Ammi visnaga, Lam., had grown up among the first, especially in moist hollows 
on the banks and in the bed of the rivers and old canals. It is thick- 
stemmed, very erect, leaves made up of long filamentous branchings, the 
whole plant except the flowers being conspicuously deep green with compact 
umbrella like clusters of white flowers set more closely and uniformly together 
than those of A. majus ; the pedicels being evenly arranged like numerous 
wires from the stem or stick of the umbrella. 

This plant continued in abundance and conspicuously green when in the middle 
of June A. majus and others had mostly withered to dry sticks. The larvse 
fed on the flowers of all these food plants and scarcely ever on the leaves 
though Lt. -Col. W. H. Evans informs me that atMurreehe has hred machaon 
" on fennel-leaves not flowers." 

Three of these food-plants grow in great abundance by the Dyala at about 
400 feet elevation, where 34 larvse almost full grown were easily obtained on 
Ruta tuberculata within an hour. The extensive grass-fires which occur on 
these plateaux in the hot months must destroy vast numbers of eggs, larvse 
and pupse of butterflies and moths. 

A fifth food-plant an umbellifer, Fosniculum vulgare, Gserta, was noted on 
May 2nd, 1920, at Baiji, having with its clusters of orange yellow flowers some 
general resemblance to rue. On some of these, near which a bleached machaon 
was seen, eggs of machaon were found laid singly, some on the lower and outer- 
side of the pedicels of the flowers ; some about the middle, others close 
up below the florets, and one on a filament of a leaf arising by a flower-cluster. 
The eggs were semi-opaque pale green and mostly with a broad reddish brown 



08 JO URNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

band ; spherical in shape, except where attached, and the surface seen under 
the microscope was only slightly rough. On 7th May a spiny black larva, with 
dull white medial patch and black head, hatched probably the previous day 
from one of the same batch of eggs was found on a floret of this plant. Moulted 
10th May, becoming greenish white spotted -with black with some lateral oiange 
spots and slight spines, which were black except on segments 7 and 8, which 
still remained white. At this stage the larva was much less orange than those 
found at Kizil Robat the previous year. 

On 12th May it again cast its skin becoming greenish white, banded transver- 
sely on each segment with orange and black spots, and with black interseg- 
mental bands. It eventually reached full size being greenish white with trans- 
verse black band and orange spots. Towards the end it fed on the young seeds ; 
on 19th May when wandering to pupate it fell into some water where it was 
found motionless and limp, apparently' dead ; but after being placed in the sun 
for about an hour it slowly revived, and pupated on 21st May, becoming a 
pale stone-brown pupa, but it died in this stage. 

A i^air Avere observed in copula on May 31st, one bright yellow, the other 
much paler and slightly smaller ; the former was doing the flying. On the 
same date females were seen ovipositing, some on A. majus and others on A. 
visnaga, the two being m flower at the same spot. The egg, nearly round and 
like a shining semi-opaque pale-green bead, was laid at the base of a floret or on 
the leaflet by the side of a floret. The eggs were remarkably easily detached 
accidentally, as on handling the plant. On the same date, May 31st, eggs and 
larviTB in almost all stages were found on both Ammi majus and A. visyiaga ; and 
one larva on a spray of Ruta hibercvJata growing there and still in flower. 

The larva3 on the yellow-flowered rue had yellowish-green bands ; the two 
onD. anethi folia had pure white bands as before mentioned and a few found on 
A. 7najiis and A. visnaga on 31st May had very pale, nearly white, bands on 
each segment. 

At Kizil Robat the very young larva was orange brown with a white portion 
medially. In early stages it has spine-like tubercles, which disappear later ; 
and about the third moult the white median portion gives jilace to the orange- 
spotted black bands on the ground-colour as in other segments. The orange 
spots on these bands are of vivid colour. 

When very small the larvae lie along the stems of the pedicels of florets 
when at rest, but at all stages are fairly easily seen. 

Larvae were easily reared on sprays of R. tuberculata placed in bottles, the 
sprays and water being renewed twice daily. The escape of a few restless 
larvae about to. pupate warned one to put the larger larvae together on sprays in 
one bottle with an old butterfly net placed over the sprays and larvae and tied 
around the neck of the bottle ; then any larvae showing signs of diarrhoea or 
wandering could be detected and transferred each to an inverted glass tumbler 
in which a stem had been placed slantways ; and on this the larvae usually 
readily pupated, at first resting head upwards then turning head down while 
making the tail-pad of silk and again turning head ujiwards to make the body- 
girdle and to complete pupation, the larval skin being very rapidly thrown off 
after the moment of the first split in it being made. The pupating larva having 
m.ade its silk pad and girdle, the stem to which it was attached was then removed 
from the tumbler and placed with others around a cork in a bottle to await the 
emergence of the butterfly in from ten to fifteen days time in the warm weather 
of May. 

Pupae varied in colour from grass-green studded with bright yellow tubercles 
of exactly the same shade as the flower-buds of the rue, these mostly producing 
females, to stone colour and some darkly marked brown, males generally emerging 
from these last. 

Of four larvae which temporarily escaped, one became a dust-coloured pupa 
ca the rope lacing of the tent ; a second turned to a green pupa at the side of 



BUTTERFLIES 01 MESOPOTAMIA. 69 

the back of a camp chair, matching exactly the colour of the Willesden-canvas 
to which it was attached. A day or so before the writer had noticed on leaning 
back in the chair the strong smell usually emitted by a machaon larva on being 
disturbed, but, on looking for it, did not see it then ; a third pupated on a wood- 
en box, here again matching the colour of the wood ; while the fourth, on the 
camp-bed being set up again, after having been folded up in its case and moved 
with other kit on a cart from the last camp, was found attached undamaged 
to the iron cross-piece of the bed. 

Circumstances prevented the completion of experiments with A. majiis aad 
A. visjiaga, and the larvae on these had to be liberated. The emergence from the 
pupa and wonderful, rapid, expansion of its wings was an ever-fascinating 
process to watch. It took place often about 5 a.m. (in June) and emergence 
was so rapid that one rarely witnessed the formation of the first crack in the 
pupa-case. 

A small black parasitic fly infests this species, scores of its pupse being found 
in each of several pupse found in the open attached to plants, whereas very 
few pupse reared from larvse taken nearly fully grown were thus infested. 
One pupa was found on the stem of A. majus about three feet above the ground ; 
another on the stem of a yellow composite flower scented like lavender. 
To capture the free butterfly the net should be dropped over it as it is settled 
or hovering, the tail of the net being held up, as a side sweep is very apt to 
damage the wings or tails, especially among the sharp-spined yellow thistles 
so attractive to butterflies. Like all swallow-tails it is very apt to damage 
itself in the net if not quickly killed. 

machaon was often to be found in the spring at the top of stony hill-crests 
and, when first put up, usually cruised around for a bit but settled eventually 
at a flower or on the bare ground in the sunshine at the highest spot, to be 
secured by dropping the net over it after a cautious approach. As mentioned 
before, it is often found associated with Melitcea didyma and a SyncJdoe belemia 
or EucMoe on the hill tops — Melitcea settled on the ground and Synchlce merely 
hurrying past. In May it is remarkably common on the banks of the Dyala and 
many may be taken in a short time especially between 9 and 10 in the morning. 
But the best specimens are of course obtained by rearing from the larvse, the 
largest larva3 being taken to ensure early pupation. On the banlis of the Dyala 
at the end of May many of these butterflies are worn and bleached. 

Localities : — ^Kut-el-Amara : Kotamiyeh forest near Azizieh (Major Broughton) ; 
Baghdad and Mosul (Lt.-Col. Watney) ; Kizil Robat by the Dyala, Baiji and 
up to 6,000 feet at Karind in N. W. Persia. 

The following notes regarding larvae and periods of pupal stage may be of 
interest. Many more larvae pupated and emergence duly took place, but 
date of pupation was not always noted. 

Larvae were common on April 15th, and one was found on June 23rd. 

The dates of pupation and emergence were noted in the following instances : ■ 



Pupated. 


Emerged. 


Period in days. 


Sex. 


April 


18 


April 


28 


10 


6 


,, 


21 


May 


1 


10 


2 


»j 


22 


>> 


2 


10 


6 


,, 


23 


j> 


5 


12 


2 


>> 


23 


„ 


5 


12 


6 


)j 


24 


,, 


6 


12 


? 


jj 


24 


,, 


8 


14 


6 


5> 


25 


,. 


9 


14 


2 


!> 


27 


55 


10 


13 


2 


May 


22 


,, 


31 


9 


2 


,, 


22 


June 


1 


10 


c? 


■., 


27 


j» 


6 


10 


9 



70 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII, 

P. podalirius, L. Seitz. Vol. 1*7 c. 

Much paler yellow than machaon. 2 black bands from costa to dorsum of 
f orewing. 1 black band trave sing hind-wing centrally to anal eyespot : tail 
long and straight continuation of hindwing. 

Two specimens of this were taken by Capt. Aldworth and Capt. Marshall at 
5,000 ft. at Suwarra above Mosul in the first half of July. 

The fact that oak, plum and other fruit-trees are food -plants of this butterfly 
explain its being found in the hills and not on the plain. 

The larva is thick, narrowed posteriorly, green with many dark spots and 
obhque yellow lateral lines. 

P. alexanor, E. Seitz. Vol. 1.7a is likely to occur in the highlands. It has 
a continuous yellow marginal band on forewing, a distinct black elongated 
discoidal spot on hindmng and the antennae tipped with yellow. 

Kane says its food-plants are " Seseli montanum and other umbellifers." 

Gentjs 2.— THAIS, Hb. 

T. cerisyi, Bdv. Sub.-sp. deyrollei, 01. Seitz. Vol. 1. 9d. 

Key : Hindwing, interrupted dentations along terminal margin, three 
on each h.w. lengthened into tails. 

Antennse short. 

Vpperside : — f. wing : — ground colour very pale yellow with broad black 
patches along costa ; dark shadings at apex and terminal margin. 
fc? Hindiving : — Interrupted dentation along terminal margin, and three on each 
wing lengthened into tails. A median series of small red spots and one larger 
costal one ringed with black. 

Expanse : — just over 2 inches. 

One, of large numbers seen migrating over open ground at Mosul at end of 
April or early May, was taken by Capt. T. Aldworth, and sent to the British 
Museum of Nat. History and there identified as this race of T. cerisyi 
" having 3 fairly well developed tails to each hindwing," one recorded also 
from Tekrit by Stoneham. 

The larva is stout, dark, but varying much in colour, with numerous tuber- 
cles as in machaon, and 4 broad yellow longitudinal lines ; food-plant Aristolochia. 

Genus 3.— DORITIS, Fabr. 

D. apollinus, Herbst, Seitz. I- 10c. 

On the forewing rather densely pencilled transversely on a grey ground, the 
d' being occasionally marked with a little red ; hindwing chalky white in fresh 
specimens, yellowish in worn ones, the dark border bearing reddish spots centred 
•Hith blue. 5 darker, stouter, pencilled also on the hindwing, here and there 
irrorated with red. Western and South Western districts of Asia Minor, transi- 
tional forms also in Syria and Mesopotamia. 

Two specimens were sent to the Society, taken by Lieut.-Col. Watney about 
25 miles N. E, of Mosul at 1,000 feet where they were fairly common in fields 
in AprU 1920. 

(To be continued.) 



71 



THREE NEW ALPINE ORTHOPTERA FROM 
CENTRAL ASIA. 

By 
B. P. UVAROV, F.E.S. 

That the en tii'ely unexplored Alpme Orthopteran fauna of the great mountain- 
ous systems of the Central Asia (Kashmir, Tibet, etc.), includes i;)jiany unknown 
and even unexpected forms, is evidenced by the fact of my discovery of three 
very peculiar new genera and species of these insects in the British Museum 
collection Avhere the Central Asiatic Orthoptera are represented by only a few 
casual specimens. I hope, therefore, that the entomologists who have the chance 
of collecting in those countries, will pay more attention to grasshoppers, locusts, 
crickets and mantids, which are usually neglected as being " uninteresting ". 
In fact, the collecting and preserving (in paper packets, or amongst layers of 
cotton -wool) of these insects is very easy and takes but very little time and 
trouble, and the results are always very gratifying. The author should be very 
glad to get for identification all collections of Orthoptera from Central Asia, 
those from high mountains and from deserts* being the most interesting ; the 
collections may be sent to the British Museum (Natural History), London, 
Cromwell Road, S. W. 7, and will be promptly worked out and returned, except 
the types of new forms and duplicates wanted for the Museum. 

The typss and paratypes of the insects described in this paper are in the 
British Museum collection. 

Sub-family : Locustidce. 
1. Orinhippus, gen. nov, 

9 • Resembling somewhat in its habitus to S-phingonolus but with very small, 
lateral elytra and wings. Antennoe sub-equal to the head and pronotum to- 
gether, very slightly widened apically ; their bases are scarcely above the line 
connecting the lower edges of the eyes. Head not thicker than the pronotum 
in its fore part ; face somewhat reelinate ; frontal ridge distinctly prominoit, 
coarsely rugose, with its margms raised, feebly divergent from fastigium to- 
wards the middle ocellum, suddenly and strongly constricted below it, then sub- 
parallel but less distant than above the ocellum ; fastigium of the vertex sloping, 
forming an obtuse but not rounded angle with the frontal ridge, longer than it is 
broad, Avith the surface impressed ; temporal foveolse very small, irregular ; occi- 
put globose, short ; eyes slightly prominent sideways but not at all uf)wards, 
short-oval, scarcely higher than long. Pronotum on the same level as the head, 
distmctly narrowed anteriorly but without any constriction {i.e., conical) ; its 
disc feebly convex ; median keel linear, interrupted by two transverse sulci ; the 
second (typical) sulcus placed about the middle of the pronotum ; lateral keels 
slightly indicated by the small elongate ridges at the fore margin, not reaching 
the first sulcus ; fore margin straight ; hi^d margin very widely romided ; lateral 
lobes a little higher than long, narrowed downwards ; their fore angle obtuse ; 
lower margin nearly straight, oblique ; hind angle obliquely truncate ; hind 
margin oblique, slightly excavate. Presternum somewhat incrassate. Mesos- 
temal lobes distinctly transverse, with inner margms and hind angles romided ; 

* As far as I know, not a single specimen of Orthoptera from the Indian Desert, for 
instance, reached the hands of a specialist, and our knowledge of the fauna of Balu- 
chistan, Afghanistan a. o. is worse than fragmentary. 



7'J ./or/.\\.i/,. /.'(>.i//.'.( ) A.iirn.ii. msr. .scxv/;/)", /o/. .wnii. 

moHOs(<'n)!il in(ors|)ju'(> ivboii). our li.i'.l" ;i>!;iuii ;i.h Iiroiwl jis oiu' of llic lt)lM>s. Mclas- 
toniiil iii((M's|>.n't> Nul) t>tnnvl in witllli (o otuMif Mio in('woN(«>rniil lobos. Klydiv ]H'r- 
foo(.Iy liil<>ml. Iiiiioo slmpod. (>x<(Mi(liiin a liMlc l)t\voii«l Mu' liiiid iiiiirgin of (Iit> nio- 
livuotum ; wings shoid'i' (lian oiytra. 'I'yinpanal organ o]t('n. lint Mn< tympanum 
KooniM (o li<> not tnrnibranaci'ons. ami (Ih> organ is probably not functioning. 
Abdonion ilistinot.ly oo>ii(ial. bowmso t.ht> n»»>sonot.uin. nuHaiiotnin niul the first 
nb<loininal t<'igit<» arc IhioUi'noil : a lin«>ar nu>(lian kvA runs all through tho 
n.btloniii\al tiMgitos. grailually lowering baoUwanls. l<'oiv and niithllo logs short. 
Hind fcnioia. n«>t reaching tlu' apox of tho abdonion. tno»hMat'ly thiokon<>d basally 
and gradually narrowod apioally. Hind tibia> with nii\«' oiitcr and olovon innor 
Hpinos. wilhoul. an out or snba.|)ioal spino : apioal sinu-s short. ValviO of the 
ovipositor short, rathor thiok. r«>ourvod npioally ; tho lower onos with obtuse 
tooth. 

UonotyiH' : Orinhippiis lihrluiiiis, sp. n. 

Orinhippus tib(,taiins, s]i. n. 

V. (^ivyish-oohraAioous (luus boon pix^sorvod in spirit),* with gtvyish jmuI 
bix»wnish dots. Kaoo rngtdoso ai\d spt>ttod with brownish. Antonna' with alter- 
nate' palo a,nd brownish rings. I'^istigium and oooiput simttod with bi'ownish. 
Pi\»notun\ in (ho prosoua ruguloso. with bn>wnish siH»ts. in tho niota/.ona dousoly 
p\u\otvn-(Ml. oohraooous ; hind u\argin with brmvnish streaks along it. Klytra 
of tlu» gt»noral ooloratitm, with inth^linito gi\>yish s]K>ts. Ix^gs darker than tho 
body. n\ari\ioratod and faseiat<Hl by blown. Hind femora with two foobU> dark 
frt-seia' on the upside, and with two still moix* indistinet obliqiu' faseia^ on tho 
outer sitle : the sooond (suba|)ioan upper fasoia extomls also in on (ho innor side 
when' it is sou\ewhat better expressed ; the Icnoos are brownish all over, with the 
lobes ])aler. bro\\n-s]H»t.|od. Hind tibia' |vvle wi(h tho base, a fa~seia before the 
middle and the ajnoal fourth }»iirt. bwnniish : spines and s]>m's A\-ith bn>wn a])iees. 
l/'nglh of body 18 nnn. ; pi\>notum 4 mn\. ; elytra 'J'T* mm. ;,hind femora '.) uun. 

iVosoribed by a. female from (5yangtse. la.iHH) f«vt, .lune. 15HM. Tibet Kxjvdi- 
tion, U. .1. Walton ; thive paraty]no fotuales atv from (ho sanvo looality. 

The ii\seet is somewhat alike in its l\abi(us (o a tSphiiujotuytiis, but it lacks tho 
most eharaotoristie f<vv(ure of that gonus— the eonstrietion of the in^onotum : tho 
tmdeveloped elytra awd (hiekeiunl nu'sono(unv and u\etanotum give it an alto- 
g^Mher poouliar ap{H'ara.noe. Though the speeimons are all rather discoloivd by 
the sjnrit. it soou\s that (heir coloration when living has Ivon essentially tho 
sa»ne as it is now. 

2. Dicni»ophi/ma, gen. nov. 

^. Keseu»bling in i(s habi(us (o the New Zealandian gen\is l\rpridc^. Hutt, 
and the Indiaw nirohnn. 1V>I. 

Antenna' somo\\ha( eon\pn'!-sod. a little longer than (he head aiid proi\otum 
t<'ge(her. Head no( prou\inen( above the pronotuj»\ and not thicker than that. 
Fai'<> s()\>ni);ly obliipie ; fron(<\l ridge elovalod. in protilc almost straight, flat, 
\vi(.h a feeble inipi\'ssioi\ bcKnv the oivllun\. with the m;ugii\s straight, feebly 
divergent do\mwai\ls. very obt\ise but nearly reaching (ho clyju'us. Fa,s(iginm 
of (he vertex fonuing distinct angle with fronted ridgi'. distinctly pivuunei\t 
iH'foix' (ho eyes. bu( slightly shorter (hHJv bnvul. obdisely triangular ; i(s surfaco 
very slighdy inipix'ssod. with sou\ewha( raised u>argitis and with a low luediail 
oarii\ula, which bogiiis fivn\ (ho a^vx. bu( disapjH'ars in tho ocei^nit : vor(ox bo- 
(w«H'n (ho e\n\s twice as bn^ad as the fron(vd ridgi^ botwiH'u ai\(onna\ Evi'S 
ini'gnlarly ovid. (heir vor(ieal dia.mo(or oxctH'ding (ho ]uui7.on(al one by about 
•M»o-(hinl of (ho la((or : hind nxargin s(rongly i\i\u\dod ; fow n\argii\ ahnost 
s(ra\gl»( ; bo(h upjH'r and lowvr a.i\gles s\ibacu(o. ri\MU>(um above (la((onotl ; 
nu'vliau kwl low, but very distinct. s(raight in pi\>lile, out by the typical sulcus ; 



ALPINE OUTIIOPTKHA FROM fJ/CNTHAh AS/ A. 73 



prozona ahmit, t,wi(',>: an lonj{ as riKif-a/oiia ; laf/»^ni,l i<<'^h irregular <>w'iii^_ i/> Momo 
impniKHionH alf)ti(/Hiflf5 ihirrn, fmf, rjiii(,<! fliHf,inr;(, Miroiip^Jioiil, (only in rrnfa/ona 
Bonif.whaf, nhlil/raf/-.), irif/»rr(M|>t/<<l l)y f,wo Miiloi ; ff»f(i rnatyin of f,li<! rli".'! H\n/\ii,\y 
(iorivcx ; liiii'l (riar(^in i]fi:]i\y ari(/;iil(uly <iX(;i'<f»l, ih/? rriari^ifiH of Uio <!r(iar(/i/iaf,ioM 
fliKlJricily r:r)iivcx ; laifital KdxiH «1iKl,irif:fJy Ioniser ifian Ii»k''. fiarrow';<l <Iowriwar»Irt 
flirtf,in(:t,ly iiiflaf/cd in f,hf^ (j[»|>fr f^ari of i\u: prozrniH ; <.fi»ir foro frintyiti (lotivx ; 
fori: aiip;l<i wi'l'^ly rouri'l**! ; lowr rriaryifi rf;t,lIrl'laf,o-a()^;nla<,«^ in f/hc. rni'MI'- ; 
hind ii,u(/\i; vi-ry dUUi-h: )mi«1 widely frjun'l<<i ; liitcl rnarj/in v<ry oljliijno and «lit/tifc- 
]y «;on<!av(!, l'roHf,«Tnal Ut\»:r<;\i- iriuiHvi-iM;, vviih two <;f»ni':al a|;if!(!« din«;f/«;d 
ol>li»|u«!ly rMif-wardn. M'-^oHf/rna) lofxift fJiHiinnily hrotwl'ir ilian lonK< wif,fi inn<!r 
anj/lcH rounded ; rn''«r>Hf,«!ffial 'tfiU:rH\HK;i; a litf/l'-, |>rr>a/Jc.r iJia/i lonj/, di«f,in';>,ly 
wid'riK'd fjrtokwardM. MetaHt/Tnal \()\iiih diMt.in'!f,ly H<\iariiU-<\. Klytra lafz-ral, 
oval, <:i)r'iiu:i;()\m, wif/h only two lonf/iticlina' vein«, whii'-, all otfic.r vh'iuh and vin- 
If.iM ar<5 oblit'<'r'afc. Winj^H not dcvcJojwM, Tympaniifn larj^e, o(>'^fi. Mewfjnr;- 
tiim, rnctanotnrn and altdorn'-n witfi a low rn'dian k<"^l. Tho bvHt abdominal 
»«;(4m'Tit with twf< t'«th. Sfipraanal pjaf^-. trianj^iilar, Cj-rcA Hhorbr than 
Hii[)raanal plat/-, lat/Tally (jornfirowid, triant^nlar, Mnh^^inital [)l(ifc«i Kfnall, <;hin- 
)m'-Hi-<] lal/cndly, with the apex (jonical, Momewfiat recurved. Kore and rn/rldlo 
femora fdiort, diHtinetly incrafKaf/:. ifind femora Kome,wh»/t ineTa'-Bat", hut 
only fe<!hly dilat'^d, e,xf,<:ndin^ well heyond the, afxix of the, ahdomen, ffind 
tihi(e rounded, dintinetly ir)i;vn/<Hii,U: apieally, armerj with e,i(/fit Hpinen tK>th in- 
wardly and outwardly, wrth'»ut an oufz-r ajdcal »pino ; inner Hpurn ma longer 
than the. (,nU-r onen ; tfie, ouf/r lower f',[»iir in th<?Hmrtlle«t of all. 

Uenotyj*'; : hirranopkynM hinr/ftimid, H[». ri. 
Dic/ramtjifi/jjrnu hiri^/Ml,oni, Hf», ri. 

^. Oliva<^;ou«, mod*rrat*!ly ruyi/m-. Vw'a; xre,«!ni«h-j(re,y, smooth ; frontal 
ridge H^iarwly, hut rathe,r coarKely pune,turefl ; the, «ide« of tfie faMtij/jum, f«!- 
twe,<!n the caveH of ard>vfjn«!, e,ye,H anfl lat/<!ral rnarginw of frrmtal ridp;e,, \)\iu;k ; 
he;Ml from ahovo with indefinite hrownifih fa«ei;e ; jx;tt</>eular faaeijo hhwjk, 
narrowe.d fKiHt«!riorly, I'ronotum with tho di^'O oliva<!<;ouH, ritjil, hut tho kee|« 
and rai.i-efl rij;deH are tthining ; (»ro//>nrt with hfJt few, rather iri'listinet, thouj/h 
larj^e, im[)r<!HHionH ; rr]i:W//>nii, rugidowe ; laf/;ral |r;he,x r>f a \i(/))U:i- wha^le than tho 
dirte, f.hininj(, in rneta//>na»orne,what rugniowe ; prozona with two oval impre<.Kion» 
ju«t Ik;Iow the, lateral keelw, he|f,w the impreHHionM irdluf/td, witfi larj^e, f;hlir)uo 
hiaek Kf^f^t f/>uehing tho lafz-ral ke,<;|K U.twe/in the, Hulei and e,xfy<;ndin(^ a littlo 
he,yr,fid the hind Muleu«, Metariotum and fir«t U-rgtUi with irre,j;ular lonj^itudi- 
nal nini>Hii,'u-M, oIiv<vf!«!orj.H and dull on the, iipjK:r «ide, hhujk and f.hininj^ laf/,rally ; 
the upfH-r jiart of rneft(;pleur«! and rri'^tapleur;*! Hhininj/ hl^usk, the lower yellow- 
irth gre,<:n. Ahdruneri dull oliv*u;<;ouK from ahovo, murldy yellow fn;m l;«!ne,ath, 
with the widen of 2 5.Mej/me,ntH red/Jiwh. 'J'he f/e-e,th of the, la«t alxlominal He,>(menfc 
trianj^ular, hrojwily HeparJit*;'! ; KUfiraanal |»lat,<? Ioniser than hro^wl ; if/« lin.f.nl 
half with II, Hfiallow median imprefttion and two indi.Htinet lafz-ral impreHsiouK. 
Fore and middle l<;gH olivae*;ouK, Hin'l femora olivft'^iouw, with an yellowiwh 
ring Ixifore, the kne,<! which i» hl'uik all ove,r ; the, inner and lower Kide,M aro 
reddivh. ffind tihiw! rerl, with the vi;ry bfwe, hhwik and with a ]xrni,-\nt,Hnl 
yellowish ring ; ihi; tif« of HpineH brown, ffind tarxi reddiwh oliv»/;eou«. 

I>!ngth of tho tx»dy 17 mm. ; pronotum i nun. ; elytra i mm. ; hind femora 
10 mm. 

The tyfK- iK unique ; it h;w been eapture,d ( iy>-',h\U\'i) by that enthu.-.iaMtio 
explorer of Kashmir, C'apt. ft. W, <}. fling>-t/;n, in the, AhU>v /;i«»,riet, ',),fK>0 fMst, 
and I am fip-nUy plr-,aKe,d U) have the f<p[K/rtuf)ity of naming »uch an int«;reHt- 
ing hiAfi-X aft«;r him, 

10 



74 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII, 

It is not easy to find a proper place in the system for this insect and the above 
mentioned New Zealandian genus Paprides and Indian Pileolum seem to be its 
nearest, though by no means close, relatives. There are now three Central Asia- 
tic Alpine wingless genera, belongmg to the group CatatUopince {Acridilnce) : 
Gonophyma, Zub., Paraconophyma, Uvar.* and Dicranophyma, Uvar., and the 
last named is easily distinguished from two others because it belongs to the 
different section, without an outer apical spine on the hind tibise. 

Sub-family : Tettigoniidce. 

3. Hyphinomos, gen. no v. 

2 . Related to the Palearctic genera Amphiestris and Onconotus but strongly 
differing from both in a number of characters. 

Antennae longer than the body, setaceous, Avith rather dense short hairs ; first 
joint thickened. Head short and thick, globose. Face vertical, convex, very 
broad, smooth. Fastigium of the vertex produced in the shape of a truncate 
tubercle, shallowly suloate. Eyes small, but very prominent, perfectly roimd 
their lower margins on the same line with the bases of the antennae 
Occiput broad, globose, smooth. Pronotum distinctly broader than long 
rugose : its disc scarcely convex near the fore marghi, feebly, but distinctly, 
impressed behind the middle, with the hmd margin slightly ascendent 
one feeble transverse sulcus at the end of the fore fourth of the disc ; fore 
margin slightly concave ; hind margin straight ; all keels absent ; lateral 
lobes very uneven, strongly rugose, with lower margins raised and a rather 
deep sub marginal impression, the bottom of which is finely longitudinally 
rugulose ; hind part of lobes forming a straight, though widely rounded angle 
with the surface of the disc ; general form of the lobes elcngato-triangular, 
the fore margin bemg straight and slightly oblique, fore angle obtuse, rounded, 
lower margin in its fore part convex, then ascending obliquely to the shoulder, 
so that there is no separate hind margin. Presternum with two small, obtuse 
widely separated tubercles. Mesosternum and metasternum transverse, 
thickened, without separated lobes. Elytra lateral, round. Cerci short, conical. 
Subgenital plate rather thick, transverse, slightly emarginate at the apex. 
Ovipositor thick, broad, feebly recurved in the apical third, with the disc 
longitudinally rugulose towards the apex. Fore coxse armed with a 
strong, somewhat decurved spine. Fore femora short, rather thick, not armed. 
Fore tibise thick, somewhat constricted in the middle, armed with an outer 
upper subapioal spine and with six strong spmes on each side of the lower side. 
Middle legs armed as the fore legs. Hind femora only twice as long as the 
middle femora, not reaching the apex of the abdomen (if the latter is not 
contracted) ; their basal half feebly incrassate ; the apical half bearing 8-10 
spinules along each of the lower carinae. Hind tibiae thick, slightly decurved ; 
all their keels obtuse, except the inner upper one, which is distinctly raised, 
rather sharp and armed with about 10 spinules ; outer upper keel with about 
8-10 small spinules ; the lower side with 4 mner and about 7 outer longer spines ; 
two pairs of short spurs, the lower pair being shorter than the upper one. All 
tarsi depressed, strongly bisulcate ; hind tarsi without moveable plantulae. 

Genotype : Hyphinomos fasciata, sp. n. 

Hyphinomos fasciata, sp. n. 

2 . Head smooth, sparsely and finely punctmed in the middle of the face 
and with two irregular rows of pmictures on the occiput ; face whitish, with a 
black transverse fascia along the upper margin of the clypeus ; another shining 
black fascia runs across the bases of antennae, apex of the fastigium and eyes, 

» Ann. Mag. Nat. History, Ser. I, vol. VII, p. 497, 1921. 



ALPINE ORTHOPTERA FROM CENTRAL ASIA. 75 

reaching the pronotum and widening behind the eyes. Antennae black. Pro- 
notum reddish-brown ; lateral lobes margined with black. Mesopleurse, meta- 
pleurse and all coxae on their upper side black. Abdomen smooth, brown. Elytra 
reddish-ochraceous. All legs brownish-olivaceous ; hind femora with the base 
of the inner side and the lower sulcus black. Ovipositor brownish, with the 
upper margin black. 

Length of body 22 mm., pronotum 5 mm. ; elytra 2 mm. ; hind femora 11 mm. ; 
ovipositor 12 mm. 

Described from three females (type and two paratypes) from Dakar, Western 
Tibet, 15,000—16,000 feet. 23rd August 1905. T. G. Longstaft. 

This is a very peculiar insect, occupying a rather isolated position amongst its 
relatives, which are the Western Mediterranean genus Amphiestris and the 
Siberian Onconotus. The male is unfortmiately unknown, but there is no doubt 
that it has the elytra more developed than the female, and transformed com- 
pletely into a somiding apparatus ; it is not impossible that its pronotum is also 
modified. I do not know any other records of Orthoptera from such an extra- 
ordinary high altitude as this one. 



A FEW HINTS ON CROCODILE SHOOTING. 

BY 

W. H. 0. Shortt. " 



{With 1 100 plates and a diagram.) 

I have been asked by our Honorary Secretary to write a short article entitled 
" A few hints on crocodile shooting," 

I think it best to give a short summary of how to carry out a crocodile shoot^ 
60 that a complete novice may know what to do, and an older hand, may, 
perhaps, pick up one or two useful tips. 

With mo the pen is certainly not mightier than the sword, but I will do my 
best and trust to the leniency of my readers. This is not meant to be a literary 
masterpiece, but merely a few practical remarks strung together. To start with 
I will explain the outfit required for a shoot of a few days, as I presume you will 
not go for a single day only, and even then the outfit would be much the same. 
You will probably have to camp out when indulging in this sport, but that is a 
pleasure in the cold weather. The outfit I give includes no camping out articles, 
as that is a matter that does not concern this article. 



OUTFIT AND PERSONNEL REQUIRED FOR A CROCODILE SHOOT. 



Articles. 

1 Pair Binoculars. 
1 Rifle. 
1 Rifle rest. 
1 Gun, 

1 Axe (4 lbs.), 
4 Harpoons complete. 
80 Feet f " diam. rope. 
1 Light boat, 
1 Pole. 
1 Paddle, 
100 Feet tow line J" diam. 
6 Skimiing knives. 

Sharpening board or stone. 

Good file. 

Ten foot bamboo for carrying skins. 

Tape measure. 

Set of maps. 

Ball twine. 

Sack needle. 
12 Sacks or gunny cloth. 

Salt, say three maunds. 



Personnel. 



Overseer. 

Harpooner 

Axeman. 

Boatmen. 

Chamaars. 



You want a very hard hitting rifle with a low trajectory, such as a Ross, which, 
unfortunately, is not now obtainable. Westly Richards make a nfle which I 
think is '318 bore ; this ought to be good according to the sjjecification. If you 
can afford to do so, get your rifle fitted with a telescopic sight, as in no branch 
of shooting have you to be more accurate than in crocodile shooting. Another 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Plate I. 




A heavy Mugger {C. palustns). 




^"ste*^** 



Getting out a heavy Mugger {C. palustris). 
Hints on Crocodile Shooting. 



A FEW HINTS ON CROCODILE SHOOTING. 



77 



rifle which has the quaUfications of being cheap and nasty but very accurate and 
hard hitting is the '405 Winchester magazine rifle. This has an under lever action 
which is very bad, as you do a good deal of your shooting lying down and in 
that position you cannot conveniently of)en and close the breach, but with 
this rifle, if you get a well placed shot in, you seldom require another. 




The harpoon is a somewhat complicated alTair. It consists of three main 
pa,rts : {a) a shaft twelve to fifteen feet long, bound with wire at the thick end 
to prevent it splitting ; (6) ten feet of stout cord about ^ inch diameter, fastened 
to the shaft and about 8 strands of ^ inch diameter cord 15 feet long each, attached 
to the loose end of the thick cord, the other ends being attached to the harpoon 
ring. This is to prevent the animal cutting the cord near to the harpoon, as 
occasionaUy happens if a single thick cord is used. These thin cords should be 
bound together, at about 18 inches interval to avoid getting them entangled ; 
(c) a barbed head with wide deep barbs made from f inch bar iron or 1 inch by 
I inch flat iron, fitted into a wooden collar, and the end turned over to jirevent 
it being pulled out. The sketch of the harpoon explains things better than 
words. This barbed head must always be kept sharp, and the point should be 
fairly obtuse so as not to get bent by striking against a hard part of the 
animal. 

This outfit is for a one man show. If there are two or more of a party, it 
is advisable for one to go on each side of the river, in which case you want 
an extra harpooner and axeman, if you would save time. 

The best time to plan your shoot is between December and J'ebruary, before 
the hot weather begins. During these three months, besides being cooj, snow-fed 
rivers such as the Kosi and its tributaries are at their lowest ebb, and the croco- 
diles have numerous banks to bask on. It is cold in the mornings and evenings, 
and warm all day, with the result that the animals are out from about 9 a.m. to 
4 p.m. You don't need to get up before sunrise. You get up at a respectable 
hour, have j^our breakfast comfortably and then sally forth just in time to get 
the early crocs. As it gets hotter the animals come up earlier and earlier, and 
stay later and later, until when the weather gets really hot during the day 
they come up about sunrise and then go down again about 10 a.m., coming up 



78 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

again about 4 or 5 p.m. and staying till dark, or sometimes till after dark. 
Very big animal occasionally come and bask at night during the hot weather. 

When you have fixed your dates for shooting, get your outfit ready and engage 
a shikarri. Tell him to first obtain full details of road and river communication, 
especially in the Kosi district, and then to locate the favourite sandbanks of the 
crocodiles. Gret these fixed on your map as accurately as possible by getting 
their direction from the nearest villages. Do not on any account trust to your 
shikarri's ideas of distances, as he will cheerfully call five miles a kos or two miles. 
Having done this, engage your personnel and boat and fix your route roughly. 
I say roughly on purpose, because local or climatic conditions may force you 
to alter your plans. When you go crocodile shooting, wear breeches, as otherwise 
crawling about or going on all fours will be found painful to your knees. 
Breeches also save you from getting sun scorched if you are not accustomed to 
wearing shorts, especially if you are in a boat. A dark khaki shirt and ordinary 
pigsticker topic complete your outfit ; if you want to do it in style, add a pair of 
rubber soled shoes or boots to your kit. These are very useful when stalking, 
as, besides being noiseless they do not break dry twigs so readily as ordinary 
boots. Crocodiles are extremely keen of hearing and very sharp sighted, so one 
has to be careful to keep out of sight of them, and to avoid treading on dry 
twigs or grass if possible. In localities where people are constantly coming 
and going, such as near ghats, they become quite bold, and you can frequently 
walk up to a point opposite them on the other bank, sit do-\vn comfortably and 
pot one of them at your leisure. 

This, of ccurse, is only possible when the river is narrow enough to shoot across^ 

If you are shooting along a river and travelUng in a boat in preference to foot- 
slogging it alon.j; the banks, always follow the outside curve of a bend in the river, 
and keep close to the bank, as this enables you to see farthest head, and 
also makes it easier to disembark quickly, as frequently one comes across an 
animal that is not visible till you approach quite close to it, and if you have 
then to come in from somewhere about midstream, and happen to be going 
down current as well, you are on to the animal before you can come ashore. 

This is obviated by sending scouts well ahead, one on each bank, to warn you. 

When you arrive in the vicinity of the first bank, go forward and from a dis- 
tance examine the plan and the animals carefully with your binoculars, select 
j'our animal and the best place to shoot it from. 

You will usually find that a short snouter, if on the opposite bank, is bolder 
than a long snouter, and may be more easily approached, but if on the same side 
of the river as yourself, the long-snouter is the bolder. If you have to stalk for 
position, walk up till you can, just see them from a crouching position, and then 
drop on all fours. If your glasses are in a sling case, you had better discard them 
here, as they will impede you and are apt to disturb the animals by bumping 
against your knees. For some reason or other a crocodile does not seem to object 
to your approacliing on all fours nearly as much as if walking. You can fre- 
quently get to within 80 or 100 yards of them over absolutely open country if 
you go on all fours. When you have gone as near as possible like this, lie down 
flat and imagine you are a worm and crawl as close as you can under cover. 
Coing like this you require very little, or low cover. A few sprigs, blades of 
corn in the puggari of your helmet are a great assistance in stalking. I may 
remark here, that it is advisable to have a foresight protector of a kind that 
closes the muzzle of your rifle and prevents it getting filled with sand or mud 
for this sort of stalking, as otherwise sand is bound to get in and then you have 
to clean it out. All tliis means urmecessary movements on your part, which 
you wish to avoid. When you have got as near as possible, slowly erect your 
rifle rest, which should be adjustable. I use a pointed stick with nails driven 
in three inches apart. If you are a humane person, don't shoot without the 



A FEW HINTS ON CROCODILE SHOOTING. 79 



rest, as you have really a very small target to aim at. It is quite easy to hit 
your animal, but unless you hit him in the right place, he will merely slip into 
the water and be lost, wounded. 

An animal of 7 to 8 feet in length may be knocked out by a heavy bullet througii 
the body, but above that length, unless you smash the spine, which is not usual, 
it is quite useless to take a body shot and expect to stop the animal. You muf>f, 
get him on the n^ck, between the jaw and shoulder. Even this target is limited. 
Divide this part horizontally, into four equal divisions. You must get your bullet 
into the middle two divisions if you want to stop your animal till you can har- 
poon him. You may manage to harpoon him if he is hit above or below this, 
but it is doubtful. There is one other spot to hit him. If you know your rifle 
and can hit the mark, the upper quarter of the head, horizontally, is a very 
deadly shot, as you usually blow out the animals brains, but it is also a very 
difficult shot. I have seen an animal go away with two bullets in his head. 
One got him behind the eye in the upper jaw, but below the brain line, 
and remained inside, and the other took a piece of the top of his head off, 
without smashing his brain. These were "405 bore Winchester bullets, and 
anybody who knows that make of rifle, will have some idea of what a big 
crocodile can stand. 

Before starting to stalk your animal, place your harpooner. He should be as 
close to the animal as he can approach without fear of disturbing it. On a still 
day he ought to be about 40 or 50 yards off, but if a good wind is causing a rustle 
in the grass or scrub, he may approach closer. As soon as you fire he will rush 
dowTi and harpoon the animal, near the head for choice, and from behind. This 
prevents the animal seizing the harpoon, and the man in charge can then, with 
a little trouble, free the head of the harpoon from the shaft and wrap the cord 
round the animal's snout three or four times. This prevents him snapping, and 
while the harpoon holds the snout in one direction, the axeman severs its spinal 
column from the opposite side. Because you may happen to have absolutely laid 
out the animal with your rifle, unless it has been the brain shot, don't neglect the 
axe and leave the crocodile, because he almost certainly is not dead, and if 
you left him for an hour and came back, it is quite possible you would not find 
him. He will have recovered a little and struggled into the water. Once his 
spinal column is severed, he is safe. If you have not the axe handj^ put a charge 
of Xo. 4 shot into his brain from about three feet away. If you are after a short 
snouter you cannot wind the coi'd round his snout owing to the shape, therefore, 
if he is of any size, always take a gun with you, and as soon as he is harpooned, 
if he shows the least sign of life, put a charge of No. 4 into his head from 2 feet 
away. He has a much thicker skull than the long snouter. If he appears quite 
dead, or at all events, quiescent, seize him by the tail and hind legs and drag 
him ashore, and then apply the axe. A short snouter is very much harder to 
kill than a long snouter, and both, if aUve, are very dangerous when harpooned, 
so whatever you do, keep out of range of their jaws. The neck shot, 
properly placed, and not too near the foreleg, will usually stop a short snouter 
long enough to harpoon him, but you can never be sure. They have enormously 
thick, muscular necks, and they will often get into the water without being har- 
pooned, no matter where they are hit, as they usually lie very close to the water, 
and almost invariably, where there are short snouters of any size, there you will 
find very deep water, and deep close to the edge. The shot will usually kill him 
eventually, but even if you get him a few days later when he floats up, his 
skin is useless. 

As soon as you have hit an animal, and stopped it, if it is in such a position 
that the harpooner will take some time in reaching it, say over 20 seconds, which 
will frequently be the case from some cause or another, get your glasses and 
examine him again to see exactly where you have hit him. You will see tho 
blood oozing out of the bullet hole. If he is hit outside the deadly zone, the 



80 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XX nil. 



pi'obability is that he is only temporarily stunned, and will recover very quickly 
and slip into the water. In this case, jjut another bullet into him. He 
occasionally recovers so quickly, in spite of a second bullet that you are in- 
clined to believe that the second shot acts as a sort of counter irritant, and in 
some cases, though not usually, I think it do^s. Once a wounded animal starts 
wi'iggling towards the water, my experience is that you may put as manj^ bullets 
as you can into him, but you won't stop him reaching the water. I suppose 
the reason is that you have only time, at the most, for two more hurried shots 
and neither of them strikes within the deadly zone. 

If a heaAHt' animal gets into the water after being harpooned, don't try too 
hard to hold him by the harpoon cord. It is not m?ant to drag him ashore with. 
Rather let the harpoon go altogether ; when the animal gets into the water, its 
movements will soon shake the head clear of the shaft, the cord will unwind, and 
the shaft float to the top. Now follow up in your boat and keep your feet clear 
of the cord. Pull up the animal to the surface with the cord and get another 
harpoon into him, or another bullet or charge of shot. You will very .seldom 
have to do this if you us3 a good rifle and are a decent shot. 

As soon as you have your animal killed, get your thick rope round his snoxit 
or head, according to class of animal, and pull him well away from the water's 
edge, out of sight of it, if possible, as his carcase is apt to deter others from 
coming up in the same place. 

Now your chamars can get to work. Don't stay behind with them. Leave 
two or three chamars, according to the size of the animal, to skin it, and take 
the rest on. You want as many men as possible with you, as it will take a 
dozen good men to pull a heavy animal up a steep bank. You will frequently 
have to got help from the people round about for this job. 

If shooting on a fairly narrow stream, say one varying from 50 to 120 yards 
across, you will generally shoot from across the river. If you hit an animal and 
stop him for a short time, though not long enough to harpoon him, don't give 
him up as lost. Twice out of five times he will come up near your bank, just 
about opposite where you hit him, in about ten minutes or less. The water gets 
into his body from the bullet wound and interferes with his breathing. The 
larger the hole made the sooner he comes up. He will probably first rise some 
distance out, but have patience, he will probably come right into the bank. 
Keep under cover, and when he comes up, creep up as close as possible, he 
probably won't be hard to approach fairly close to, and give him a bullet 
through the head. In a wide stream, he will probably come up a little lower 
down on the same side as he was on when hit. 

Occasionally you will shoot an animal that is in the water, near the edge. If 
3'ou have got in a deadly shot, he will probably struggle and lash about but will 
not leave the immediate vicinity. He v/ill almost certainly turn on his back 
and his tail or legs will show above water. He will gradually sink and the current 
will take him into deeper water. In this case, if you have not succeeded in har- 
pooning him first, get your boat up as quickly as possible, when your harpooner 
will feel all over the bottom of the river near where it sank, with the harpoon. 
When he finds it, if he does, he will endeavour to stick the harpoon into it. This 
done, you can pull him up with the harpoon. If it is in pretty deep water, he 
probably will not be able to gat enough power into the stab to drive the harpoon 
into the animal, especially if it happens to be a short snouter's back (his head, 
of course, is quite hopeless). In this case place the harpoon head, as well as you 
can judge, on the animal's back, and then use your axe head as a hammer, and 
drive the harpoon in as if it was a pile. If a wounded animal turns upside down, 
it is usually quite safe to rush in and seize him by a hind leg or the tail. He 
has not enough life in him to do any damage. You must expect to lose a big per- 
centage of animals shot in the water, as they are usually near deep water, and 
unless found very quickly, the current carries them away. Never shoot at an 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc 



Plate II. 




A Female Gavial {G. gangeticus). 




Male Gavial showing nob at the top. 
Hints on Crocodile Shooting. 



A FEW HINTS ON CROCODILE SHOOTING. 81 

animal that is swimming about in deep water, as it is quite impossible to recover 
it, you only disturb the other animals, besides being unsportsmanlike to kill 
wantonly. When swimming about, they present a very difficult target, as you 
only see the top of the head and snout. This gives you a horizontal target about 
two inches deep, if a largo animal, to get your bullet into. If you alone are shoot- 
ing, tell your harpooner, or whoever you have on the opposite side, to keep a 
sharp look out for animals basking on your side, especially if the banks are steep 
or vertical. As soon as he sees one, he signs to you and then goes and stands 
opposite the animal, well away from the edge, with his harpoon shaft pointing 
straight at the animal. Then you go up and get in line. He now signals 
which way the animal's head is. Creep up from behind and try and get as nearly 
as possible over him, and put a bullet through his brain. The rifle rest is no 
use here. Usually, just as you catch sight of them, or probably just before, 
there will be a frantic splash and you may just see the tail disappear under water. 
Occasionally you will bag one this way, and then the satisfaction more than 
makes up for your other disappointments. 

You will very seldom catch a big animal like this. A wind helps you a great 
•deal in this sort of work, as the rustling of the leaves and grasses deadens any 
shght noise you may make. Rubber shoes come in handy here. If you are 
wearing heavy boots, you had better take them off when you come near the animal, 
and go in your stockinged soles. Have a harpooner handy, because stalking of 
this sort is usually done in a river with steep banks, and the water is probably 
deep at the edge, or gets deep very quickly, and you want to harpoon your animal 
while he is struggling at the top. 

If you happen to know a place where the crocodiles are used to 
frequenting shallows or submerged sandbanks, and they are not visible 
when you arrive on the scene, the procedure to adopt is as follows : — 
Fix up your rifle rest in a suitable spot and get ready. Then give some one the 
signal to fire a shot into the water. A rifle shot is best, but a gun will usually 
do the trick. Crocodiles are gifted with curiosity, and almost at once you will 
see their heads come up to see what is going on. Now select one over a shallow 
part, preferably one looking away from you, and shoot him through the head. 
A good maxim when shooting crocodiles is never to fire at a crocodile with only 
one cartridge in the rifle. You never know when you may require a second or 
third shot in a hurry. Even if you have cartridges with you, you will almost 
certainly have to expose yourself in reloading. With a wounded animal this does 
not much matter, but now and again, especially if there is a strong wind blowing, 
and there are several animals up, all will not bolt at the first shot, but if you 
expose yourself immediately after, they certainly will. 

Although you have a gun with you, don't shoot birds while after crocs, as 
you only disturb the animals and make them shy. Shoot your birds early in the 
morning or after the animals have gone down in the evening. Also, on no account 
whatever take a padre or a dog with you. Short snouters are very partial to 
dogs and dogs are thirsty creatures. They are also apt to trot down to the 
water just as you are nearing the completion of an arduous stalk, and then 
away go the animals and your temper with them. As regards the padre, when 
you have badly wounded an animal and through some fault of one of your men, 
you look like losing it, the air is apt to get hazy in your vicinity ; also, you have 
those two most execrable of all Uving birds,theBrahminy duck and the Red wattled 
Lapwing, to destroy your temper. I think the most saintly person ever born 
would get frantic with fury if he was trying to stalk a crocodile and a couple of 
these lapwings saw him and started screaming at him that it was a "pity to do it," 
or if a pair of Brahminies started trumpeting as soon as he came in sight of them, 
and it is very hard indeed to keep out of sight of these birds. Many a time have 
I felt that I would give a good deal to have the necks of these vile creatures in a 
half hitch of stout cord, one end of which was fastened to a good stout stake, 

11 



,82 JOVRNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII- 

driven well into the ground, and the other end in my hand. I would just glory 
in tightening it at the first call, and wouldn't I just pull ! I think the lapwing is 
the worst offender, as he is there all the time, and does not even fly away, espe- 
cially later on when they have young ones. The brahminy flies off before you 
come very near, and if the crocodile stays on after ho flies off, you may be pretty 
sure of a shot. Herons are also rather a nuisance, but they fly off even before 
the brahminy and don't usually make much noise about it. Another frequent 
source of annoyance is that just as you are getting near your shooting point 
after a careful stalk, an unwitting native selects precisely that time and place to 
go and have a drink. One generally feels relief on these occasions by blowing 
off a bit of steam, and the padre might not like it. I don't know why a bit of 
bad language relieves one^s feeUngs, but it certainly does have that effect. 

The short snoutor or man-eating crocodile is called a mugger ( Crocodilus 
jalustris) or a bocha by the natives, and the long snouter a gavial, gharial or 
nakaar [Gavialis (janr/eticus). This latter name is ajiplied to all long snouters, 
but the male one, after attaining a certain stage of maturity, develops a large 
knob on the point of his snout, on the upper jaw, under which his nostrils 
are ; he is then called a Basoolia nakaar or just simply a Basoolia. I believe 
the above explanation is correct, but do not know for certain, and I should 
like some definite information on the subject. The male grows considerably 
longer than the female, which attains to about fourteen feet from my observations 
I have shot males up to seventeen feet, and have seen some slightly larger, or 
which appeared so. The short snouter is a shorter but very much heavier animal 
especially as he gets bigger. Anything over thirteen feet is a big short snouter. 
If any of my readers could give me details of large animals of either kind, I should 
be much obliged, I should like, if possible, to know what the record size is. 
I beheve that in the Sunderbands* they grow to an enormous size, but I have 
never seen any there. Tl ey have enormous heads, though that is not noticed 
till you see them at fairly close quarters. 

Out of an animal 13^ feet long I took a complete corpse. It was in three 
portions, the head and body complete and the legs separate. That will give 
you an idea of what they can swallow. Their skins are very miich tougher and 
thicker than the long snouters' skins, and take more work to remove them from 
the carcase. If you have the option of choosing between two animat> of equal 
length as to which you will shoot, the long or the short snouter, you have one 
or two things to consider. The long snouter will give you slightly less skin 
but the short snouter is much more difficult to kill, and so a less certain bag. 
Unless it is a really big short snouter, I would ad^ase shooting the other. In a 
big short snouter there is always a greater element of excitement, you also make 
curious finds in his stomach, such as bangles, anklets, etc. The long snouter 
sticks to fish and turtles, though I have heard of bangles being found in them. I 
don't trouble to examine them myself. In both species, however, there is 
always a collection of stones, sometimes quite large, swallowed, I suppose, to aid 
digestion. Small long snouters of from 3 to 6 feet or even a httle larger may 
readily be kiUed Tvith shot from close ranges, say ten to fifteen yards, with shot 
varying from No. 4 to AAA, For sUghtly larger animals L.G. is best. Always 
aim for the head or neck, though when using L. G. I am inchned to aim at the 
body, as two or three simultaneous blows spread over an area of about 9 inches 
gives the animal a tremendous shock, and as you must be quite close to use it at 
all, you will probably have time to rush in and get it ashore before it recovers. 

*The big Mugger of the Sunderbands is a different species to the sbort-snouter 
(jC.palvstrig) Mr. Shortt writes about. The big Mugger of the Sunderbands is tbe 
sea-going crccodile (C porosus) which is considered more dangerous and ferocious 
thskn palustris. According to Boulenger in the Fauna of British India C. porosus 
attains a length of 33 feet. The lnTgest palustris in the British Museum is 12 feet 
long— Eds. 



A FEW HINTS ON CROCODILE SHOOTING. 83 

In skinning your animals, do not cut down the centre of the stomach, as in 
other animals. The stomach skin is the valuable part of the hide. The back 
is quite useless, being composed of a number of bony shields. Cut along the 
edge of the back below these hard shields, and go down to the end of the double 
spiky ridge on the tail. Skin right, up to the chin, and in the legs, cut so as to 
divide the large from the small scales, and skin as far as the first joint only. 
After you have skinned the animal, have all the flesh and particularly the fat, 
removed. Then lay it flat, wet surface uppermost, and rub a plentiful supply 
of salt in, as much as it will absorb, and then as much more again sprinkled over 
it and left. Dry the skin for a couple of days till all the liquid salt has soaked 
in or dried up, and then roll it up, pack it in a sack and send it off. It would be 
much better to send it off before drying, but the railway authorities will not now 
take them like that, though they used to. Besides, if there is a long journey 
before the skin, most of the salt drips off and the skin is apt to go wi'ong if there 
is any delay in delivery. In a few days' time you will receive a letter from the 
tannery, telling you the skins arrived with very little salt rubbed into them, or 
with too much fat on them, or in a doubtful condition, but that they have taken 
them in hand and will do their best, etc., etc. Never mind, if you haven't 
spared the salt and it is not later in the year than February or March, they 
will be quite all right. 

• If at the end of your shoot you can show one skin for every two bullets, you 
have done well. This does not include animals shot with your gun, or shot 
cartridges expended. It is the animals which get away wounded, after you 
have put two or three bullets into them that lower your average. Ninety 
per cent, at least of your animals actually bagged should have been secured 
with a single shot each. You must also reckon on a good number of misses, 
as your target is a very limited one, and you know that if you go a Httle too high 
or low you will miss it. Remember that you are more apt to go low, and that 
with a H. V. rifle, as soon as the bullet strikes the water, it is done. It never 
ricochets oflf at the same angle it strikes the water at. 

Large animals of 14 feet and over are suitable for trunks, while the smaller 
ones are suitable for suit cases, gladstone bags, etc. 

For small articles such as purses or writing wallets, you want animals up to 
about 8 feet. The smaller the animal the finer the grain, and the smaller the 
article it is suitable foi-. 

In closing, I will just mention a few good shooting places. I only know the 
Bihar district, so can speak for that only. 

If you decide to shoot in this province, I would suggest the following 
places : — ■ 

(1) Go to Dhamarra ghat on the B. N.W. railway ; you will get some fair shoot- 
ing there. There is also an inspection bungalow close to the shooting ground 
and station. Here there are jheels full of crocodiles, short snouters only, and 
also a river which goes under various names. Here it is called the Kusela. 
Where the railway crosses it is an excellent stretch for both species, long and 
short snouters. You can get a couple of days shooting here. (2) If 
you go to Maheskhunt station, take a bicycle and ride to Chautham, 
about five miles north of it. Here you can get another two days' shooting on 
the Ghugri. (3) This river joins the Labkhi Dhar, a branch of the Kosi, about 
six miles down-stream, and just below the junction is the village of TeHhar. 
This is a great spot. (4) About a mile or so west of this, another branch of the 
Kosi joins the Labkhi Dhar, upstream of its confluence, with the Ghugri. I 
do not know the name of this other stream, but its confluence with the 
Labkhi is another favourite spot, particularly for short snouters, and really 
big ones too. (5) If you follow the Labkhi upstream you will get shooting 
for several miles, and good shooting, though there is a blank stretch between 
the last confluence mentioned and a point about two miles upstream. 



84 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

(6) From Mokhana Bazaar station go east to Sonbarsa, about eight miles. Here 
you can get a couple of days shooting, and again (7) about five miles further 
east near Kasnagar. (8) From Dauram Madhipura, about six miles south lies Pa- 
tharghat, about a mile and a half south-east is an excellent spot. (9) The best 
place of aU, however, is about 6 miles east of Patharghat, round about Mokhma 
and Pachlakh. The main Kosi stream is here and is teeming with the reptiles, but 
the shooting is di£6icult, as the biggest crocodiles frequent banks in mid-stream, 
too far away for accurate shooting. There are good spots here and there, though, 
where, with a little trouble you can get good shots where the sand banks are at 
the edges of the stream. About half a mile east of Mokhma ghat is a stream, the 
"Sathar Dhar," running roughly parallel with the Kosi, one of its branches in 
fact. This is a narrow stream from 60 to 100 yards across, and is simplj- 
full of crocodiles of both classes, with plenty of good cover for stalking as a nile, 
though here and there it is very thick and impossible to stalk in. Between 
these two places you can have a week's shooting of the very best. Drinking 
water in the Kosi district is very indifferent. If your men are up to the ropes 
you will always be able to get milk and vegetables, but take your own meat 
ration, and a couple of tins or so of condensed milk. 

You may have difficulty in getting labour, so I would strongly advise you to 
take your own chamars with you, and to arrange for a boat long before hand. 
At Sonbarsa or Khapsia, a httle north of Patharghat, boats are always obtain- 
able, though not at a moment's notice. Carts may always be obtained if you pay 
enough. If you go to Mokhma I would advise you to engage a boat at Khapsia, 
where they make boats, and then load it on to a cart and take it across country 
to Mokhma, as you cannot get boats there. That is a drawback on the Sathar 
Phar too, but there are a fair number of ghats on the stream ihat you can cross 
at ; also it is not too wide to shoot across. 

I hope these few remarks may be of use to somebodv. If they are T shall 
have done my job. 



85 

HAND-LIST or THE '^BIRDS OP INDIA." 

BY 

E. C. Stuart Baker, f.l.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u. 
Part IV. 
{Continued from page 744 of Volume XXVII.) 
Family Zosteropid^. 

1 1 74. (226) Zosterops palpebrosa palpebrosa. The Indian 

White- eye. 

Sylvia palpebrosa Temm., PI. Col, 293, Fig. 3, (1824), {Bengal) 
{Cuttack Orissa). 

Bengal, Orissa, E. Central Provinces, S. India. 

1 175. (226) Zosterops palpebrosa elwesi. The Western White- 

eye. 

Stuart Baker Bull., B.O.C., xlii., p. (1921), {Sikkim). 

E. Central Pro\ances, N. W. and N. India, Himalayas to 
N. Assam, 

1 176. (226) Zosterops palpebrosa egregia. The Small Ceylon 

White-eye. 

Zosterops egregia Madaraz, Ann, Mus., Budapest, ix., p. 422, 
PI. xvi, Fig. 1, ( ), {Ceylon). 
Ceylon only. 

1177. (226) Zosterops palpebrosa cacharensis. The Cachar 

White-eye. 

Stuart Baker Bull., B.O.C., xlii., p. (1921), {Ounjgong, N, 
Cachar). 

Assam S. of Brahmapootra to Chin Hills. 

1178. (228) Zosterops palpebrosa peguensis. The Pegu White- 

eye- 

Stuart Baker Bull.^ B.O.C., xlii., p.- (1921), {Tennasserim). 
S. Burma, E. Burma, Yunnan, ? Hainan and Formosa. 

1 179. (226) Zosterops palpebrosa nicobariensis. The Nico- 

bar White-eye. 

Z. nicobariensis Blyth, J.A.S.B., xiv., p. 563, (1845) {Nicobars). 
Andamans and Nicobars, including Car Kicobar. 

1 180. (229) Zosterops ceylonensis. T]ie Large Ceylon White-eye. 

Holds., P.Z.S., 1872, p. 459, PI. 20, Fig. 2 {Ceylon). 
Ceylon, only above 1,000 feet. 



86 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

ii8i. (227) Zosterops aureiventer aureiventer, Hume's White- 
eye. 

Z, aureiventer Hume, Sir. Feath., vi., p. 519, (1878), (Tavoy). 
Tennasserim, Malay Peninsula, North to S. Shan States. 

n82. (230) Zosterops siamensis. The Siamese White-eye. 

Blyth, Ibis, 1867, 2^- 34, (Simn.) 

Pegu, S.W. and Central Burma, Siam, Cochin China, etc. 

Ffmily NECTARINIIDiE. 

Sub-Family Nectariniince. 

Sunbirds. 

1 183. (881) Chalcostetha chalcostetha. Maclot's Sunbird. 

Nectarinia chalcostetha Jardine, Nat. His. Ned., 2)- 263, fl843), 
{E. Indian Is.). 

Tennasserim, South through Malay Pen. to Sumatra and 
PJava, etc. 

1 184. (882-3*) /Cthopyga siparaja seherise. The Himalayan 

Yelloiv-bached Simbird. 

Nectarinia seherise Tichelt, J.A.S.B., ii., p. 517, (1833), 
{BorahJium). 

Foothills of Himalayas from Kalka to Lower Shan 

States. 

1 185. (882) >Ethopyga siparaja miles. The NejJal Yellow-backed 

Sunbird. 

Cinnyris miles Hodg. Ind., Rev., ii., p. 273, (1837), {Nepal). 
Nepal, apparently above the breedmg range of seherice. 

1 186. (884) /Cthopyga siparaja cara. The Tennasserim Yellow- 

backed Sunbird. 

JE. cara Hume, S.F., ii., p. 473, (1874), {Tennasserim). 

Siam and Burma, South from Rangoon through the Malay 
Pen. 

1 1 87. (885) y^thopyga siparaja nicobarica. The Nicobar 

Y ellow-baoked Sunbird. 

^. nicobarica Hume, S.F., ?., p. 412, (1873), {Nocobars). 
The Nicobar Islands. 

1 188. (886) yCthopyga vigors i. Vigors' Yellotv-backed Sunbird. 

Cinn\Tis vigors! Sykes, P.Z.8., 1832, p. 93, {Deccan). 
S. W. Coast of India. 



*M. s. andersoni does not apx)ear to be recognizable, the distinguishing charac- 
ters being purely individual. Rothschild's viridicauda (Nov. Zool. XXVIII, p. 68, 
1921), seems also to be founded on individual variations. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 87 

1 189. (887) >Ethopyga ignicauda ignicauda. The Fire-tailed 

Yellow-bacJced Sunbird. 

Cinnyris ignicauda Hodg., Ind. Rev., ii., p. 273, (1837), {Nepal). 
Garhwal, Nepal, Sikklm, Assam, N. & S. of Brahmapootra, 
Chittagong. 

1 190. ( ) /Ethopyga ignicauda flavescens. Rippon's Yellow- 

backed Sunbird. 

Stuart Baker Bull., B.O.C., xli, p. 71, (1921), ML Victoria. 
Chin HiUs, 9,000 feet. 

1191. (888) /Cthopyga gouldise. Mrs. Gould's Sunbird. 

Cinnyris gouldiae Vigors, P.Z.S., 1831, 2^- 44, (Himalayas). 
Himalayas from Sutlej to Assam. 

1 192. (889) /Cthopyg-a dabryi. Dabry's Yellow-backed Sunbird. 

Nectarinia dabryi Verreaux, Rev. et. Mag. Zool., p. 173, (1867), 
{Ta-tsien-lu, Szechuan). 

Hills of Eastern and Southern Burma and S. W. China. 

1 193. (890*) /Cthopyga saturata. The Black-breasted Sunbird. 

Cinnyris saturata Hodg., Ind, Rev., ii.,p.273, (1837), (Nepal). 
Garhwal to Assam, Cachar, Chittagong to Kauri Kachin 
Hills and ? Siam. 

1 194. (891) >ethopyg-a sanguinipecta. Walden's Yellow-backed 

Sunbird. 

Walden, A.M.N.H., (4), xv., p. 400, (1875), (Tennasserim). 
Burma, S. and E. of Tounghoo. 

1 195. (892) y^thopyga nipalensis nipalensis. The Nepal 

Yellow-backed Sunbird. 

Cinnyris nipalensis Hodg., Ind. Rev., ii., p. 273, (1837), (Nepal). 
E. Nepal to E. and S. Assam, N. Burmese Hills to S. Shan 

States. 

H96. (893) ^thopyga nipalensis horsfieldi. Blyth's Yellow- 
backed Sunbird. 

Cmnyris horsfieldi ^Zyife, J.A.S.B., xi., p. 107, (1842), (Nepal), 
Garhwal, Kumaon and Western Nepal. 

1197. (892) /Cthopyga nipalensis victorias. Rippon's Yellow- 
backed Sunbird. 

M. victorise Rippon, Bull., B.O.C., xiv., p. 83, (1904), (Mt. 
Victoria). 
Mt. Victoria, Chin HiUs. 

* J^thopyga anomala Richmond P.N.S. Nat. Mas. XXII, p. 319, is merely 
saturatai 



88 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

1198. (894) *Cyrtostoinus lotenius. Loten's Sunbird. 

Certhia lotenia Linn., S.N., I., p. 188, (1766), (Ceylon). 
Ceylon and S. India. 

1 199. (895) Cyrtostomus asiaticus asiaticus. The Purple 

Sunbird. 

Certhia asiatica Lath., Ind. Orn., i., ^j. 288, (1790), (India)' 
(Otirgaon, C. India). 
The whole of India except area occupied by brevirostris 
and intermedia. 

1200. (895) Cyrtostomus asiaticus brevirostris. The Balu- 

chistan Purple Sunbird. 

Nectarinia (Arachnecthra) brevirostris Blanjord, Ibis, 1873, 
p. 86, (Jalk, Baluchistan). 

Sind, Baluchistan, Afghanistan and E. Persia. 

1 20 1. (895) Cyrtostomus asiaticus intermedium. The Burmese 

Purple Sunbird. 

Arachnecthara intermedia Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 436, (Burma). 
Assam and Burma. 

1202. (896) Cyrtostomus brasiliana. Van HasseWs Sunbird. 

Certhia brasihana Gmel., Sys. Nat.,i.,p. 474, (1188), (Brazil), 
(Java, Oberholser). 
Java and Singapore to Assam. 

1203. (897t) Cyrtostomus pectoralis pectoralis. The Malay 

Yellow-breasted Sunbird. 

Nectarinia pectoralis Horsf., Trans., Linn. Soc, xiii.. p. 167, 
(1821), (Java). 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Lombok, Flores, N'cobars and 
' Malay Pen. to S. Tennasserim. 

1204. (897) Cyrtostomus pectoralis blanfordi. The Kondol 

Yellow-breasted Sunbird. 

Stuart Baker Bull, B.O.C., xli., p. 71, (1921), (Kondol, Nicohars) 
Kondol Is. Nicobars. 

1205* (898) Cyrtostomus flammaxillaris flammaxillaris. 

The Burmese Yellow-breasted Sunbird. 

Nectarinia flammaxillaris Blyth, J.A.S.B., xiv., p. 557, (1845), 
(Tennasserim). 

South Burma, Cochin China, Siam and Malay Peninsula. 

* Cyrtostomus and Arachnecthra being identical generically the former name 
has priority. 

\ I can trace no differences between C- pectoralis jjncforalis and C. klosa 
which are not purely individual. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 89 

1206. (899) Cyrtostomus flammaxillaris andamanicus. The 

Andaman Sunbird. 

Arachnecthra andamanica Hume, S.F., i., p. 404, (1873), (An- 
damans). 

Andaman Islands. 

1207. (900) Cyrtostomus minimus. The Small Sunhird. 

Cinnyris minima Sykes, P.Z.S., 1832, p. 99, {Deccan). 
South India and Ceylon. 

1 208. (901) Cyrtostomus zeylonicus The Purple-rumped Sun- 

bird. 

Certhia zejlonica, Linn., S.N., L, p. 188, (1766), {Ceylon). 
Ceylon to E. Bengal. ? Khasia Hills and Faridpore. 

1209. (902) Anthreptes hypogrammica hypogrammica. The 

Banded Sunbird. 

Nectarinia hypogrammica 8. Mull. Verhand. Nat. Gesch. ZooL 
Aves., p. 173, (1843), (Sumatra). 

Peninsula Siam and Burma to Sumatra. 

1210. (903) Anthreptes malaccensis malaccensis. The Broivn- 

throated Sunbird. 

Certhia malaccensis Scop>., del. Flor. et. Faun. Insubr., ii., 2). 
91, (1786), {Malacca). 

Pen. Siam and Burma, Malaya to Sumatra. 

121 1. (904) Anthreptes rhodolasi-na. The Rufous-throated Sun- 

bird. 

Shelley, Mon. Ned., p. 313, (1878), {Malacca). 
S. Tennasserim to Borneo. 

1 2 12. (905) Anthreptes simplex xanthochlora. The Plain- 

coloured Sunbird. 

A. xanthochlora Hume, 8.F., Hi., p. 330, footnote, (1875), 
{Tennasserim). 
Pen. Burma and Siam to Malay. 

1213. (906) Arachnothera magna magna. The Larger Streaked 

Spider-hunter. 

Cinnyi'is magna Hodg., Ind. Rev., ii., 1837, p. 272, {Nepal). 
Himalayas, Sutlej to E. Assam, S. to N. Tennasserim. 

1214. (907) Arachnothera magna aurata. The Smaller Streaked 

Spider-hunter. 

A. aurata Blyth, J.A.S.B., xxiv., p. 478, (1855), {Pegu). 
S. Tennasserim and Pen. Siam. 

1215. (908) Arachnothera affinis modesta. The Grey-breasted 

Spider-hunter. 

Anthreptes modesta Eyton, P.Z.S., 1839, p. 105, {Malaija). 
Pen. Siam and Burma to Borneo. 
12 



90 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIl. 

1216. (909) Arachnothera longirostra longirostra. The Little 

Spider-hunter. 

Certhia longirostra Lath., Ind Orn., i., p. 299, (1790), {Bengal), 

{Sylhet). 

India and Burma. 

1 2 17. (910) Arachnothera chrysogenys. The Yellow-eared Spider- 

hunter. 

Nectariniachrysogenys Tewm., PI. Col, pi. 388, Fig. i., (1826), 
{Java). 

S. Tennasserim to Java and Borneo. 

12 18. (912) Dicaeum cruentatum cruentatum. The Scarlet- 

backed Flower-pecker. 

Certhia cruentata Linn., S.N., i., p. 119, (1758), {Be7igal), 
{Calcutta). 

Nepal, Bhutan Dooars, Bengal and Assam. 

12 19. (912) Dicaeum cruentatum ignitum. The Burmese Scar- 

let-backed Flower-pecker. 

Nectarinia ignita Begbie, '' Mai. Pen.,'' p. 518, (1834), {Malay 
Pen.). 

Malay Pen. N. to Chin Hills, Java and Sumatra. 

1220. (912) Dicaeum cruentatum siamensis. The Siam Scarlet- 

backed Flower-pecker. 

Kloss, Ibis, 1918, p. 216, {Lat Bua Kao, E. Siam). 

Siam, (Eastern Tennasserim birds appear to be this race), 

1221. (913) Dicasum trigonostigma rubropygium. The Ten- 

nasserim Orange-bellied Flower-pecker. 

Stuart Baker Bull, B.O.C., xli., p. 108, (1921), {Mergui). 
Malay Pen. N. of 10° long., S. W. Siam amd S. Burma, 
LakhimiDur, Assam. 

1222. (913) Dicaeum chrysorrheum intensum. The Sikkim 

Yellow-vented Flower-pecker. 

Stuart Baker Bitll, B.O.C., xli., p. 108, (1921), {Native Sikkim). 
Assam to Sikkim. 

1223. (914) Dicasum chrysorrheum chrysoclhore. The Bur- 

mese Yellow-vented Flower-pecker. 

Dicaeum chrysoclhore Blyth, J. A. 8. B., xii., p. 1009, 
(1843), {Arrakan). 

Burma, Siam amd Malay Pen. North of lO** lat. 

1224. (915) Dicaeum ignipectum. The Fire-breasted Flower- 

pecker. 

Myzanthe ignipectus Hodg., Blyth.. J.A.S.B., xii., p. 983, 
'(1843), {Nepal). 

Himalayas from Sutlej to Assam, Burma, Siam, Malay Pen. 
and Islands. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 91 

1225. (916*) Dicaeum minullum concolor. The Nilgiri Flower- 

pecker. 

Dicseum concolor, Jerdon, Madr. Jour., xi., 2>- 227, (1840), 
(^Malabar Coast). 

West coast from Mysore, S. through the Hills to Paini 
Hills. 

1226. (916) Dicaeum minxxWum s\xhi\ai\\xm. The Belgaum Flower' 

pecker. 

Stuart Baker Bull., B.O.C., xlii., p. (1921), (Belgaum). 
Belgaum North to Khandala and Mahabaleshwar and ? 
Central Provinces. 

1227. (917) Dicaeum minullum olivaceum. Tlte Plain-coloured 

Flower-pecker. 

Dica3um olivaceum Walden, A.M.N.H., (4), xv., p. 401, (1875), 
{Tounghoo). 
Nepal, Bhutan, Assam, Burma, S. to Sumatra. 

1228. (918) Dicaeum minullum virescens. The Andamanese 

Flower-pecker. 

Dicfeum virescens Huvie, S.F., j)- 482, (1873), {Port Blair, 
Andamans). 
Andamans. 

1229. (919) Dicasum erythrorhynchum. TickelVs Flower-pecker. 

Certhia erythrorhynchos Lath., Ind. Orn., i., %>. 299, (1790), 
{India). 

Whole of India, West and South Burma. 

1230. (920) Acmonorhynchus vincens. Legge's Flower-pecker. 

Prionochilus vincens^ Sclater, P.Z.S., 1872, p. 729, {Ceylon). 
Ceylon only. 

1231. (921) Piprisoma squalidum squalidum. The Thick-billed 

Flower-pecker. 

Pipra squahda Burton, P.Z.S., 1836, p. 113, {Himalayas). 
Ceylon to Himalayas, E. to Assam, N. of Brahmapootra, 

1232. (922) Piprisoma squalidum modestum. Hume' s Flower- 

pecker. 

Prionochilus modestus Hiime, S.F., Hi., p. 298, (1875), {S. 
Tennasserim). 

Assam, S. of Brahmapootra to S. Tennasserim. 

1233- (923) Prionochilus ignicapillus. The Crimson-breasted 

Flower-pecker. 

Dieseum ignicapilla Eyton, P.Z.S., 1839, p. 105, {Malaya). 
Bankasoon, South to Sumatra and Borneo. 



Our Indian birds are only geographical races of the Javan D. minuttum. 



92 JOURNAL, BOMBA Y NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII, 

1234. (924) Prionochillus maculatus. The Yellow-throated 

Flower-pecker. 

Pardalotus maculatus Temm., PL Col, Hi., p. 600; /. 3, (1836), 
(Borneo). 

Tennasserim to Borneo. ? S. West Siam. 

1235. (925) Pachyglossa melanoxantha. The Yellow-bellied 

Flower-pecker. 

Hodg., Blt/th., J.A.8.B., xii., p. 1010, (1843), {Nepal). 

Nepal, East to S. Shan States and W. China, S. to Manipur. 

Family Chalcopariid^. 

1236. (911) Chalcoparia singalensis singalensis. The Rubif 

Throat. 

Motaeilla singalensis Gmel., 8. N., i., p. 964, (1788). 
(Ceylon in errror), (Malacca,, Oberholser). 
Sikkim Duars to E. Assam, Burma, Malay Pen. and Islands. 

Family Pittid^, 

1237. (926) Anthocichia phayrii. Phayre's Pitta. 

Blyth, J.A.S.B., xxxi., p. 343, (1862), (Tounghoo). 
South-East Burma and Siam. 

1238. (927) Pitta nipalensis. The Blue-naped Pitta. 

Paludicola nipalensis Hodg., J.A.8.B., vi., p. 103, (1837), 
(Nepal). 

Nepal, N. and S. Assam, Chin Hills and Arracan. 

1239. (928) Pitta oatesi. The Fulvous Pitta. 

Hydrornis oatesi Hume, S.F., L, p. ^11, (1873), (Tennasserim). 
South Burma and S. E. Siam. 

1240. (929) Pitta coerulea coerulea. The Giant Pitta. 

Myiothera coerulea Rajfl. Tran. L.8., xiii., p. 301, (1822) 
(Sumatra). 

South Burma and Siam to Sumatra. 

1 24 1. (930) Pitta cyanea cyanea. The Blue Pitta. 

Pitta cyanea Blyth J.A.8.B., xii., p. 1008, (1843), (Arracan), 
Assam, North and W. Burma and Siam. 

1242. (931*) Pitta moluccensis. The Lesser Blue-winged Pitta. 

Turdus moluccensis P.Z.8., Mull., Natursyst. Suppl., p. 144, 
(1776), (Moluccas). (Tennasserim). 
Central and South Burma and Siam southwards. Not 
Moluccas. 

* Although the name given by Mullet is unfortunate as the bird does not ocouP 
in the Moluccas, we cannot discard it for that reason. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 93 

.I243i (932) Pitta megarhyncha. The Large-hilled Blue-winged 
Pitta. 

Schleg., Vog. Ned. hid. Pitta, p. 32, (1863), {He de Bangka). 
Tennasserim south to Malay Pen. and island of Banka. 

1244. (933) Pitta brachyura. The Indian Pitta. 

Corvus brachyunis Linn., 8.N., i., p. 158, (1766), {Muluccas, 
Ceylon). 

Simla to Ceylon, E. Rajputana to Assam, Chittagong 
and Manipur. 

1245. (934) Pitta granatina coccinea. The Malayan Scarlet 

Pitta. 

Pitta coccinea Eyton, P.Z.S., 1839, p. 104, {Malaya). 
South Tennasserim and Siam to Singapore. 

1246* (935) Pitta cucullata cucullata. The Green-breasted Pitta. 
Pitta cucullata Hartl, Rev. ZooL, 1843, p. 65, {Malacca). 
Himalayas, Simla to Assam, S. to Tennasserim and ? 
Malay Pen. 

1247. (935) Pitta cucullata abbotti. The Nicobar Green-breast- 
ed Pitta. 

Pitta abbotti Richmond, Pro. Nat. Mus., xxv., p. 298, (1902), 
{Nicobars). 

Great and Little Nicobars. 

1248*. (936) Pitta gurneyi. Gurney's Pitta. 

Hume, S.F., Hi., p. 296, pi. 3, (1875), (.S^. Tennasserim). 
Pen. Siam and Tennasserim to Malacca. 

Order EURYLAIMI. 

Family Eurylaimid^. 

1249, (937) Eurylaimus javanicus javanicus. Horsfield's 
Broadbill. 

Eurylaimus javanicus Horsf., Trans. Linn. Soc, xiii., p. 170. 
(1821), {Java). 

Malay States to Siam and Tennasserim, Sumatra, Java, 
not Borneo. 

i2S0i (938) Eurylaimus ochromelas. The Black and Yellow 
Broadbill. 

Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc, xiii., 2). 297, (1822), {Singapore 
and Snmatra). 

Siam, Tennasserim South to Sumatra, etc. 

1251. (939) Cerydon sumatranus sumatranus. The Dusky 
Broadbill. 

Coracias sumatranus Ra^es, Trans. Linn. Soc, xiii., p 303 
(1822), {Sumatra). > i> ^o, 

Siam, Tennasserim, South to Sumatra, not Borneo. 



94 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL LUST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

1252. (940*) Cymborhynchus macrorhynchus macrorhynchus. 

The Black and Red Broadbill. 

Todus macrorhynchus Gmel, S.N., i., p. 446, (1788), {Borneo). 
Tennasserim, South through the Malay Peninsula, Siam. 

1253. (941) Cymborhynchus affinis. The ArraJcan Black and 

Red Broadbill. 

Blyth, J.A.S.B., xv., p. 312, (1846), (Arrakan). 
Arrakan, South to Cape Negrais and Rangoon. 

1254. (942) Serilophus lunatus lunatus. Gould's Broadbill. 

Eurylaimus lunatus Oould, P.Z.S., 1833, p. 133, (Rangoon). 
Tennasserun, Pegu Karennee. 

,255 (94^) Serilophus lunatus rubropygius. Hodgson's Broad 

bill. 

Raya rubropygia Hodg., J.A.8.B., viii., p. 36, (1839), {Nepal). 
Himalayas to East and South Assam, Manipur, Arrakan 
and Chin Hills. 

12^6 (944) Psarisomus dalhousiae. The Long-tailed Broadbill. 
Eurylaimus dalhousiae Jameson, Edinh., N. Ph. J., xviii., 
p. 389, (1835), (N. India). 

Himalayas from Mussorie to E. Assam, Burma to Malay 
Pen. 

I2S7« (945) Calyptomena viridis. The Green Broadbill. 

Raffles, Trans. L.S., xiii., p. 295, (1822), {Sumatra). 
Tennasserim, S. Siam and Malay Pen. 

Order PICI. 

Family Picid^. 

12^8. (946) Picus squamatus squamatus. The Scaly-bellied 
Green Woodpecker. 

Picus squamatus Vigors, P.Z.S., 1931, p. 8, (Himalayas). 
Gilgit to Kashmir and Western Nepal. 

I2SQ- (947) Picus squamatus flavirostris. Hargitfs Scaly- 
bellied Green Woodpecker. 
Gecinus flavirostris Menzbier, Bull., Nat. Moscoiv, p. 440 
1886, (Murghab). 

Trancaspia to Baluchistan and Afghanistan. 

1260. (948) Picus striolatus. The Little Scaly-bellied Green 
Woodpecker. 

Blyth, J.A.S.B, xii., p. 1000, (1843), (Nepal). 
Himalayas, east to Burma, Siam. 

* I canaot separate lemniscalus (Raffles) whilst affi7iis appears to be a species 
rather than a race, there being no connecting forms. C. m. malaccensis may be 
found -within our limits. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 95 

1 26 1. (949) Picus vittatus vittatus. The Malay Scaly-bellied 

Green Woodpecker. 

Picus vittatus Vieill, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxvL, 1818, 
p. 91, {Malacca). 

Malay States, Java, Pen, Siam and Burma. 

1262. (949) P'yciis wittatus \iriAsin\is. The Burmese Scaly-hellied 

Green Woodpecker. 

Picus viridanus Blyth, J.A.8.B., xii., 1843, p. 1000, {Arrakan). 
Burma, Chin and Kachin Hills, Shan States, N. and* 
Central Siam. 

1263. (950) Picus canus occipitalis. The Indian Black-naped 

Green Woodpecker. 

Picus occipitalis Vigort,, P.Z.S., 1830, ;;. 8, {Mmsoorie). 
N. W. Himalayas to Eastern Nepal. 

1264. (950) Picus canus g^yldenstolpei. The Assam Black-naped 

Green Woodpecker. 

Stuart Baker, Bull., B.O.C., xxxix, 1918, ^j. 19, {Sadiya, 
Assam). 

Sikkim, Assam, Cachar, Sylhet, Manipur, Looshai Hills. 

1265. (950) Picus canus hessel. The Burmese Black-naped Green 

Woodpecker. 

Gecinus canus hessi Gyldenstolpe, Oni. Monatsb., xxiv p 28 

(1916), {N. Siam). ' ' 

North Central and S. Burma, Siam as far S. as Mulmein. 

1266. (951) Picus chlorolophus chlorolophus. TAe /SmaZ/ ^ma- 

layan Yellow-naped Woodpecker. 

Picus chlorolophus Vieill, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxvi v 
18, (1818), (Bengal). "^' 

Himalayas and Hill ranges of Burma. 

1267. (952) Picus chlorolophus chlorigaster. The Southern 

Yellow-naped Woodpecker. 

Picus chlorigaster Jerd., Madr. Jour. L.8., xiii., pt 2 v 
139, (1844:), (S. India). ' ^' 

Hills of Southern India and Ceylon. 

1268. (953) Picus pumceus puniceus. The Crimson-winced Green 

Woodpecker. 

Horsf. Trans. Linn. Sac, xiii., p. 176, (1821), (Java). 
Tennasserim, South to Sumatra, Java and Borneo. 

1269. (954) Picus erythropygius nigrigenis. The Red-rump- 

ed Green Woodpecker. 

Gecinus nigrigenis Hume, P.A.S.B., 1874, p. 106, (Pakchan, 
Tennasserim). 
Central and South Burma, West Siam and N. Malay Pen. 



96 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL. HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXV III. 

1270. (955) Chrysophlegma flavinucha flavinucha. The 

Large Yellow-najjed Woodpecker. 

Picus flavinucha Gould, F.Z.S., 1833, p. 120, (Himalayas). 
Himalayas from Mussoorie to the Kachin Hills, Burma 
and Siam. 

1271. (956) Chrysophlegma mentalis humii. The Chequered- 

throated Woodpecker. 

Chrysophlegma humii Hargitt, Ibis, 1889, p. 231, {Malacca). 
Tennasserim, South to Sumatra. 

1272. (957) Callolophus miniatus malaccensis. The Banded 

Red Woodpecker. 

Picus malaccensis Lath., Ind. Orn., i., p. 241, (1790). (Malacca) 
Tennasserim, South to Sumatra and Borneo. 

1273. (958*) Qecinulus grantia grantia. The Northern Pale- 

headed Woodpecker. 

Picus grantia McClelland, P.Z.S., 1839, p. 165, (Assam). 
Nepal to Assam, Chin, Kachin HiUs, N. Siam to French 
Laos. 

1274. (959) Qecinulus grantia viridis The Southern Pale- 

headed Woodpecker. 
G. viridis Blyth,J.A.S.B., xxxi., :p. 341, (1862), (Pakpoon, 
Tennasserim). 

S. W. Siam and S. Burma to Kossum, 

1275. (960) Dryobates hyperythrus hyperythrus. T^ 72m/ows- 

bellied Pied Woodpecker. 

Picus hyperythrus Vigors, P.Z.S., p. 23, (1831), (Himalaya, 
Darjiling). 

Himalayas, Nepal to N. Shan States. 

1276. (960) Dryobates hyperythrus marshalli. The Western 

Rufous-bellied Pied Woodpecker. 

Hartert, Vog. Pal, vii., p. 926, (1912), (Murree). 
N. W. Himalayas. 

T377. (961) Dryobates himalayensis. The Western Himalayan 
Pied Woodpecker. 

Picus himalayensis Jard. tt- Sel., III. Orn., in., pi. 116, (1835)j 
(Mussuri). 
N. W. Himalayas, Afghanistan to Murree. 

1278. (962) Dryobates cabinisi cabinisi. The Chinese Pied Wood- 
pecker. 

Picus cabanisi Malh., Jour. f. Orn., 1854, p. 172, (China). 
Manipur, Chin and Kachin Hills to China. 

*Qecinulvs viridis robinsoni of Kloss, (Ibis, 1918, p. 105) is founded on individ- 
ual variation only. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 97 

1279. (963) Dryobates scindeanus. The Sind Pied Wood- 

pecker. 

Picus scindeanus //ors/. cD Moore, Cat. B., ii., p. 671, (1856-8), 
(Shikarpore). 
S. E. Persia, Baluchistan, Sind and W. Punjab. 

1280. (964) Dryobates darjellensis. The Darjeeling Pied Wood- 

pecker. 

Pious darjellensis Blyth, J.A.S.B., xiv., p. 196, (1845). 
{Darjiling). 

Himalayas, Nepal to Mts. of W. China. 

1281. (965) Dryobates cathparius cathparius. The Lesser 

Pied Woodpecker. 

Picus cathparius Blyth, J.A.S.B., xii., p. 1006, (1843), {Dar- 
jiling). 
Nepal, Sikkim and Assam, N. and S. of Brahmapootra. 

1282. (966) Dryobates cathparius pyrrhothorax. The Red- 

breasted Pied Woodpecker. 

Pious pyrrhothorax Hume, S.F., x., p. 150, (1887), {Aimole, 
E. Manipur). 

Hills S. of Brahmapootra. 

1283. (967) Dryobates macei macei. The Fulvous-breasted Pied 

Woodpecker. 

Picus maoei Vieill, Nouv. Did.d' Hist. Nat., xxvi., p. 80, (1818), 
(Bengal). 
Himalayas from Murree to E. Assam, (S. of Brahmapootra). 

1284. (968) Dryobates macei atratus. The Stripe-breasted 

Pied Woodpecker. 

Pious atratus Blyth, J.A.S.B, xviii., p. 803, (1849), 
{Tennasserim). 
Hills S. of Brahmapootra, Burmese Hills to Tennasserim. 

1285. (969) Dryobates smriceps. The Brown-fronted Pied Wood- 

pecker. 

Pious aurioeps Vigors., P.Z.8, 1831, p. 44, {Himalayas), 
{Simla). 

Himalayas, Afghanistan to W. Nepal. 

1286. (970) Dryobates pectoralis pectoralis. The Spotted- 

breasted Pied Woodpecker. 

Pious pectoralis Blyth, J.A.8.B., xv., p. 15, (1846), (No Hab. 
given.) 

Southern Burma and S. W. Siam. 

1287. (971) Dryobates pectoralis andamanensis. The Anda- 

man Pied Woodpecker. 

Pious andamanensis Blyth, J.A.S.B., xxviii., p. 412, (1859) 
{Andamans). 

Andamans. 
13 



98 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL BIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

1288. (972) Liopicus mahrattensis. The Yellow-fronted Pied 

Woodpecker. 

Picus mahrattensis Lath., Ind. Orn. 8upp., p. xxxi., (1801), 
(India). 
Ceylon, India and Burma. 

1289. (973*) lynfeipicus semicoronatus. The Darjiling Pigmy 

Woodpecker. 

Picus semicoronatus Malherbe, Bull., 80c. d'Hist. Nat. Moselle, 
v., p. 21, (1848), {Himalayas). 
Sikkim to E. Assam, Manipur, Chin, Kachin Hills and 
Yunnan. 

1290. (974) lyngipicus pygmaeus. The Himalayan Pygmy- 

Woodpecker. 

Picus pygmaeus Vigors, P.Z.8., 1831, p. 44, (Himalayas). 
Western Himalayas to Nepal. 

1291. (978) lyngipicus canicapillus. The Burmese Pygmy Wood- 

pecker. 

Picus canicapillus Blyth, J.A.8.B., xiv., p. 197, (1845), 
(Arrakan). 

Burma and ? Cachar, Manipur. 

1392. (976) lyngipicus hardwickii. The Indian Pygmy Wood- 
pecker. 

Picus hardwickii Jerd., Madr. Jour. L. 8., xiii., p. 138, (1844), 
(8. India). 

Northern India. 

1293. (979) lyngipicus gymnopthalmus. The Ceylon Pygmy 

Woodpecker. 

Picus gymnopthalmus Blyth, J.A.8.B., xviii., p. 804, (1849), 
(Ceylon). 

Ceylon and S. India. 

1294. (918) Blythipicus pyrrhotis pyrrhotis. The Red-eared 

Bay Woodpecker. 

Picus pyiThotis Hodg., J.A.8.B., vl, p. 108, (1837), (Nepal). 
Nepal to South Burma and E. to Annam. 

1295. (979) Blythipicus pyrrhotis rubiginosus. The Malay 

Bay Woodpecker. 

Hemicircus rubiginosus Swainson, B. of W. Africa, ii., p. 
150, (1837), (W. Africa). 
Tennasserim, South to Sumatra and Borneo. 

* The genus lyngipicus requires careful working out. Nothing has been att emp- 
ted in this list. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE, 99 

1296. (980) Miglyptes tristis grammithorax. The Fulvous- 

rumped Barred Woodpecker. 

Phaiopicus grammithorax Malh., Picidae, ii., p. 12, (1802), 
(Malay Pen.) 

Peninsular, Siam and Burma to Sumatra and Borneo. 

1297. (981) Miglyptes tukki. The Buff-mcked Barred Wood, 

pecker. 

Pious tukki Less., Rev. Zool, 1839, p. 167, (Sumatra). 
Extreme South Tennasserim to Borneo. 

1298. (982) Miglyptes jugularis. The Black and Buff Wood- 

pecker, 

Pious jugularis Blyth, J.A.S.B., xiv., p. 195, (1845), 
(Arrakan). 
Central and South Burma, Siam and Cochin China. 

1299. (984) Micropternus brachyurus williamsoni. The Siam 

Rufous Woodpecker. 

Kloss, Ibis, 1918, p. 107, (Koh Lak, S. W. Siam). 
Peninsular Burma and Siam. 

1300. (983) Micropternus brachyurus phaioceps. The Northern 

Rufous Woodjjecker. 

Micropternus phaioceps Blyth, J.A.S.B., xiv., p. 195, (1845), 
(Arrakan). 
Nepal, N. Assam, Burma, Shan States, N. and W. Siam. 

1301. (983) Micropternus brachyurus humei. The Western 

Rufous Woodpecker. 

Kloss, Ibis., 1918, /. 109, (Rohilkund). 
N. W. Himalayas. 

1302. (983) Micropternus brachyurus mesos. The Orissa 

Rufous Woodpecker. 

Kloss, Ibis, 1918, p. 109, (Kuttak, Orissa). 

Bengal, Behar, N. Orissa and Assam S. of Brahmapootra. 

1303. (985) Micropternus brachyurus gularis. The Madras 

Rufous Woodjyecker. 

Pieus gularis Jerd., Madr. Jour., xiii., p. 139, (1844), (Southern 
India). 

India, S. of Orissa and Bombay, not S. Travanoore. 

1304. (985) Micropternus brachyurus lanka. The Ceylon 

Rufous Woodpecker. 

Kloss, Ibis, 1918, p. 108, (Ceylon). 
Ceylon and South Travancore. 



100 JOURNAL, BOMB Ay NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIl. 

1305. (986) Brachypternus aurantius aurantius. The North- 

ern Golden-backed Woodpecker. 

. Picus aurantius Linn., S.N., i., p. 174, (1766), {Cape of Good 
Hope) (Behar). 

N. W. India, N. India, Bengal, Central India, Orissa and 
Bombay. 

1306. (986*) Brachypternus aurantius puncticollis. The South- 

ern Golden-backed Woodpecker. 

Brachytemopicus puncticollis Malh., Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 405, 
(Ceylon). 
India S. of range of last bird and Ceylon. 

,307. (986) Brachypternus aurantius dilutus. The Sind Gold- 
en-backed Woodpecker. 

Brachypternus dilutus Blyth, Cat., p. 56, (1852), (Sind). 
Sind, Baluchistan and ? Punjab. 

1308. (987*) Brachypternus aurantius erithronotus. The Red- 
backed Woodpecker. 
"Pieus erithronotus Vieill., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxvi., x>' 
73, (1818), (Ceylon). 

Ceylon (area different to that occupied by No. 1306). 

1309* (988) Tiga javanensis intermedia. The Burmese Golden- 
backed Three-toed Woodpecker. 

Picus intermedins Blyth, J.A.8.B., 1845, p. 193, (Arrahan). 
Assam, S. of Brahmapootra, Chin Hills and N. Arrakan. 

1310. (988) Tiga javanensis rubropygialis. The Malabar Gold- 
en-backed Three-toed Woodpecker. 

Picus rubropygiahs Malh., Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 400, (Bengal). 
S. India, north to Southern Orissa and Bombay. 

1311* (989) Tiga shorii. The Himalayan Golden-backed Three- 
toed Woodpecker. 

Picus shorii Vigors, P.Z.S., 1831, p. 175, (Himalaya Mts.). 
Himalayas, Nepal through Burmese Hill Ranges, 

1^12. (990) Gauropicoides rafflesi peninsularis. The Malayan 

Three-toed Woodpecker. 

Hesse, Orn. Monatsb., xix., 1911, p. 192, (Malacca). 
S. Tennasserim, S.W, Siam and Malay Peninsula. 

j,j^ (991) Chrysocolaptes festivus The Black-backed Wood- 
pecker. 
Picus festivus Bodd., Tabl, PI. Enl., p. 43, (1783), (Goa). 
Indian Plains and Ceylon. 

* A series shewn me by Mr. W. E. Wait proves quite satisfactorily that erith- 
ronotus is only a race of aurantius 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 101 

1 3 14. (992) Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus guttacristatus. 

TickelVs Golden-hacked Woodpecker, 

Picus guttacristatus Tickell. J.A.8.B,, ii., 1833, p. 578, {Bora* 
hhum). 
Behar, Bengal, Assam, Burma, North of Rangoon, Siam, etc, 

13 1 5. (992) Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus sultaneus Hodgson's 

Golden-backed Woodpecker. 

Pious sultaneus Hodg., J.A.S.B., vi., 1837, p. 105, (Nepal), 
N. W. India, Mussoree to Nepal. 

1316. (992) Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus delesserti. MaU 

herbe's Golden-backed Woodpecker. 

Indopicus delesserti Malh., Mem. Acad. Metz., 1848, p. 343, 
(Malabar). 

India, S. of Bombay and Orissa, Peninsular Burma, Siam 
and Malaya. 

13 17. (993) Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus stricklandi. Layard's 

Woodpecker. 

Brachypternus stricklandi Layard, A.M.N.H., (2), xiii., p. 
449, (1554), (Ceylo7i). 
Ceylon only. 

13 18. (994*) Hemicercus sordidus. The Grey and Buff Wood- 

pecker. 

Dendrocopus sordidus ^2/tow, A.M.N.H., xvL, p. 229, (1845), 
(Malacca). 

Tennasserim, South to Malay Pen. 

13 19. (995) *Hemicercus canente. The Heart-spotted Woodpecker. 

Picus canente Less., Cent. Zool., p. 215, (1830), (Pegu). 

Assam, S. of the Brahmapootra to Siam, etc., Malabar 
coast. 

1320. (996) Alophonerpes pulverulentulus harterti. Hesse's 

Great Slaty Woodpecker. 

Muleripicus p. harterti Hesse, Orn. Monatsb., p. 182, (1911), 
(Assam). 

Himalayas, Simla to Assam, Burma, Malay States, etc. 

1321. (997) Thriponax hodgsonii hodgsonii. The Malabar Great 

Black Woodpecker. 

Hemilophus hodgsonii Jerd., Madr. Jour., xi., p. 215, (1840), 
(Malabar Coast). 

S. W. India from Travancore to Belgaum. 



* There are probably several races of this genus which require working out. 



102 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXV IIL 

I322i (998) Thriponax hodgsonii feddeni. The Burmese Great 
Black Woodpecker. 
Mulleripicus feddeni Blanf., Blyih, J.A.8.B., xxxii., p. 75, (1863), 
{Pegu). 

Burma, Siam, Annam and Cochin China. 

,323, (999) Thriponax javanensis. The Malay Black Wood- 
pecker. 
Picus javanensis Lungh., K. Vet. Ac. Nya. Hand-b. xviii., p. 
137, (1797) {Java). 
Malay Peninsula to Phillippines. 

1324. (1000) Thriponax hodgei. The Andaman Black Wood- 
pecker. ^ 

Mulleripicus hodgei Blyth, J.A.8.B., xxix., p. 105, (1860), 
{Andamans). 

Sub-Family Pioumnin^. 

13251 (1001) Picumnus innominatus innominatus. The Hima- 
layan Speckled Piculet. 

P. innominatus Burton, P.Z.S., 1836, p. 154, {Himalayas). 
Himalayas, Kumaon to Assam. 

1326* (1001) Picumnus innominatus malayorum. The Malay 
Speckled Piculet. 

Hartert, Vog. Pal, vii., p. 937, (1912), {Perak). 
Burma to Borneo, Annam. 

I327« (1001) Picumnus innominatus avunculorum. The 

Madras Speckled Piculet. 

Hartert, Vog. Pal, vii., p. 937, (1912), {Nilgiris). 
Hills of Southern India. 

1328* (1002) Sasia ochracea ochracea. The Indian Rufous 

Piculet. 

Sasia ochracea Hodg., J.A.S.B., v., p. Ill, (1836), {Nepal). 
Himalayas to Assam and Kachin Hills. 

1329* (1002) Sasia ochracea reichenowi. The Burmese Rufous 

Piculet. 
Hesse, Orn. Monatsh., xix., p. 181, 1911, {Burma). 
Burma, Siam, Annam, N. Malay Pen. 

1330* Sasia abnormis abnormis. Temminck's Rufous 

Piculet. 

Picumnus abnormis Temm., PI Col, iv., pi 371, (1S25), 
{Java). 

Siam, Tennasserim to Sumatra, Borneo, etc. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 103 

Sub-family lyngince. 

i33t» (1003) lynx torquilla japonica. The Kashmir Wryneck, 

lynx japonica Bonap., Con. Av., i., p. 150, (1850), {Japan), 
E. Siberia to Japan, Himalayas, Kashmir to China. 

Family iNDiCATORiDiE. 

i332« (1004) Indicator xanthonotus. The Yellow-bached Honey* 
Guide. 

Blyth, J.A.S.B., xi., p. 166, (1842). {Darjiling). 
Himalayas, E, to Sikkim, Abbottabad. 

Family Capitonid^. 

^333' (1005) Caloramphus fuliginosa hayi. The Brown Barhet. 

Bucco hayi Oray, Zool. Misc., p. 33, (1831), {Malacca). 
Tennasserim, south to Sumatra. 

1334. (1007) Megalaema virens virens. The Great Chinese 

Barhet. 

Bmcco Yiaens BoM., Tahl. PL Enl, (1783), {China). 
Central and South Burma, east to China. 

1335, (1006) Megalasma virens marshallorum. The Great 

Himalayan Barhet. 

M. marshallorum Swinhoe, A.M.N. H., p. 348, (1870) 
{Nepial). 
Himalayas from Murree to Assam and N. Burma. 

^33^' (1008) Tliereiceryx zeylanicus zeylanicus. The Ceylon 
Green Barhet. 

Bucco zeylanicus Omel., Syst. Nat., i., p. 408, (1788), 
{Ceylon). 

Ceylon and South Travancore. 
1337* (1008) Thereiceryx zeylanicus caniceps. The Northern 
Green Barhet. 

Bucco caniceps Franklin, P.Z.S., 1831, p. 121, {Calcutta. 
Benares). 

Northern India from extreme W. to Western Bengal. 

^33^- (1008) Thereiceryx zeylanicus inornatus. The Bombay 
Green Barhet. 

Megalaema inornata Walden, A.M.N.H., Series iv., v., p. 
219 (1870), (Coorg). 

West Coast from N. Travancore to Bombay, 

1339* (1009) Thereiceryx lineatus hodgsoni. The Assam Line- 
ated Barhet. 

Megalaema hodgsoni Bonap., Cons. Av., i., p. 144, (185o). 
{Nepal). 
Nepal to N. Siam. 



104 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXV III 

1340* (1009) Thereiceryx lineatus intermedius. The Burmese 
Lineated Barbel. 

Stuart Baker, Bull., B.O.C., xxxix., 1918,^. 9, {Pakpoon 
Burma). 
Centra], south and peninsular Burma and Siam. 

1341. (1010) Thereiceryx viridis. The Small Green Barbel. 

Bucco viridis Bodd., Tabl. Bl. Enl, p. 53, (1783), (India). 
South and South West India. 

1342. (1011) Chotorhea mystacophanes. The Gaudy Barbel. 

Bucco mj-stacophanes Termn., PI. Col. No. 315, 1824, 
(S-umatra). 

Tennasserim, south to Sumatra. 

1343. (1012) Cyanops asiatica asiatica. The Blue-throated Barbell 

Trogon asiaticus Xai^., /«(Z. Orn., p. 201, (1790), [India). 
Himalaj^as, Chamba to South Burma. 

1344. (1012) Cyanops asiatica rubescens. The Ruddy Barbel. 

C. rubescens Stuart Baker, Nov. Zool., Hi., p. 257, (1896), 
{N. Cachar). 

Hills, S. of Brahmapootra above 3,500 feet. 

1345. (1013) Cyanops asiatica davisoni. Davison's Blue-throated 

Barbel. 

Megalsema davisoni Hume, S.F., v., p. 108, (1877), (Meetan, 
S. Tennasserim). 

S. Tennasserim and S. W. Siam. 

I346i (1014) Cyanops incognita. Hume's Blue-throated Barbet. 

Megalaima incognita Hume, S. F., ii., p. 442, (1874) (Ten- 
nasserim, 25 m. N. of Yea). 
Tavoy to Southern Tennasserim. 

1347* (1015) Cyanops flavifrons. The Yelloiv-f ranted Barbel. 

Bucco flavifrons Cuvier, Regne An., i., p. 428, ex Levaill. 
(1817), (Ceylon). 
Ceylon. 

1348. (1016) Cyanops duvauceli robinsoni. The Malay Blue- 
eared Barbel. 

Stuart Baker, Bull, B.O.C., xxxix., 1918, p. 20, (Klang 
Malay. Pen. ) 

Pen, Siam amd Burma and Malay Pen. 

^349» (1016) Cyanops duvauceli cyanotis. The Indian Blue- 
eared Barbel . 

Bucco cyanotis Blyth, J.A.S.B., xvi., p. 487, (1847), (Bengal). 
Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, Burma and Siam. 



BIRDS OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 106 

1350. Cyanops robustirostris. The Thick-billed Barbet. 

Stuart Baker, Bombay Nat. His. Jour., x., p. 356, (1896), 
{N. Cachar). 
N. Cachar Hills, Naogang and ? Yunnan. 

I35I* (1017) Cyanops franklinii franklinii. The Golden-throated 
Barbet. 

Bucco franklinii Bli/th, J.A.S.B., xi., p. 167, (1842), (Bar- 
jiling). 

Nepal to Assam and Chin Hills. 

"352. (1018) Cyanops franklinii ramsayi. Ramsay's Golden- 
throated Barbet. 

Megalsema ramsayi Walden, A.M.N.H., xv., p. 400, (1875), 
{Karen7iee). 

Central and S. Burma, Siam and Malay Pen. 

1353- (1019) Xantholaema haemacephala indica. The Indian 
Crimson-breasted Barbet. 

Bucco indicns Lath., l7uL Orn., i., p. 205,(1790), (India), 
(Calcutta). 

Plains of India, Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Yunnan, Malay 
Pen. to Sumatra. 

1354' (1020) Xantholaema malabarica. The Crimson-throated 
Barbet. 

Bucco malabaricus Blyth, J.A.S.B., xvi., pp. 386, 465, (1847)> 
(Malabar). 

Malabar Coast. 

1355- (1021) Xantholaema rubricapilla. The Small Ceylon 
Barbet. 
Bucco rubricapillus Gmel., Syst. Nat., i., p. 408, (1788), 
(Ceylon). 

Order ANISODACTYLI. 

Sub-order CoRACiiE. 

Family Coraciid^. 

■35<5t (1022) Coracias benghalensis benghalensis. The North- 
ern Indian Roller. 

Corvus benghalensis Linn., S.N., x., ed. i., p. 106, (1758), 
(Bengal). 
Persian Gulf, Northern India to E. Bengal. 

I357* (1022) Coracias benghalensis indica. The Southern 
Indian Roller. 

Coracias indica Linn., S.N., xii., ed. I., p. 159, (1766), 
(Ceylon). 
The South of India and Ceylon. 
U 



106 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXV III- 

1358. (1023) Coracias benghalensis affinis. The Burmese 
Roller. 
C. affinis McCldl, P.Z.S., 1839, p. 164, (Assam). 
Assam, Burma and Siam. 

1359' (1024) Coracias garulla semenowi. The Kashmir Roller. 
Loud. &Tschusi, Cm. Jahrb.,xiii., 2>- 148, (1902), {Trans- 
caspia). 
Transcaspia to Kashmir and Garhwal. 

1360. (1025*) Eurystomus orientalis orientalis. The Indian 

Broad-billed Roller. 

Coracias orientalis Linn., S.N. I., p. 159, (1766), (India). 
India, Burma, Siam and Southwards. 

1 36 1. (1025) Eurystomus orientalis gigas. The Andaman 

Broad-billed Roller. 

Stresemann, Nov. ZooL, xx., p. 299, (1913), {S. Andamans). 
South Andamans. 



* I find it quite impossible to separate orientalis, calonyx and lacteor and think 
the alleged differences are all individual rather than sub-specific, gigas is separable 
on account of its large size and large bill. 



{to be continued.) 



107 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 

BY 

Major F. C. Fraser, I.M.S. 

{With 4 Text figures,) 

{Continued from page 691 of Volume XXVII.) 

Family — Aeschnid^. 

Part XI. 

Insects usually of large size, with long and cylindrical abdomen. Eye& 
markedly or only slightly contiguous or more or less widely separated ; ocelli 
arranged transversely in front of vesicle ; labium with the middle lobe not 
markedly smaller than or overlapped by the lateral lobes, the latter not 
furnished with a moveable hook ; antenodal nervures of 1st and 2nd series not 
coinciding save for occasional individuals ; trigones more or less similar in all 
wings and situated equally distal to the arc ; anal appendages specialized ; a 
well developed ovipositor present in the females. 




Fig. — 1. Abdominal endings of females of 1. Cephalceschna, 2. Oynacanth' 
ceschna, 3. Gynacantha (anal appendages shown broken off). 

Subfamily 1. — Aeschnin^. 

Insects of large size, with long and cylindrical abdomen. Head large and 
globular ; eyes markedly contiguous, which is the first essential character 
separating them from the following subfamily Gomphince. Grenerally sneak- 
ing, Anax and Gynacantha have very large eyes which are contiguous for a 
long distance, whilst they are smaller and less contiguous in the ^schnince. 

Wings long and broad, reticulation usually close, trigones elongated in the 

long axis of the wing and closely similar in shape in all wings. In the group 

Anax the wings are similar in the two sexes, the males of all other groups and 

genera have the anal borders excavated or straight and the anal angle promi- 

ent but less so in Anaci ceschna. The anal border has a large triangle divided 



108 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL R18T. SOCIETY, Fol. XXVII 1. 

into two ov more cells and defined by a straight nervnre which leaves the sub- 
costal nervure and forms the acute point of the triangle by meeting the anal 
border near the anal angle (or tornus). In the group Anax the similarity 
between the two sexes is very marked, the anal triangle disappearing in both 
completely. 

Oreillets more or less developed or in the group Anax, entirely absent. The 
connection between these organs and the excavation of the hindwings has al- 
ready been commented on in dealing with Hemicordnlia asiatica. 

The basal space (for which I propose the new name " arcular space " as it 
is Hmited outwardly by the arc) is either entire or travel sed by several ner- 
vures. The 4th nervure (nodal sector) either curved uniformly or making an 
abrupt curve towards the costa beneath the stigma ; the 5th nervure (Rs or 
subnodal sector) either bifurcated or not. at or before the inner end of the 
stigma. 

5 The terminal border of the 10th abdominal segment beneath (known 
as the " dentigerous plate") most generally rounded and most often den- 
ticulate, but in Gynacantha, Gynacanthcesehna and Periceschna it is prolonged 
into a long, bifurcated fork. 

Hab. — Cosmopolitan. 

It is impossible to give an entirely satisfactory key for this subfamily owing 
to the paucity of our knowledge of several forms of which only one or the other 
sex is at present known. This applies especially to the imperfectly known 
genera Call — and Cepkalceschna. 

Dr. Laidlaw in the Records of the Indian Museum has pointed out the errors 
which have crept into the nomenclature of the species of these two genera and 
these may be usefully recapitulated here. 

The genus Caliceschna was founded by Selys in 1883 JSsdina microstigma, 
Schneider, being the type. The rounded, subdenticulate, dentigerous plate 
which is a characteristic of the female of this species was unknown to Selys 
when he founded the related genus CephalcescJma from C. orbifrons in 1885 and 
he gave the same character as of generic value to this genus. 

Noticing that Selj's had overlooked the character of the dentigerous plate 
in Caliceschna microstigma, Martin, in 1909, made the error of suppressing the 
genus Cephalcechna and of placing C. orbifrons in the genus Caliceschna without 
taking into account the diversity of the two species in other respects. A dis- 
tinguishing feature is the remarkable development of the frons in Cephaloe- 
schna orbifrons as compared with the normal development found in Caliceschna 
microstigma. 

Karsch in 1891 taking the development of the frons as the most important 
feature described Cephalceschna sikh'ma. In this species the dentigerous plate 
of the female is forked very much the same as is found in species belonging to 
the genus Gynacantha so that it clearly cannot be placed in the genus Cephal- 
<eschna and for a similar reason it falls outside the range of Caliceschna. 

Thus it is seen that Cephalceschna must be retained and a new genus must 
be erected to contain Karsch's species, and others resembling it. 

The three genera may be briefly defined as follows : — 

1. Caliaeschna with the dentigerous plate of the female rounded and sub- 

denticulate and the frons of normal development. 
Type — C. microstigma, Schneid. 

2. Cephalaeschna with the dentigerous plate of the female rounded and 

subdenticulate and the frons remarkably developed. — 
Type — C. orbifrons, Selys. 

3. Gynacantnaesohna gen. nov. with the dentigerous plate of the female 

forked and the frons remarkably developed. 
Type, — C. sikkima. Karsch. 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES, 



109 



Dr. Tillyard merges the genus Hemianax with Anax but I prefer to keep 
them separate, as in addition to the absence of the supplementary ridges to 
abdomen, there are other generic characters. 




Fig. 2. — Wings of Anax parihenope parthenope, male. 

1. Arcular or basal space, 2. 5th nervure (Rs), 
4. 4th nervure {M2 or nodal sector). 

Key to the Sub-family — ^schnin.e. 



3. 5a nervure (RspOs 



1 < 



Anal border of hindwing rounded in both sexes ; 5th nervure (Es) 
not bifurcated ; 4th nervure (M2 or nodal sector) \^ath an abrupt 
convexity forwards at outer end of stigma ; sectors of arc arising 
from above the middle of arc 

Anal border of the hindwing rounded in the female only ; .5th ner- 
vure bifurcated (except in Jagoria) ; 4th nervure uniformly curved 
as far as termen ; sectors of arc arising from or below the middle of 
arc 



r Genus Hemianax : — 

I Only a single, lateral bordering ridge to 
2-^ segments 4 to 8, no supplementary ridge 

above it . . 

Genus Anax : — 
1^ Lateral, supplementary, parallel ridges to segments 4 to 6 



Hemianax ephippiger. 
.. 3 



The thorax laterally, sky-blue marked 
with an anterior, narrow and a median, broad, 
3-^ black stripe . . . . . . . . . . Anax immaculifrons. 

[^ The thorax laterally green or pale brown, unmarked . . . . . . 4 



\ 



Inferior anal appendages half the length of the 
superior . . . . . . . . . . . . Anax guttaius. 

Inferior anal appendages considerable less than half the length of the 
superior .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5 



110 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



Inferior anal appendages one -third the 
length of the superior ; a black, T-shaped mark 
5"^ on upper surface of forehead . . . . . . Anax parthenope bacchus. 

Inferior anal appendages only one -fourth the length of the superior ; 
no black, T-shaped mark on upper surface of forehead . . . . . . 6 



Crest of forehead with a transverse, brown 
stripe bordered posteriorly with yellow ; 
membrane white 

Crest of forehead with a brown, transverse 
stripe bordered posteriorly with blue ; mem- 
brane black, white at base 



Anax parthenope parthenope. 



Basal space traversed by several nervures 
Basal space entire 
f Dentigerous plate of female rounded and subdenticulate 
Dentigerous plate of female forked 



1 



Ayiax parthenope Julius. 

8 

13 

.. 9 
.. 12 



Genus Caliceschna (Persian species) : — 
9-^ Frons only normally developed 
Genus Cephaloeschna : — 

Frons remarkably developed 

Frons projecting markedly, like the bows 
of a ship ; frons and face yellow without 
markings . . 

10-/ Frons projecting markedly in a rounded, 
globular form, pale brown ; face yellow above, 
black below with two small yellow spots on 
the labrum 

Frons yellow bordered with black above 



11 



Frons shiny black in front 
Frons yellow in front 



Genus Periceschna : — 

Trigones of forewings long, of 5 to 6 cells ; 
thorax dark brown marked with bright yellow 
stripes 
12-^ Genus Oynacanthceschna : — 

Trigones of forewings shorter, of 3 to 4 
cells only ; thorax brown or black marked 
with green stripes 

r Genus Jagoria i — 

13< 5th nervure (Rs) unforked 

1^ 5th nervure forked 



Caliceschna microstigma. 
10 

Cephacelschna acutifrons. 



Cephaloeschna orbifrons. 
11 



Cephalceschna lugubris. 
Cephaloeschna masoni. 

Perioechna magdalence. 
Gynacanthoeschna sikkima 



Jagoria martim 
. . 14 



r Genus Austroceschna i — 
14-^ Only 1 row of cells between nervures 5 and 

I 5a (Rs and Rspl) . . . . • . • • Austroceschna inter sedens. 

1 3 to 7 rows of cells between nervures 5 and 5a. . .. .. ..15 



INDIAN DRAQONFLIES. 



Ill 



15^ 



Genus Anacioeschna i — 

Base of hindwing sub-rounded ; 4th nervure 
making an abrupt curve towards the costa, 
beneath the stigma as in Anax 

Base of hindwing in the male more or 
excavated 



Anaciceschna jaspidea. 
less angulated and 
16 



16-^ 



Genus ^schna i — 

Dentigerous plate in the female rounded and denticulate or subden- 
ticulate or elongate . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . 17 

Genus Oynacantha : — 

Dentigerous plate in the female prolonged as a two-pronged 
.fork 22 



r Dentigerous plate in the female elongate and spout -like, the hinder 
17-< border furnished with a number of long teeth . . . . . , . . 18 

(^ Dentigerous plate in the female rounded and subdentioulate . . 19 



Superior anal appendages narrow but 

broadening widely at the apex and expanded 

abruptly into a hawk's- bill -Hke process inferi- 

orly ; a robust spine on the dorsum of the 

18-^ 10th abdominal segment 

Superior anal apjiendages broad and spa- 
tulate ; only a poorly-developed spine on 
the dorsum of the 10th abdominal seg- 
ment . . . . . . . . c = 

TAntehumeral bands on thorax green 

[_AntehumeraI bands on thorax bright yellow 

Sides of thorax entirely green ; a small 
spine on the dorsum of the 10th abdominal 
segment ; appendages narrow and tapering . . 
2Q-1 Sides of thorax with 2 broad, yellow stripes ; 
no spine on the dorsum of 10th abdominal 
segment ; superior anal appendages very 
broad and leaf -like 

C Very large insects with a total length of 
about 74 mm.; a sharp, robust and promi- 
nent spine on the dorsum of the 10th abdo- 
21-\ minal segment . . 

Smaller insects with a total length of about 
64 mm.; only a poorly developed, depressed 
spine on the dorsum of 10th abdominal seg- 
ment 



Mschna ornithocephala. 

^schna erythromeJas. 

20 

21 

Mschna viridis. 
JEsek7ia petalura. 

^schna juncea. 
^schna mixta. 



.22 



Inferior anal appendages more than half 
the length of the superiors ' . . . . . . Gynacantha khasiaca. 

Inferior anal appendages less than one-third the length of the su- 
periors, usually one-fourth or one-fifth . . . . . . . . . . 23 

Inferior anal appendages more than one-third but less than one-half 
_the length of the superiors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 



112 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



Superior anal appendages with the basal 
three-fourths slender, the apical fourth di- 
lated and spatulate-like, the apex slightly 
23-N rounded . , 

Superior anal appendages with the basal 
and apical thirds dilated, the middle third a 
[^little constricted, the apes pointed 



Gynacantha ■ basiguttata. 



Gynacaniha subinterrupta. 



Abdomen not constricted at the third 
segment, unmarked save for some gi-een on 
the first two segments ; frons without any 
markings on its upper surface . . . . . . Gynacantha miUardi 

24-{ Abdomen with at least some slight constriction of the third segment, 
marked with yellow, green or blue markings on most segments ; frons 
with a blakish T-shaped mark or an anterior bordering of the same 
^colour on its upper surface . . 



25 



P Superior anal appendages seen from above, 
I markedly sinuous ; abdomen only slightly 
25-^ constricted at the 3rd segment ; legs reddish. . Gynacantha furcata. 
j Superior anal appendages seen from above, more or less straight ; 
l^3rd abdominal segment variable ; legs yellow or brown . . . . 26 



26- 



Lengtti of hindwing not more than 35 mm.; 

abdomen not more than 42 mm. in length ; 

abdomen reddish brown spotted with green ; 

3rd abdominal segment very constricted 
I Length of hindwing not less than 40 mm.; 
1^45 mm., and usually more than this. . 



Gynacantha saltatrix. 
abdomen not less than 



27 



f Upper surface of frons with its anterior 
I border blackish brown ; antenodal nervures 
I to fore wing 18 to 21 ; 3rd abdominal segment 

27-( shghtly constricted Gynacantha bayaiem. 

j Upper surface of frons with a blackish-brown T-shaped like mark ; 
I antenodal nervures to forewing 24 to 34 ; 3rd abdominal segment 
(^markedly constricted 



P Abdomen blackish 
28-^ beneath, no markings 



brown above, reddish 



(_ Abdomen black and grey, marked with blue spots 



Gynacantha hyalina. 



f Abdomen and hindwing of approximately 
I the same length (about 44 mm). ; blue mark- 
29-( ings on segments 3 to 7 rather obscure 

I Abdomen longer than the hindwing (50 
j mm. compared to 47 mm or less ; blue marks 
l^on segments 3 to 7 well defined 



28 



29 



Gynacantha kanumana. 



Gynacantha bainbrigge 



Group — Anax, 

Eyes very large, globular and broadly contiguous ; occiput rather small. 
Wings long and broad, reticulation close, the base of hindwings in both sexes 
lounded and not excavated ; 4th nervure (M2 or nodal sector) making an abrupt 



INDIAN BEAGONFLIES. 



113 



curve towards the costa near outer end of stigma ; 5th nervuro (Rs or sub- 
nodal sector) not forked ; stigma long and slender ; arcular space entire ; mem- 
brane long and broad; trigones very elongated, of 4 to 8 oeUs; border of 10th 
abdominal segment in the female subrounded and subdenticulate ; anal appen- 
dages entire, variable but more or less lanceolate in shape ; abdomen with 
or without lateral, accessory, longitudinal ridges on segments 4 to 8. 
Only two genera — Anax and Hemianax. 



Genus — Anax, Leach. 






WM 





Fig. 3. — Dorsal and lateral aspects of the anal appendages of 1. Anax gutta' 
tus, 2. Anax parthenope Julius, 3. Hemianax ephippiger, 4. Anax parthenope 
parthenope, 5. Anax immaculifrons. 



Anax, Leach, Edinb. Encycl. ix, p. 137 (1815). 
A^schna, Van der Lind. 
Cyrtosoma, Burm. Handb, Ent. ii, p. 839 CI 839) ; Chai-p. Lib, Eur. p. 13 

(1840). 
Anax, Ramb. Ins. Nevr. p. 182 (1842) ; Brauer, Reise d Novara. Neur* 
p. 59 (1856) ; Steph. IIL Brit. Ent. Mand. vi, p. 81 (18.36) ; Selys, 
Men. Lib. Eur. p. 113 (1840); id.. Rev. Odon. p. 109 (1850); id.. 
Bull. Acad. Belg. (3) v., p. 723 (1883). 
Lateral supplementary ridges on abdominal segments 4 to 8 ; anal superior 
appendages thick, sublanceolate, hollowed inwardly, with a keel or ridge above, 
the inferior quadrilateral. 

15 



114 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL BIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII 

Type. Anax formosus, Van der Lind. 

1. Anax immacuiifrons, Ramb. Ins. Neur., p. 189 (1842) ; Brauer, 
Reise d No vara, Neur, p. 60 (1866); Kir by, Cat. Odon., p. 84 (1890) ; 
Martin, Cat. Coll. Selys, Aeschnines, xix, xx, p. 18, fig. 12 (1909); 
id.. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fm. xii, p. 212 (1909); Ris, Suppl. Ent. No. 
V, pp. 63-65 (1916); Laid. Rec. Ind., Mus. MS (1921). 

Male Abdomen 59 mm., Hindwing 57 mm. 

Etmale Abdomen 57 mm., Hindwing 58 mm. 

Jffl/e — Head large and globular ; eyes a beautiful sea-blue during life, 
broadly contiguous ; labium, labrum, epistome, frons and vesicle all pale 
bluish green, unmarked ; occiput green or bluish green. 

Prothorax bro^vn, completely hidden by the overhanging head. 

Thorax bulky, matt green on front and dorsum, bright, glossy sky-blue on 
the sides, which are marked with two jet black stripes, an anterior narrow and 
a median, obhque broad, both somewhat sinuous. The tergum spotted with 
blue in the form of a cross. 

Wings hyaline, more commonly enfumed and often tinted with yellow for 
a great part of their area, membrane large, black with a large, basal, white spot ; 
reticulation close, black but many of the nervures at the base of wing, inclu- 
ding the lower half of arc and the antenodal nervures of the 2nd series pale 
yellow ; costa yellow ; antenodal nervures to the forewing 19 to 21, postnodals 
10 to 12, antenodal nervures to hindwing 15, postnodals 12 to 14 ; trigones in 
forewing with 6 cells, in hindwing 5 ; 5 cubital nervures in the forewing, 4 in 
the hind ; 4 to 5 rows of cells between 5 and 5a ; stigma braced, narrow and 
long, dark brown above, paler beneath. 

Abdomen tumid at the base, a little constricted at base of 3rd segment, 
cylindrical and of even width afterwards as far as the anal end. First segment 
black, 2nd and 3rd sky-blue on the dorsum and sides, the former with a broad, 
transverse, subbasal, black band broadest on the dorsum and an apical, black 
ring wliich extends squarely basalwards along the dorsum but is not usually 
confluent with the subbasal mark ; remaining segments a dirty pale blue or 
pale yellow Avith the apical halves or more, black and a small, triangular, dorsal 
black mark on the paler area which is the analogue of the larger marking seen 
on the 2nd segment ; on the 8th segment, the apical black more extensive and 
on 9 and 10 the black covers the whole of dorsum, the sides and the apical border 
of the 10th segment yellowish. 

Legs black, robust, long. On the outer side of the hind femora at the distal 
end, a robust, bifid spur is seen which is less marked on the other femora. 

Anal superior appendages brown ; seen from above they are narrow at the 
base, then broadening rather abruptly and widely on the inner side and tapering 
again gradually to the apex which is rather obtuse, bevelled outwardly to a 
fine point. A prominent keel runs the length of the upper surface along the 
outer border. Inferior appendages barely half the length of the superior, 
broadly triangular and strongly curved in profile. (Fig. 3, V). 

Female. — Head : labium, labrum, epistome and frons pale yellowish green 
and unmarked save for a narrow black bordering to the lips ; eyes pale bluish 
green, greenish yellow below ; occiput pale olivaceous. 

Thorax sap green on the dorsum, pale greenish yellow on the sides which 
are marked with a narrow, sinuous, black, posthumeral stripe and a broad, 
pale brown or darker brown, median stripe which is bordered narrowly in front 
and behind with black. The metepimeron bordered posteriorly, narrowly 
with black. 

Wings hyahne, their attachments to the thorax ashy ; other features as in 
male. 



INDIAN DUAGONFLIES, 115 



Abdomen : 1st segment pale brown with an incomplete apical, black ring ; 
2nd segment pale greenish yellow on dorsum, pale bluish green on sides at the 
apex and with a narrow, median, black mark on the dorsum ; remaining segments 
a dirty yellow marked with a narrow, triangular, brown, median spot on dorsum 
of segments 3 to 7 and broad, apical and narrow, basal annules on segments 
3 to 8 ; 9th segment brown at the base and sides only ; 10th segment entirely 
yellowish green or pale yellow. Often the 8th segment is entirely black save 
for a small, apical spot which broadens laterally but do3s not meet its fellow 
over the doi'sum. 

Dentigerous plate rounded and covered with small denticules. 

Anal appendages broAvn lanceolate, as long as the 2 last abdominal segments. 
Legs black. 

/Z^a6.— Throughout India in the montane and semi-montane areas, some- 
what scarce in the North but becoming increasingly common as its distribution 
is traced southwards. The Western Ghats are its natural habitat, where it 
is found at any height above 2,000 ft. rarely being taken below that elevation. 
It breeds freely in all watercourses at Ootacamund and other hill-tops of the 
Nilgiris. I have taken it not uncommonly in the Poona District and found 
that it became more common as traced up to Satara and finally Mahableshwar 
at which latter place (in a restricted locality below the lake) it Hterally swarms. 

Anax immacidifrons is one of our finest species both as regards its size and 
beauty. It is to be sought for in the beds of rocky mountain streams in which 
places it has a regular beat of a mile or more, plying restlessly backwards and 
forwards for hours. It oviposits in deep running water, inserting its eggs 
into the stems of reeds and whilst doing so is always guarded by the male which 
hovers above it at a height of 2 to 3 feet. The female engaged in this work 
will often be submerged almost up to its neck in the water. The larvse are 
easily discernible crawling sluggishly along the mud at the bottom of moun- 
tain streams, and the exuvise may be found in such situations clinging to reed 
stems at the side of the streams. 

2. Anax guttatus, Burm. 

Brauer, Reise, d. Novara, Neur. p. 62 (1866); Hagen, Verb. Zool. 
Ges. Wien, xvii., p. 39 (1867) ; Martin, Coll. Zool. de Selvs. 
Aeschnines (1909); Laidlaw, Ind. Mus. Rec. MS (1921). 
Aeschna guttata, Burm. Handb. Ent. ii., p. 840. n. 14 (1839); 
Anax magnus, Ramb. Ins. Nevr. p. 182 (1842) ; Brauer. 1. c. p. 62 (1866), 
Dr. Laidlaw has spht up a number of forms of this insect into three series, 
A, B and C. Of these, series A is undoubtely the true Anax guttatus, of Burmei- 
ster, and series B is most probably a local race of the same insect. Series C 
seems to approach the parthenope group and is doubtfully Anax bacchus, Hagen. 
Martin holds this view, as his description of the latter insect evidently talhes 
with that of Laidlaw's series C, and also with specimens of Anax which I have 
received from various pa.rts of the Himalayas and had regarded as A. bacchus. 
Male. — Abdomen 52 to 56 mm. Hindwing 49 to 52 mm. 
Head : labium, labrum, epistome and frons pale yellow or olivaceous, unmark- 
ed ; eyes sap green above and at the sides, pale yellowish green beneath ; 
vesicle black ; occiput black with a spot at its middle and the posterior border 
yellow. 

In some specimens the labrum is bordered with brown ; there is no T-shaped 
mark on the upper surface of the frojis. 

Prothorax brown, more or less concealed by the overhanging head. 

Thorax bulky, sap green, without any markings. The tergum is in some 
specimens marked with brown. 

Legs black, the femora reddish brown, especially the hinder pair. 



116 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



Wings hyaline, slightly enfumed as a rule and the hinderpair marked broadly 
Tfith a large, saffronated spot which extends from the outer end of the trigone 
as far as the 3rd postnodal nervure. This spot is not sharply defined but gra- 
dually diffuses near the median nervure in front and quite close to or even 
meeting the posterior border of the wing. 

7-17 I 17-9 9-20 I 19-9 9-16 | 16-9 

Nodal index to wings : — 

1112 I 13-10 10-14 1 12-9 11-11 I 11-11 

About 14 cells in the loop ; hypertrigones traversed 3 to 4 times ; 4 to 6 
cells in the trigones ; 4 to 5 cubital nervures. 

Membrane moderately large, brown or grey and white or yellowish at the base; 
stigma greyish yellow bordered with dark brown, 5 to 6 mm. length. 

Abdomen blackish brown with blue and orange or yellow markings as fol- 
lows : — 1st segment matt green on dorsum or buff coloured in some specimens 
and always so after death, the apex edged narrowly with dark brown ; 2nd 
segment sky-blue above and at the sides but changing to white below and beneath, 
the dorsum with two, transverse, linear, black lines, the basal one of which is 
in the form of two scallops ; 3rd segment with its basal half sky-blue, black 
spotted with orange at the apical half, the black area extending back in a cone- 
shaped manner into the blue and almost reaching the basal hne of the segment ; 
segments 4 to 8 blacldsh brown, each marked with a pair of small, basal spots 
of orange, a pair of long, oval, apical, orange spots and finally a pair of similar 
coloured spots in line with and between these two. On segment 7 and 8 and 
not infrequently on all segments, the two apical spots coalesce to form an irregiilar 
band, and occasionally all three spots are found to join up. On segment 8 the 
basal spot is very small or missing ; segment 9 has a pair of triangular spots 
and 10 a pair of rounded, orange spots. 

Anal superior appendages brown, 5 to 6 mm. in length or equal to the combin- 
ed length of segments 9 and 10. Inferior appendages rather less than half 
the length of the superiors. (Fig. 3, i). The superior present a basal spine on 
the inner side and a flat, projecting ledge on the inner side ; the apex is bevel- 
led outwardly and pointed. The inferior appendages are curved up at the 
apex and end in a blunt point. 

The above description is made from a living specimen taken in Bombay and 
differs somewhat from the description of the type and from others taken further 
East and North. Dr. Laidlaw's description of his Series B is as follows : — 

" Wings. Yellow tinge ox hindwings less extensive, extends only as far as 
level of node. Basal white mark on membrane very small. 

Head. A small triangular area in front of vertex is brown. 

Abdomen. Black of dorsal surface is much more intense than in A (Typt>). 
The spots on the whole are smaller and do not coalesce and they are of a 
greenish yellow in colour. The basal spots on 7 and 8 are absent, the spot on 
9 is small and that of 10 absent. There are no spots below the lateral, acces- 
sory carinse. 

Anal appendages similar to Type. Female unknown. 

Differs strongly in colour pattern from type and approaches Series C. In 
other respects it is not very different from A (Type). 

Length of liindwing 54 mm., of abdomen 56 mm., of superior appendages 6 
mm." 

I regard this variety as a local race or variety of A. guttatus. 

Female — Very similar to the male but differing a httle in shape and colour. 
The abdomen is more tumid and is not constricted at segment 3 as in the male. 
The whole abdomen tapers gradually from segment 2. 

The eyes are pale green, the face and frons yellowsh, the latter having a fine, 
basal, black line. 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 117 



Abdomen. Segment 1 is reddish buff, segment 2 is only blue for quite a small 
area on the dorsum, its sides being silvery white. The ground colour is brown 
rather than black and the spots are larger, less defined and paler in colour and 
often coalesce. 

Anal appendages lanceolate, with a stout mid-rib, brown. 

Dentigerous plate rounded and coated with small denticules. 

Hah. — Throughout India in the planes and submontane areas except in the 
dry zones. I have taken specimens in Madras, Ceylon, Bombay and Poona 
but have not seen it in the C. P. or Bangalore. It is most abundant in the 
area of country lying between the ghats and the sea on the Western side of India 
south of Mount Abu. Dr. Annandale has sent me specimens from Barkuda, 
Ganjam District, where he states that it is common. It may be seen hawking 
throughout the day along the borders of the Chilka Lake. I have seen the 
female ovipositing in quite small tanks in Poona and Bombay and have bred 
out larviB obtained from a tank not more than 20 feet across. Clean, weedy 
tanks are the favourite spots to find them. The imago in Poona always 
emerged punctually at about 10-30 p.m., and the full colours had almost 
developed by dawn. 

The species described by Dr. Laidlaw as Series C, from Assam and Bengal 
although closely allied to A. guttatus are I believe A. hacchus and are described as 
such below, hence I define the limits of true guttatus for the present as south 
of the montane areas of the Himalayas. Eastwards it extends into Burma and 
throughout the Straits and Indo-China. 

3. Anax parthenope, " bacchus " Hagen. Verh. zool. bot. Ges. Wien, xvii.» 
p. 34 (1867); Martin, Cat. Coll. Selys, fig. 16, Aeschnines, p. 85 
(1909) ; Kirby. Cat. p. 85 (1890). 
Anax guttatus. Series " C ", Laid. Rec. Ind. Mus. (1921); Calv. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. pp. 148, 150 (1899). 

Male. — Length of abdomen 50 mm., hindwing 48 mm. 

Head : eyes in the living state bluish grey ; face pale green ; labrum and 
labium yellow, the former more or less bordered with black ; vesicle yellow ; 
frons pale green in front, yellowish green above and marked with a broad, black 
T-shaped mark ; occiput black (In specimens from Shillong and the Himalaj'as, 
the occiput is straight behind thus differing from Anax guttatus in which there 
IS a minute point at the centre. In these specimens also, the colour is brow- 
nish black). (In a specimen which I have examined in the British Museum and 
which is labelled A. bacchus, the occiiDut is greenish yellow, the centre is raised 
into a pyriform bosse and the free border is laminated, cleft in the middle by 
a shallow notch, thus forming two laminated scallops. I think however that 
this specimen is a local race of A. parthenope Julius.) 

Prothorax brown, hidden almost entirely by the overhanging head. The 
thorax matt green, unmarked save for some occasional bluish spots on the 
tergum and the sutural lines which are obscurely blackish brown. 

Legs black, the anterior femora yellowish at their bases. 

Wings hyahne, the costa yellow outwardly, enfumed at the apices and diffuse- 
h'' along the termen as far as the 6th nervure (M3) ; membrane blackish brown 
or greyish black, its base not pale as in guttatus ; stigma dark ochreous with 

x.^ A u A K T . T • ^ 1,] 9- 16 I 16- 9 10- 17 I 19- 10 

black borders, 5 mm. long ; nodal index variable, n i n . 1 1 ^ i o. i o i o 1 1 

11' 11 I 11* 11 1^' i-Z I xJi' 11 

trigones 4 to 6 cells, 4 to 5 cubital nervures ; hypertrigones traversed 2 to 3 
times. 

Abdomen. Segment 1 matt green or jjalo brown, segment 2 sky-blue above 
and on the upper part of sides, the dorsum marked with a mid-dorsal line 
of black, connected with two transverse lines of the same colour. 



118 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



Segment 3 bluish at its base, black for the apical half or two -thirds and with 
an apical and sometimes with a medial bluish spot on either side ; segments 
4 to 8 black spotted with bluish grey or dirty blue, varying in almost every 
sppcimen^ — usually however there is an oval, apical spot and a medial and basal 
small spot on eacli side which are never connected up ; the 9th and 10th seg- 
ments are black, the former with a single bluish spot and the latter either un- 
spotted or with its apex and sides greenish yellow and the borders finely brown. 

Anal superior ajapendages differ somewhat from those of Anax giittatus, they 
are decidedly broader, the middle third projecting markedly inward ; the in- 
ferior appendage is square, grejnish and with borders diffusely black. 

Female very similar to the male and differing as follows : — 

Eyes greenish grey in the living state ; abdomen more tumid at the base 
and not constricted at the third segment as in the male. The blue on the 2nd 
segment is only evidenced by a small, diffuse area on the dorsum and the sides 
are silvery yellow ; segment 3 has no trace of blue colouring and the base is 
greenish yellow. 

The spots on the abdomen are greenish yellow in colour, larger and more 
extensive and there are additional basal, infero-lateral spots on segments 4 
to 5 and sometimes also on 6. 

Hah. — N. E. Himalayas, Assam, Upper Burma, Missouri and Dehra Dun. 
Anax parthenope hacchus appears to replace Anax gultatufi in the North of India 
and bridges the gap between the latter species and Anax parthenope Julius. 
It breeds in tanks and oviposits in shallow water. 

4. Anax parthenope Julius, Brauer. 

Brauer, Verb. Zool. bot. Ges. Wien xvii (1865) ; Reise. d. Novara, 
Neur. pp. 61, 63 (1866) ; Selys, Odon. du Japon, C. R. Soc. Ent. 
Belg. xxvii. p. 116 (1883); Kirby Cat. Odon. p. 85 (1890). 
Length of abdomen 58 mm, of hindwing 55 mm. 

Male — Head : labium bright yellow ; labrum the same colour bordered with 
black ; face and front of frons greenish yellow unmarked save for a small, diffuse 
brown, transverse spot on lower part of frons where it joins the upper epistome ; 
frons above finely bordered with black; behind which is a broad tui'quoise blue 
band. Posterior half of frons bright yellow marked centrally'- in front of vesicle 
by a projecting, subtriangular black spot. Eyes opalescent ; occij^ut yellow, 
posterior border a little concave with the concavity bridged across by a thin 
lamina. 

Prothorax yellowish. 

Thorax matt green, the alar sinus and the tergum blue, the former finely 
outlined in black. 

Legs black, femora reddish for their basal two-thirds ; coxae yellow margined 
with black at their. junction with the synthorax. 

Wings hyaline, not enfumed or saffronated in any part ; costa yellow as 
far as the stigma which is ochreous on its upper surface and yellowish beneath 
and bordered with black, 6 mm. in length ; membrane black, its basal third 
white ; trigones with 6 ceiis m the forewing, 4 in the hind ; cubital nervures 

5 in forewing; 4 in the hind ; nodal index : — - . - -. ; 14 to 15 cells ir^ 

1 1 * 1^ I 1^ * 1 JL 

the loop. 

Abdomen tumid at the base, constricted at the 3rd segment and of even 
width thereafter as far as the end ; segment 1 yellowish green finely bordered 
basally with black, two irregular, diffuse, small, brownish spots on each side, 
one subdorsal, the other nearly ventral ; segment 2 turquoise blue, the dorsum 
very finely, the base and two transverse, fine lines black ; segments 3 to 8 
pale dirty blue, the dorsum of all segments rather broadly black, this colour 



INDIAN DliAGONFLIJES. W9 



prolonged outwaixily and finely along all transverse sutures and at the junc- 
tion of the apical and middle thirds, as a short angular projection. The sup- 
plementary ridges and the apical halves of the segments 3 to 6 below these ridges 
are also black, wliilst on segments 7 to 10 the part below the lateral ridges is 
entirely black ; the 9th and 10th segments are broadly black on the dorsum and 
finely along the lateral and posterior borders. 

Superior anal appendages 5 mm. long, dark brown, very similar to grdtatuff 
but more abruptly narrowed after the middle third. The inferior appendage 
is barely one-third the length of the superior, quadrate, the end turned up 
slightly and presenting two teeth at either angle when viewed in profile, pale 
brown but darker at the borders (Fig. 3, 2). 

Female very similar to the male but the abdomen more tumid at the base 
and not constricted at the third segment. There is only a slight trace of 
turquoise blue on the dorsum of the 2nd segment and none on that of the 3rd, 
the sides of these two segments are silvery white. 

The markings are almost identical with those of the male on the rest of the 
segments, but the black is more extensive and tends to cut up the marginal 
dull blue into spots which however are always coalescent to some extent. The 
thorax is pale brown or fawny. 

Dentigerous plate subdenticulate and rounded. 

Anal appendages lanceolate and with a stout mid-rib. 

Hah. — Himalayas, Bengal and Assam. The specimens described above arc 
from Darjeeling District. Eastwards it spreads into China and Japan. 

Anax pdius bridges the gap between Anax hacchus and parthenope, both 
of which it resembles somewhat, the colouring of the frons will however suffice 
to differentiate them. 

5. Anax parthenope parthenope, Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vi. (2) p. 
389 (1859) ; id. Mon. Lib. Eur. p. 119 (1840) ; id. Rev. Odon. p. Ill 
(1850); Brauer Reise d. Novara, Ncur. p. 61 (1866) ; Hagen, Neur. 
N. Amer. p. (1867); ffirby, Cat. Odon p. 85 (1890); Laid Rec. 
Ind. Mus. MS (1921). Calvert, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (1898), 
pp. 148-149, fig. 3 A. t.; Martin, Cat. Coll. -Selys, Aeschnines, xix, 
sx, p. 20 (fig.'l5) (1909). 
Aeschtia parthenope, Selys. loc. cit. 

Aeschna parisimv:, Ramb. Neurop. p. 185, t. 1. f. 10 (1842). 
Length of abdomen, male 53 mm, female 50 mm, hindwing 49 to 50 mm. 
Male — Head : labium, labrum and face as well as front of frons cinereous, 
whitish or very pale yellow ; upper surface of frons marked anteriorly with a 
broad, bla,ckish brown, transverse band, posterior to which is a narrow line of 
pale brown follov/ed again by a band of pale blue. Base of frons bluish with 
a very small, black triangle in the suture in front of vesicle ; the latter black 
in front, pale yellow or whitish yeUow above ; occiput bright yellow behind 
but with a small, black, triangular area in front. 

Prothorax pale brown, almost entirely obscured by the overlapping head. 
Thorax pale brown or greyish or faintly tinted with greenish yellow. In 
Basra specimens the colour is a pale slate blue and the only markings are the 
sutures which are finely outlined in black. 

Legs black, the middle and posterior pairs of femora reddish, the anterior 
pair black outwardly, pale whitish yellow inwardly. The middle and posterior 
femora with a row of very closely-set, very small even spines, the distal few 
slightly more robust. 

Wings hyaline or partially enfumed, often quite deeply so. In one specimen 
from Basra the extreme tips of the wings are enfumed and the outer two-thirds, 
from the outer end of the trigone to rather beyond the stigma is a smoky amber 
tint ; in other specimens the wings have a deeply enfumed, brownish area 



120 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



beginning diffusely from distal to or proximal to the node and ending rather 
abruptly at the level of the outer end of stigma. This fascia is \ery noticeable 
when tile insect is flying and is always much more extensive in the females. 
If present in the males it is usually more amber tinted, Stigma pale brown 
above, whitish yellow beneath, 4-0 to 5-5 mm. in length and larger in the female; 
membrane white ; trigones with 4 to 6 cells in the forewing, 3 to 4 in the hind ; 

7- 15 j 16-8 S- 14 I 14- 8 
cubital nervures 4 in all wings ; nodal index : — 9-11 I 10-9' 11*12 | ll'lO 
1M8 I 17-11 8-15 I 15-8 



9-11 I 10-9' 
13 to 14 cells in the loop. 



11-11 I 11-12' 10-10 1 JO-9 

Abdomen tumid at the base, well constricted at the 3rd segment and very 
gradually enlarging thereafter as far as the anal end. 1st segment pale buff, 
darker brown on the dorsum and with a pruinescent, dark round spot on the 
side; 2nd segment pale turquoise blue, marked with a line apical and a basal 
black ring. There is also a small transverse, linear, black mark on either side 
of the dorsum, distal to the middle of the segment. The dorsum more or less 
spiny and black, this colour usually limited to the minute spines. A black 
spot" on the side represents the rudimentary auricle ; 3rd segment turquoise 
blue for rather more than its basal half, white low down on the sides and brown- 
ish black for the apical third or more and here marked with three conjoined, 
dirty blue, elongate spots, somewhat irregular in shape, the brown on the dorsum 
spreads basalwards into the blue almost up to the base of the segment; segments 
4 to 8 blackish brown on the dorsum, pale blue at the sides, the dark dorsal 
colouring invading it along the transverse sutures and by a triangular point 
near the apex, the supplementary ridges are finely brown, as is also the apical area 
beneath them ; segment 9 is broadly black on the dorsum and blue at the 
sides, its lateral borders finely black ; 10 is brownish black with the sides 
and apical border yellowish. 

Anal superior ap]>endages nearly as long as the 9th and 10th segments taken 

together, dark brown, the apices paler 
inwardly. Evenly convex on the inner side 
for the basal three-fourths and the apex 
rather abruptly narrowed and with a 
small point on the outer side. 

Inferior appendage white with brown 
borders, less than one-fourth the length 
of the superiors, its apical border with 
numerous fine spines directed upward 
(Fig. 3, 4). 

Female very similar to the male but 
with a stouter abdomen and no con- 
striction of the 3rd segment. Differs as 
follows : — Labrum bordered with brown ; 
frons in front has a narrow, reddish 
brown bordering, above a bordering of 
dull blue and the base pale blue. There 
is no basal, black, triangular spot. Occiput very highly specialized, shiny 
black in front, bright yellow posteriorly, the posterior border projects back- 
ward sUghtly as a quadrate lobe furnished with a small horn at either angle, 
(fig. 4). The blue on abdominal segments 2 and 3 is restricted to but a small 
area on the dorsum and the sides of these segments are silvery white. The 
10th segment is entirely yellow save for a small, black, dorsal mark at the base. 
Anal appendages brown, lanceolate, rapidly tapering to a point, with a 
strong mid-rib running throughout their length. Dentigerous plate rounded, 
its posterior border straight and its surface coated \rith minute deaticules. 




Fig. 4. 
Occiput of Anax parthenope 
parthenope, female. 



INDIAN DRAGONFLIES. 121 

^a6,— Mesopotamia, India throughout the Deccan, Rajputana and Sind. 
I have found it breeding in small tanks in Poona. Elsewhere it is found 
throughout the Mediterranean, and Asia Minor and the Near East. 

Genus HEMTANAX, Burm. 

Hemianax, Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (3) v. p. 723 (1883) ; Kirby, Cat. 
Odon. p. 85 (1890) ; Martin, Cat. Coll. Solys, Aeschnines, xix, xx; 
p. 80 (1909) ; Tillyard, J. L. Soc. Lond. Zool. xxxiii, July (1916) , 
Laid. Rec. Ind. Mus. MS. (1921). 
Cyrtosoma, Selys, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 412 (1871). 
yEschna, Van der Lind. 
Very similar to genus Ayiax but generally smaller and with shorter abdomen. 
The latter has no supplementary ridges on the sides of segments 4 to 8 and is 
therefore smooth and cylindrical. 

The superior anal appendages are sublanceolate in the male and taper more 
rapidly than in Anax, in the female they are typically lanceolate. Inferior 
anal appendages subtriangular and with the lateral borders furnished with robust 
imbricated spines. (Selys aptly described this appendages as resembling the 
lower jaw of a python with its imbricated teeth.) 
Wings similar to genus Anax. 

7. Hemianax ephippiger — Burmeister, (Aeschna ephippiger), Handbk- 
Ent. ii. p. 840. n. 15 (1839). 
Anax ephippiger, Brauer, Reise. d. Novara, Neur. p. 63 (1866) ; Hagen, 

Verh. Zool. bot. Ges. Wien, xvii, p. 21 (1867). 
jEschyia mediterranea, Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. vi. (2) p. 391 (1839). 
Anax mediterranea, Selys, Mon. Lib. Eur. p. 120 (1840). 
Anax mediterraneus, Selys, Rev. Odon. p. 329 (1850); Brauer, loc. oit. 

p. 63 (1866). 
Anax senegalensis, Ramb. Ins. Nevr. p. 190 (1842). 
Length of abdomen 45 to 48 mm, of hindwing 45 to 46 mm. 
Male — Head : eyes sage green above changing to yellow beneath ; labium 
bright yellow ; labrum and face greenish yellow ; frons bright yellow, its anterior 
border and front blackish brown, its base very narrowly black before the eyes 
and vesicle ; vesicle yellow with a blackish base ; occiput greenish yellow, 
slightly concave behind and raised in a medial ridge in continuation of the 
ojithalmic suture. Eyes behind black and marked with bright yellow. 
Prothorax ^''ellowish. 

Thorax pale ochreous brown or sage green on the dorsum, greenish yellow 
on the sides, the metepimeron sometimes a bluish green. No markings save 
for a fine black belt bordering the coxse. 

Legs black, base cf hind femora reddish brown, anterior femora bright yeUow 
behind, and within, black in front. Hind femora with a row of closely-set, 
gradually lengthening, but short spines. 

Wings hyaUne but with a diffuse saffronated spot in the hindwing very si- 
milar to that seen in guttatus extending from the trigone to well beyond the 
node. Much smaller and often entirely absent in the male. In addition there 
is some sUght saffronation of the bases of the wings, especially in the female ; 
membrane white, its anterior margin narrowly black throughout its length ; 
stigma 5 to 5- 5 mm in length, bright ochreous margined posteriorly with dark 
brown ; reticulation black and yellow, the costa yellow as far as apex ; trigone 
of fore wing with 5 cells, 4 in the hind, narrower than in Anax : 5 cubital ner- 
vures in the forewing, 4 in the hind ; 10 to 14 cells in the loep. 

8- 15 I 16-7 7-14 I 15-7 7-16 | 16-7 

Nodal index — Male : — , Female , ^ — 

9- 10 I 11-9 10- 11 I 11- 10 10- 10 I 10- 10 

ir, 



122 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURLA HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI II. 

Abdomen tumid at the base, a little constricted at the 3rd segment and from 
thence of even width as far as the anal end, the 9th and 10th being slightly 
broadened. Cylindrical and smooth due to the absence of the supplementary 
ridges on the sides. Ground colour ochreous on the dorsum changing to oli- 
vaceous or greenish yellow on the sides and beneath. 1st segment brown on 
the dorsum, this colour extending out as a transverse median line and also 
along the apical margin. Space between the 1st and 2nd segments greenish 
yellow. The dorsum of the 2nd segment turquoise blue, its apex finely and base 
rather more broadly black or dark brown, its sides silvery white ; the dorsum 
of segments 3 to 7 irregularly and narrowly brownish black and with a small, 
laterpJ, diffuse brownish spot at the lower part of the apical half ; on 8 and 9 
this spot extends basalwards and joins up with the black of dorsum which is 
much more extensive on these two segments, and thus encloses a large spot of 
the ground colour, on segment 8 there is also a smaller spot enclosed at the base ; 
10th segment has a single, large apical spot on each side, connected across the 
dorsum apically with each other. 

Anal superior appendages as long as the 9th and 10th segments taken together 
lanceolate, tapered to a fine jDoint, strongly keeled, the keel raised into a robust, 
spinous process near the apex of the appendix, verj^- prominent when viewed 
from the side, reddish brown. Inferior appendage not half the length of the 
superior, 3'ellow stippled with black bordered laterally above witli several, 
robust imbricated, black spines. 

Female very similar to the male but differing as follows : — 

The occiput instead of being concave behind, projects back shghtly in the 
form of a fine lamina the edge of which curls slightly up. Above it is raised 
into a pyi'iform, shiny bosse, the broad, rounded end of which is sharply 
marked off from the laminated, posterior portion. 

The abdomen is more tumid, the 3rd segment not constricted but tapering 
gradually to the anal end ; the 2nd segment has only a small sjiot of turquoise 
blue on its anterior third ; the sides of the 3rd segment more broadly white ; 
the black markings less extensive on segments 3 to 7. 

The anal appendages more typically lanceolate and with a strong keel run- 
ning throughout their length and not raised in a tubercle or spine near the 
apex. Dentigerous plate verj'' similar to that of Anax parthenope parthenope, 
rounded and subdonticulato. 

Hab. — Mesopotamia, Persia, North Africa, India throughout the plains and 
dry areas, more especially Sind, Gujerat, Rajputana and parts of the Deocan. 
This species is given to long migrant flights, often swarming in great numbers. 
I saw one such on the 20th November 1919 when at sea, some 40 miles off the 
Kathiawar Coast. All the specimens taken on board the ship were fresh, and 
some quite teneral. In Mesopotamia it breeds in irrigation canals and marshes, 
wliilst in India I have found it breeding in small tanks. It is interesting to 
note that a close observer like De Selys when describing this species (under the 
name of Anax inediterraneus) quite overlooked the absence of the supplementary 
ridges on the abdomen which are so serviceable for identifying the inseei 



( 7b be continued.) 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist, doc 




r-A// 



.vf'm^ 



JVPX\ 



Butterflies of Tavoy. 



123 

A LIST OF BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED IN THl^] TAVOY 

DISTRICT, BURMA. 

BY 

0. C. Ollenbach. 

(With a Flate). 
(Continued from pat/e 897, J^ol. XXVII.) 

Family— LYC.^NID.?5. 

Subfamily — Gerydin^. 

218. Gerydus hoisduvalii, Moore. 

Plentiful on the hills almost all the year round. 
2 19. Gerydus ancon, Doh. 

Several specimeas of both sexes taken. It appears to be on the wing 
throughout the year as I have specimens which were caught in January, 
April, August, September and December. It keeps mostly to the hills. 

220. Gerydus croton, Sp. 

Near to Croton, but differs in the band on the upperside of the forewings 
being pure white and extending from near the costa to the 2nd median 
nervule. On the underside the ground colour is lighter than the tyxiical 
form. Four males were taken on Sinbo Sinma in October 1918. 

221. Gerydus higgsii, Dist. 

A pair taken on Pagaj^e hill, 600/ on 22nd May 1916. 

222. Allotinus subviolaceus, Felder. 

A single male taken on Pagaye liill, 6,000,' on 30th December 1917. 

223. Allotinus horsfieldii, Moore. 

Plentiful on the hills from November to April. 

Subfamily — Lyc^nin.e. 

224. Pithecops hylax. Fab. 

Common at all elevations in heavy jungle throii^hout the year. 

225. Neopiihecops zalmora, Butler. 

Common on the hills and along streams in all parts of the district. 

226. Spalgis epius, Wd. 

A few specimens taken at Myitta and Pagaye during December. 

227. Taraka hamada, Druce. 

This is not a common species and has been taken sparingly at Myitta in 
May and at Myekhanba in December. 

228. Cyaniris puspa, Hors. 

Common on hill-tops during December and January, and along streams at 
the foot of the hills from February to June. 

229. Catachrysops strabo, Fab. 

One of the commonest of butterflies and seen in greatest numbers during 
December and January. 

230. Catachrysops pandava, Hors. 

Common all the year round, throughout the district. 

231. Catachrysops cnejus. Fab. 

Found sparingly throughout the district. 

232. Castalius rosimon, Fab. 

Common throughout the year ; very plentiful from December to April. 



124 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

233. Castalnis ethion, Db. 

Plentiful on the hills from December to March and found sparingly during 
the rest of the year. 

234. Castalius roxus, God. 

A few specimens taken at Pagaye during November. 

235. Castalius decidia, Hew. 

Verjf scarce ; only two specimens taken at Pagaye in December 1916. 

236. Castalnis elna, Hew. 

Common at all times throughout the district in hilly country. 

237. Lyccenesthes li/ccenina, Felder. 

A very common species which appears in large numbers, on hill -tops, from 
January to May. 

238. Lyccenesthes emolus, God. 

Oiramon on the hills all the year round. 

239. Nacaduba atrata, Hors. 

A fair number of both sexes taken at Kambauk and Pagaye in January. 

240. Nacaduba pavana, Hors. 

£; Pler.tiful especially on the hills throughout the year. 
241.''- Nacaduba nora, Felder. 

Very common from November to January but less so during the rest of the 
year. 

242. Nacaduba plumbeomicans, DeN. 

Males very common but females less so. This species is very plentifu 1 on 
the hills during December and January. 

243. Lampides bochus, Cramer. 

Found sparingly on the hills from December to April. Females are deci- 
dedly rare. 

244. Lampides subdita, Moore. 

A few taken at Myitta and Pagaye in May 1916 and several specimens of 
both sexes taken on Sabataung, 400', in December 1919. 
246. Lampides celeno, Cramer. 

Very common at all elevations throughout the district and at all seasons. 

246. Lampides kondidana ccerulea, Sw. 

A few males and two females taken at Pagaye, Kalachaung and Kala- 
taung. This is a rare sjiecies but appears to fly all the year round as I have 
specimens taken in March, April, August, November, and December. 

247. Lampides elpis, God. 

Very common all over the district at all seasons. 

248. Polyommatus baeticus, L. 

Extremely common at all times at low elevations. During November and 
December they appear in vast numbers. 



Subfamily — Poritiin^. 

249. Poritia hewitsoni tavoyana, Doh. 

A few males but no females taken during December on Pagaye hill, 600'. 

250. Poritia plevrata, Hew. 

A rare species ; two males and four females taken on Pagaye hill, 600', and 
on Kalataung, 1,500', during December 1920. 

251. Poritia phraatica. Hew. 

About 40 miles and 35 females were taken on Pagaye hill, 600', and on 
Kalataung, 1500', in December 1919. The males are almost exactly like 
P. erycinoides, from the Karen hills, only the latter is larger. I take these 
to be the males of P. phraatica, the female of which is brown above with 
large medial orange area on both wings. On the undersides the markings of 



BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED IN THE TA VO Y DISTRICT. 1 25 



the two sexes I caught on Pagaye and Kalataung appear to be the same, 
only the female has the ground colour whitish. It appears strange that I 
should have caught so large a number of two opposite sexes and yet for them 
not to be the opposite sexes of one species. The blue markings on the up- 
perside of the males are very variable, hardly any two specimens being ahke. 
The extent and distribution of the blue colouring of the male is said to be the 
same as in P. hewitsoni, Moore, the difference bdng that in P. heivitsoni, the 
blue changes to emerald green in some lights ; this I find is not the case as I 
have three specimens in which the blue does change to green. The males are 
quite distinct from that sex of P. hewitsoni on both surfaces and are easily 
recognisable. 

252. Poritia phalia, Hew. 

This is a rare species and seldom met with. Seven males and four females 
only taken on Pagaye and Kalataung, 600' to 1,500', between November and 
February. The males are indistinguishable from the same sex of P. pediada 
on the upper surface, but P. phalia is said to be larger. On the underside 
both are rufous-brown, but P. phalia is said to be of a brighter tint. I must 
have caught well over 20 males of different sizes, so it is difficult to say 
which are pediada and which phalia. On examining the undersides I find 
that the larger specimens are not in every case brighter than the smaller ones 
and they appear gradually to intergrade. The females of P. phalia are yellow 
and those or pediada, brown, on both surfaces, but the shape of the wings 
are much alike. The markings on the undersides of the females are the 
same, the only difference being the colour. 

I am much inclined to think that these two species are one and the same 
and that the female is dimorphic. The distribution of the markings and 
colouring on the uppersurfaces of the males is very variable and it does not 
seem possible to distinguish between the males of these two species. 

253. Poritia pediada. Hew. 

Several males and a few females taken on Pagaye hill, 600, and on Kala- 
taung, 1,500', during December and January 1919-20. As noted previously 
I am unable to distinguish between these males and those of P. phalia. The 
females of course are brown and appear to mimic afti^ara ecAenws angulata, 
Moore. 

254. Poritia phalena. Hew. 

Of this species I have only been able to secure a pair ; the male on Pagaye 
hill, 600', on 23rd November 1917, and the female on 22nd December 1919, on 
Kalataung, 1,500'. The male on the upperside has the spots lustrous sea-green 
in some lights and blue in others. The shape and disposition of the markings 
are the same as in P. pJmlia and P. pediada, but it differs entirely on the un- 
derside in that it has a broad white band crossing both wings, about the 
middle, besides which there are several whitish transverse streaks on the 
forewings and the rufous-brown markings on the hindwings are outlined with 
white. The tuft of long appressed hairs on the pale costal area on the upper- 
side of the hindwings is not peculiar to this species but is also possessed by 
the other two species mentioned above. The female is brown above as in 
that sex of P. pediada. Hew., but on the underside it is rufous, rather paler 
than the male. The broad white fascia on the underside of the male is re- 
placed by a narrow whitish line across the forewings only. The whitish trans- 
verse streaks on forewings and the white edging to the rufous-brown mark- 
ings on the hindwings are wanting. 

255. Zarona jasoda, DeN. 

A rare species of which only three males and four females have been 
caught ; a male at Yeawing in February 1919 ; two males and two females 
on Pagaye hill, 600', in December and two females on Kalataung, 1,500', in 
December 1919. 



126 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIl, 

Subfamily — Curetin^. 

256. Curetis hulis, Db. and Hew, 

Males very common but females are scarce. Numerous specimens were 
taken in the Kalachaung in February 1919 and at Pagaye and at Wagon in 
January 1920. I have not secured any specimens of the varieties angulata 
or discalis. 
257. Cnretis bvUs malayica, Felder. 

A few of both sexes taken at Pagaye in December and at Myekhanbaw in 
April 1919. 

Subfamily — TnECLiNJi:. 

258. Aplmcpus lohita, Hors. 

Found mostly at low elevations. It was jilentiful along the Pachaung- 
Kambauk road, on the flowers of the Aduratum.. The females are not so 
common and are heavily marked on the underside. 

259. Aphncens ictis maximus, El. 

Taken very sparingly at Pagaye and Wagon during December 1919. 

Subfamily — Arhopalin^. 

260. Mahathala ameria. Hew. 

This is apparently a rare species as only two males and a single female 
were taken at Myekhanbaw on 23rd May 1919. 

261. Apporosa atkinsoni, Hew. 

A few of both sexes taken at Myekhanbaw in May 1919 and numerous 
specimens on Sabataung, .300', in December 1919. This species appears to 
be very local, being found only at one particular spot at each of the above 
localities. It keeps to small bushes and flies little, even when disturbed. 

262. Iraota rochana, Hors. 

Many males taken on Pagaye hill, 500', in bamboo jungle, during Decem- 
ber 1919, but no females were seen here. The single female taken was caught 
about five miles out of Kambauk, on the road to Pachaung, on 19th 
January 1920. There appears to be no difference between tlaese and /. 
boswelliana Distant. 

263. Ambhjpodia narada, Hors. 

An uncommon species of which I secured only three males and two 
females. A pair at Talaingya in October 1914, a pair at Pagaye, 300', and 
a female at Wagon, 1,000', in December 1919. 

264. Surendra quercetorum, Moore. 
Plentiful all over in heavy forest. 

265. Surendra forimel, Doh. 

Rather an uncommon species. Two males taken on Kalataung, 1,.500', 
at the end of December 1919 and a female at Kambauk in January 1920. 

266. Arhopala centaur us. Fab. 

Very common at low elevations, less so on the hills. It ajDpeared in 
large numbers on the lower slop "S of Sabataung during December 1919. 

267. Arhopala camdeo, Varro. 

Two females only taken ; one on Pagaye hill on 16th December 1919 and 
the other at Pachaung on 11th January 1920. These specimens are a good 
deal smaller than the Indian form and the colour on the upper side of the 
wings is a bright, shining blue. 

268. Arhopala albopunctata, Hew. 

A common species found at all elevations in heavy forest. It is most plenti- 
ful from November to March. 



BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED IN THE TA VOY DISTRICT. 127 



269. Arhopala aida, DeN. 

A male and two females taken, the male at Yeawing on 27th February 
1919 and the females on Kalataung, 1,700', on 21st December 1919. 

Female. Expanse 1'6 — 1 '8 inches. 

Upperside ; Forewing bright rich purple, the costal margin very broadly, 
increasingly to the apex, thence deci'easingly to the anal angle, black ; a 
black spot on the disco-cellulars. Hindwing, the costal margin very widely, 
the exterior margin less so, black, abdominal margin broadly pale fuscus, 
anal lobe black with a tuft of white hair at the apex : tail black, tipped with 
white. The margins of the liindwings are very wide so that the purple colour 
is confined to the middle portion and appears as a large spot. Underside as in 
male. 

270. Arhopala vihara, Felder. 

A single male taken at Yeawing, 300', in February 1919. 
270. Arhopala silhetensis. Hew. 

Two males and a female of this rare species were taken. A male on Saba- 
taung, 300', in January 1920, one in Mergui district in February and a 
female at Myekhanbaw in April 1920. These specimens agree exactly with 
A. arama, DeN., which Bethune Baker places as a synonym of silhetensis. 
The males are darker than the Sikkim specimens in my collection, but the 
black borders are narrower. 

272. Arhopala anthelus, Db. & Hew. 

Several males and females of this magnificent species were taken at Kala- 
chaung in April 1919, and also on Kalataung, 1,500', during the last week 
of December 1919. 

273. Arhopala suhfasciata, Moore. 

Very common everywhere in heavy forest, but good specimens are 
difficult to get. 

274. Arhopala agaba. Hew. 

Rather a common species, found on the hills in heavy forest. Numerous 
specimens of both sexes were taken at Pagaye, Kalataung and Sabataung 
during December 1919. 

275. Arhopala sella, Hew. 

A rare species of which I took a female at Yeawing, 300', on 28th 
February 1919, a pair on Kalataung, 1,700', and a male at Pagaye, 600', 
during December 1919. 

276. Arhopala rafflesii, DeN. 

Two males only taken ; one in the Mergui district in February and the 
other at Kalachaung in March 1919. 

277. Arhopala aroa, Hew. 

Five males and four females were taken on Kalataung, 1,500' on 22nd 
December 1919 and a few at Pagaye and Myekhanbaw during December 
and April respectively. 

278. Arhopala atosia aricia, Std. 

Three males and two females taken during December and January 1919- 
20 ; a female at Pagaye, 600', a pair on Kambauk hill, 500', and two males 
at Yeawing, 300'. 

279. Arhopala moolaiana, Moore. 

This species was quite plentiful on the hill to the east of Yeawing 
during February 1919. I also took many specimens at Pagaye, Wagon and 
Kambauk, in December and January 1919-20. During the heat oFthe day 
they descend to the streams and settle on damp patches of sand. 

280. Arhopala antimuta. Folder. 

A single female taken on Kalataung, 1,700', on 22nd December 1919. 



128 JOURNAL, BOMBAl NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



281. Arhopala hjpomuta, Hew. 

A common species of which a large series was secured. It is found on all 
the hills throughout the district from December to March. 

282. Arhopala mekimuta. Hew. 

Taken sparingly at Pagaye, Sabataung and Wagon, on hill -tops, during 
December and January. 

283. Arhopala pagaiensis, n. sp. $ No. VII, $ No. VIII in plate. 
Expanse $ 1-6, 2 1-4 inches, 

Description : — Male : — Upper side both wings brilliant morpho blue, 
changing to dull purple in certain lights, the costa and outer margins very 
narrowly black, ciha dusky, the abdominal margin pale fuscus. Underside 
brown, the spots darker and defined with pale lines. Forewing with a small 
round spot at base of cell, a larger oval one in the middle and a still larger 
one at end of cell ; a discal fascia composed of five round spots of equal 
size placed three and two, the two, which are the lower, shifted inwards, 
a submarginal series of diffused spots: cilia brown. The area below the 
median nervure and first median nervulo paler than the rest of the 
winf. Hindwings brown, three small round basal spots, a small spot on 
the costa, a large oval spot in the cell mth a still larger round spot below ; 
•a very large quadrate spot at end of cell. A discal series of spots, commenc- 
ing at the costa, a little beyond the middle and ending on the abdominal 
margin, composed of eight spots, the first six rounded, the last two linear; 
this fascia is strongly broken at the fifth spot, which is shifted inwards a sub- 
marginal series of diffused spots ; three marginal black spots crowned with 
brilliant metalhc green scales, the middle spot the largest ; anal lobe small, 
black ; body above dark brown beneath whitish. Female :- Upperside 
light, shining' blue, the margins broadly brown. Forewing, the costa increasing 
to the apex, where it is very wide, about a third of the wing, and the outer 
margin decreasingly broadly fuscus. Hindwing : the costal margin broadly 
and exterior margin less broadly fuscus. Underside as in male. 

284. Arhopala oberthuri, Std. 

Several specimens of both sexes taken on Kalataung, 1,700', and on Pagaye 
hill 600', during December and January 1919-20. 

285. Arhopala cumolphus fraquhari, Dist. 

Males extremely common on hill-tops especially so on Pagaye hill, 600', 
but females are very scarce. During December and the early part of January 
1919-20, this butterfly appeared in great numbers on the top of Pagaye hill. 
Thev always put in an appearance about 4 p.m. and could be seen sitting 
with out spread wings on the leaves of trees in patches of sunlight. They 
indulge in much fighting, not only among themselves, but with any other 
insect that happens to pass by and in this respect are very different to the other 
members of this genus. The flash of metaUc green from their wings as they 
flitted about in the rays of the sun was a fine sight and could be seen from 
a distance. 

286. Arhopala diardi. Hew. 

Several specimens of both sexes were caught on Sabataung, 400', and also 
on Kalataung, 1,500', during December 1919. 

287. Arhopala avniella. Hew. 

An uncommon species of which I secured several males and a few females 
at Kalachaung in March 1917 and on Pagaye hill, 600', in December 1919. 
It appears to be identical with A. artegal, Doh., and is near to A. chinensis, 
Felder=^. moelleri, DeN., which latter is probably only the Indian form. 
The shape of the forewings in the males appear to vary to some extent, as I 
have two specimens in which the fore wings are elongated and pointed at 
the apex. 



BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED IN THE TA VOY DISTRICT. 129 



288. Arhopala abseus, Hew. 

Several specimens taken at Pagaj'^e and Kalataung during Decombor 1919. 
The males on the upperside are coloured like Ceylon specimens, but the black 
borders are narrower. The females are like the Indian form and are typical. 

289. Arhopala fulgida, TJew. 

A single male taken on Pagaye hill, 600', on 11th December 1919. This 
species does not appear to have been recorded from so far South, the habitat 
being given from Sikkim to Upper Burma. 

290. Arhopala apidanus, Cramer. 

Rather uncommon as only a few specimens of both sexes were taken 
during December 1919, on Sabataung, 400', and on Kalataung, 1,700'. One 
specimen, a female, is exactly like the Assam form ahamus, Doh. 
91. Arhopala antura, Sw. 

A single male taken at Maungmagan on 7th April 1914 at about 200' 
elevation. 

292. A rhopala arjrata, DeN. 

This is an uncommon species as only three males and two females have 
been taken. All these were caught during December 1919, at Pagaye, 600' 
and on Kalataung, 1,500'. 

293. Arhopala nedias, Hew. 

A good many specimens of both sexes were taken on Pagaye hill, 600', 
during December and January 1919-20. This species appears to be confined 
to this particular hill, as I took it nowhere else. 

294. Arhopala woodii, n. sp. J No. VI in plate. 
Expanse J 1-8, 91-9 inches. 

Description . — Male. Upperside, both wings brilliant metallic blue, of about 
the same shade as in the female of A. cedias. Fore wing with the costal 
margin from the base increasing in width to the apex, wher it is broadest, -2 
inch, thence decreasing to the tornus, where it is -05 inch, black and evenly 
curved inwardly. Hind wing with the costal margin broadly dusky, exterior 
margin decreasingly to the anal angle, black, abdominal margin broadly 
fuscus. Anal lobe very small ; tail of moderate length, black, tipped with 
white. Underside, both wings, dull brown, of much the same shade as in ^. 
cedias, Hew., the markings of a darker shade, prominent and outwardly 
defined by a fine pale line. Forewing with the inner margin, broadly paler, 
up to the median nervure and first median^ nervule; a small oval spot towards 
the base of the cell, a large oval spot at the middle, with two small spots 
below it, in the sub-median interspace, wanting in some specimens, a still 
larger quadrate spot closing the cell ; a large triangular spot at the base of 
the first median interspace, the discal band composed of six spots, un- 
broken, macular, but sharply bent towards the costa at vein 4, of even width 
throughout ; a sub-marginal series of diffused spots between the veins. In 
some specimens there are one to two small diffused spots in the pale area 
in continuation of the discal band. Hindwing: a very small round spot 
at extreme base of the costa, four small round spots across base, a sub-coastal 
spot, a spot in the middle of the cell, a large spot posterior to this latter, 
another spot posterior to the last on the abdominal margin, an elongated 
spot at the end of the cell ; the discal band much dislocated, the two anteiior 
most spots, conjoined, quadrate, and shifted inwards, touching the spot at the 
end of the cell and the third spot of the discal series. The rest of the discal 
band consists of six spots which are conjoined and placed in pairs, the post- 
eriormost just touching the spot on the abdominal margin ; a submarginal 
series of diffused spots, as on forewing, anal lobe faint ; three black spots 
on margin, one at anal angle and one on either side of the tail, these 
spots dusted with metallic green scales. Female, as in male but the costal 

17 



130 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Fol. XXTIII. 

dark margin is wider and extends nearly to vein 4, but does not coalesce here 
with the terminal margin, thus leaving a small blue area, Hindwing on 
upper and under surfaces as in the male. 

295. Arphola agnis, Felder. 

Three males and two females were taken on Kambauk hill, 300', about the 
middle of January 1920. It appears to be rare and was not seen anywhere else. 

296. Arphola hewitsoni, B.B. 

A common species of which I secured a large series. It is to be found on 
all the hills from November to May. 

297. Arhopala azata, DeN. 

A single male taken on Pagaye hill, 600', on 7th January 1920. This 
species was described from the Malay Peninsula, and has so far not been re- 
corded from the Indian region. Upperside both wings pale purple. Forewing 
has the outer margin very narrowly black ; the discocellulars defined by a 
narrow dark hne. Hindwing has the exterior margin narrowly black, the anal 
lobe black sprinkled with grey. Tail about J inch long, black, tipped with 
white. Underside : Forewing greyish-brown, the spots of a darker shade, an- 
nular and outlined with white. Two spots within the cell, the basal one 
small, the central one large and oval, with a larger spot at the end of the cell, 
a spot below the cell in the first median interspace with a larger spot below 
it in the submedian area. A discal series of eight spots, the first minuae on 
the costa, the next three, subequal, in hne and shifted upwards, followed by 
four spots, shifted inwards and in line with the first ; a postdiscal and sub- 
marginal lunular whitish band. Hindmng with three basal and three discal 
annular spots, a large quadrate discocellular spot, a discal band of eight 
spots, in pairs, all outlined with white. Postdiscal and submarginal lunulated 
bands, whitish. Expanse ^1-3 inches. 

298. ArJiopala Sp. 9 No. V. in plate. 

Expanse : female two inches. Upperside ; purphsh blue. Forewing with 
the costal and outer margins, especially at the apex, broadly fuscus, this 
margin decreasing in width to the anal angle. Hindwing with the costal 
and outer margins, moderately broadly fuscus, and also decreasing in width 
to the anal angle ; tail fuscus, tipped with white ; adbominal marginal whitish ; 
anal lobe small but distinct. Underside : pale brown, the spots of a much 
darker shade and outwardly defined with a pale hne ; a small round spot at 
base of cell, a large oval one in the middle with two small spots above, bet- 
ween it and the costa, the lower spot of the two is attached to the spot in the 
middle of the cell ; a large ill-shaped spot at the end of the cell, with two 
small spots above it and attached to it, making in all four small spots above 
the cell ; the usual discal band represented by four oval spots, in pairs, the 
upper pair placed obliquely on the disc, between the end of the cell and 
outer margin ; the lower pair shifted inwards and separated by the 2nd 
median nervule ; an elongated spot beneath the cell, between the bases of 
the 2nd and 1st median nervules ; two large spots in the submedian inter- 
space one below the middle of the cell and the other at the base of the 
wings ; a submarginal series of diffused spots ; a large pale area below the 
cell and the first median nervule. Hindwing : five basal spots, the middle 
one being at the base of the cell ; a large oval spot in the middle of the cell 
with a large spot above it, a quadrate spot on costal margin near apex, a 
very large spot at end of cell, an oval spot between the bases of the 1st 
and 2nd median nervules and a large cordate spot in the submedian area ; 
a discal series of five sub-quadrate spots the first two on the disc, about 
midway between the end of the ceU and the outer margin, the next two 
shifted inwards and separated by the 2nd median nervule, the fifth shifted 
still further inwards in the first median interspace ; submarginal band as- 



B UTTERFLIES COLLECTED IN THE TA VO Y DISTRICT. 1 31 

on forewdng ; three black anal spots, the two outer crowned inwardly with 
metalHc blue scales, the middle spot entirely covered with similar scale:^. 
This is evidently a new species but I hesitate to name it as I have not 
succeeded in taking a male. It probably belongs to the group am^nrZa, How., 
auxesia, B.B., auxea, DeN., and is near auxesia, B.B., but differs from it in 
the obsolescence of the discal band on the underside of the forewings. It 
agi'eos fairly well with A. agesia, Hew., the spots on the undersides of both 
wings being much alike, but it differs fi-om that species in being pale purple 
on the upperside while A. agesia is violet-blue. 

299. Arhopala tunguva, Gr. S. 

Many specimens of both sexes taken on Pagaye hill, during December 1919. 
This species varies much in size and in the colour of the uppersides. 

300. Arhopala perissa, Doh. 

An uncommon species of which I secured only a few specimens. I took it 
on Pagaye hill at 600' and also on Kalataung, 1,700', in December . 

301. Arhopala perimuta, Mooro. 

Plentiful on hiU tops throughout the district during January and February, 
and less so at other times. 

302. Arhopala duessa, Doh. 

Found sparingly from November to March. I have a few specimens of 
both sexes, of which some were taken at Kalachaung in March and others 
on Kalataung, 1,500', dm-ing December 1919. 

303. Arhopala ammonides, Doh. 

Several specimens of both sexes of this beautiful little butterfly were caught 
at Kalachaung in March and Myekhanbaw in April 1920. 

304. Arhopala arvina. Hew. 

Two males and one female taken on Kalataung, l,700',on 21st December 1919. 

305. Arhopala adala, DeN. 

A single male taken on Pagaye hill, 600', during December 1919. 

306. Arhopala fidla. Hew. 

A single female caught on Kambauk hill, 300', on 14th January 1920. This 
species has previously been described from the Andaman Islands. 

Subfamily — Deudoriginje. 

307. Dendoryx epijarbas, Moore. 
Common throughout the district. 

308. Hysudra hades, DeN. 9 No. XII in plate. 

A single female taken about two miles from Kambauk, on the road to Paeha- 
ung, on 16th January 1920. De NiceviUe, J.A.S.B., 1S97, p. 500, described this 
butterfly as " hair brown above, paler on the disc," which is not the case in 
the specimen I possess which has a distinct cupreous tint on the area below 
the cell of the forewings, from the base to about three-fourths the length of 
the wing. There is also a large dark spot in the cell, covering half the area 
of the same. The hindwings are less cupreous, but this colour is spread over 
the entire surface. 

309. Rapala sphinx intermedia, nov. $ No. XIII in plate. 

Three males and two females were taken on Kalataung, 1,500', on 22nd and 
23rd December 1919. The males on the upperside are exactly as in Rapala 
rhoecus, DeN., but on the underside they agree with Rapala sphinx, Fab. My 
male specimens have the discal band on the forewings, as in R. rhcecus 
and though Swinhoe in Lep. Indica sinks rhcecus to sphinx, he makes no 
mention of the discal band. On the underside my specimens differ from 
rh(Bcus in having the ground colour dark brown and not oHve green. This 
is no doubt an undescribed form between sphinx and rhcecus. 



132 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETl , Vol. XXVllL 



310. Rapala scintilla, DeN. 

An uncommon species, found sparingly on Pagaye hill, 600', during the 
latter part of January. No females were secured. 

311. Rapala %nruna,llor^. 

Common on the hills during December and January. Numerous speci- 
mens of both sexes were taken at Pagaye, Wagon, Sabataung and Kambauk. 

312. Rapala suhgidtata, El. 9 No. XV in plate. 

This appears to be a very local butterfly and has so far been found only 
on the top of Pagaye hill, 600'. It flies during December and Januaiy and 
is not to be seen for the rest of the year. In all over twenty males have been 
taken within the last three years, all during December and January. Only 
cne female has been secured, and it was taken on 30th December 1917. As 
the female is up to the present unknown, I give a description of the same. 

Female : — Expanse 1 -3 inches. 

Upperside : Both wings brown with a purple gloss, much as in the same 
sex of Rapala petosiris. Hew. 

Underside : Both wings brown with a pale purple tinge, the outer margins 
of both wings and the inner margin of forewing somewhat ochreous. 

Forewing : A large oval spot in the cell, about its middle, a spot at the 
end of the ceU with two spots just beyond separated by the middle discoidal 
nervule, two similar spots in the same interspaces, about midway between 
the apex of cell and outer margin ; two round spots on the disc, on each side 
of the median nervule, all these spots are dark brown with pale borders. 

Hind wing : With three basal spots, the one near the costa about 
twice as large as either of the other two, a large sjiot below the costa 
about the middle of the margin; a very large spot at bend of cell ; a series 
of six spots across the disc, placed in pairs, commencing on the costa and 
ending on abdominal margin, all those spots dark brown with hght 
borders. The discal series have light brown centres in addition. A small 
tail from the tip of the first median nervule, black tipped with white ; 
anal lobe black, crowned with yellow ; a black spot on margin in the first 
median interspace, broadly crowned with yellow, a similar spot in the 
interspace below, sprinkled with grey scales, a short black streak placed 
along the abdominal margin, bordered with grey. Thorax and abdomen 
above dark brown, below pale ochreous. 

313. Rapala petosiris, Hew. 

A very common butterfly, found all over the district in heavy jungle. 

314. Rapala svffasa, Moore. 

Fairly plentiful on the hills from November to May. Several specimens 
of both sexes were taken at Pagaye, Sabataung and Wagon during Decem- 
ber and January. 

315. Rapala jarbas, Fab. 

Exceedingly common everywhere ; most plentiful during December and 
January, females are rather scarce. 

316. Rapala xenophon intermedia, Std. 

Males plentiful on hill tops from November to January but females are 
scarce. This butterfly varies much on the undersides from pale yellow to dark 
brown. 

317. Dacalana vidura burmana, Moore. 

An uncommon species and difficult to get in good condition. Taken 
sparingly at Pagaye, Sabataung, Kambauk and Wagon during December 
and January. It feeds on the flowers of a. species of Loranthus and was 
rather plentiful at Wagon, 1,000', during the latter part of December 1919. 
Females were more numerous. 



BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED IN THE TA VO Y DISTRICT. 133 



318. Camena creusa culta, DoN. 

Males taken very sparingly at Pagaye, 600', during Docomber, but no 
females wore caught. 

319. Camena ictoides, El. 

A few males only taken on Pagaye hill, 600' in Diioember. These spoci - 
mens are very like Camena crethiis, UeN., wliich was described from Java 
and Sumatra but the tuft of orange coloured hairs attached to the inner 
margin of the forevvings, on the underside, is small while in C. creusa it is 
large. Also the prominent orange band at the extreme base of the costa in 
C. creusa is wanting in those. It is also very near to G. carmentalis, DeN., 
on the upperside. 

320. Ops (Eta, DeN. 

A few males and several females were taken at the foot of Sabataung and 
also at Wagon, 1,000' during December 1919. It appears to be very local 
and was not seen anywhere else. It comes to the flowers of a species 
of Loranthits in company with Dacalanaviduraburmana, Moore, and was 
fairly plentiful at Wagon, close to the P. W. D. inspection bungalow. 

321. Ops (Britomartis) cleoboides, El. 

A male and two females taken ; the male on Pagaye hill, 600'. in Sep- 
tember, one female on Sinbo-Sinma, 4,000', in October, and the other on 
Kalataung, 1,500', in December. 

322. Ops (Bullis) valentla, Sw. 

A single male taken on Kalataung, 1500', in December 1919. 

323. Tajuria longinus. Fab. 

Several specimens of both sexes were secured on Sabataung, 300', 
dm-ing December 1919. These are larger and more strongly marked than 
is usual. 

324. Tajuria tyro, DeN. 

A pair only taken ; the male at Marmagan and the female on Kala- 
taung in December. 

325. Tajuria mantra, Felder. 

Of this rare species I secured two males and one female on Pagaye hill, 
600', in January 1920. 

326. Hypolycaeria erylus, God. 

An extremely common butterfly, found at all elevations, throughout 
the district. 

327. Chliaria othona. Hew. 

Two males taken at Pagaye in April 1917. 

328. Chliaria merguia, Doh. 

A pair taken on Pagaye hill, 600' ; the male in April and the female in May. 

329. Thamala ininiata, Moore. 

Males pentiful but females are scarce. Numerous males were taken on 
Pagaye and Penaichaung hills, 500' to 600',during December and January 
1919-20, but no females were seen there. The few females taken were 
caught on Kalataung, 1,500', on 21st and 22nd December 1919. A few 
males were also taken here and at Kambauk and Yeawing. They are 
generally found in company with Rapala xenephon intermedia, Std., to 
which they hear a good resemblance. 

This butterfly was most plentiful on Penaichaung whore I caughfc 
over 25 specimens in a single day. 

330. Sithon nedymond, Cramer. 

A rare species and met with very sparingly. It is probably found ou 
all the hill-tops as I have specimens from Pagaj^e, Yeawing, Maungmagan 
and Kalataung and is on the wing from October to May. 



134 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL RLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIl. 

331. Araotes lapithis, Moore. 

Three females taken a Maungmagan a little above sea level during 
December 1919. They keep to heavy jungle and are diiSicult to catch 
owing to theu' swift flight. 

332. Biduanda thesmia. Hew. 

A common species of which a large number of both sexes wore secured. 
It is found on the liills throughout the district and is most plentiful from 
November to January. 

333. Bidnanda tliesmia Jahrkii, Moore. 

Fairly plentiful on the hills in company with B. thesmia from which it 
differs but little in the male sex. The females are very like that sex 
of Marmessus lysias. Fab. 

334. Biduanda melisa, Hew. 

Several males taken on Pagaye hill, 600', and on Kalataung, 1,500', from 
December to May, but only three females were taken at the latter place, 
on 23rd December 1919. These females have the forewings, on the upper- 
side, brown with a rather largo pale yellowish area on the disc ; the anal 
area of the hindwings is bluish grey. In volume III, page 427, of the 
Butterfhes of India, Burma and Ceylon, by DeNiceville, the female is said, 
not to differ from the male, except that it has a medial wliite spot on the 
forewings, upperside ; this is not the case in the specimens I possess. The 
females of B. melisa and B. nicevillei, Doh., are very much aUke on both 
surfaces. On the forewing, upperside B. melisa differs in having a large 
pale area on the disc, the hindwings being almost exactly ahke. On the 
underside the basal spots on both wings in B. melisa are annular while in 
B. nicevillei they are simple. They also differ in the discal band on the 
hindwings, imderside, this band in B. melisa being entirely composed of 
fine lines in pairs, while in B. nicevillei it has too large quadrate spots 
near the apex in addition to the fine lines. 

335. Biduanda nicevillei, Doh. 2 No. XIV in plate. 

Males uncommon but females are very rare. Numerous males were 
taken on the hills throughout the district but only five females were 
secured, two on Pagaj-e hill, 600', in April and one in December, one at 
Maungmagan in March and one on Kalataung, 1,500', in October. As the 
female is up to the present unknowTi, I give a description of the same. 

i^emaZe :— Expanse 1-2 inches. Forewing brown, slightly paler towards 
the base. Hindwing, brown with three tails, the anal area bluish gi'ey, 
divided by the dark veins two large lunular spots on the margin, one on 
each side of the middle tail, a marginal black thread, cilia white, tails 
white with a dark medial streak. Underside ; both wings white with 
daxk brown marldngs. 

Foi-ewing white, a minute spot a/c the base of the cell, a small spot beyond 
and a large sjDot in the middle of the cell, with a small spot below it, 
separated by the median nervure,the discoceUulars defined by a fine ferrugi- 
nous fine, three subcostal spots, an irregular broad discal fascia com- 
mencing at the costa and reaching just beyond the third medial nervule, 
the outer margin of which is defined with white, a fine ferruginous line in 
continuation of the fascia with a spot of the same colour placed beside it, 
a dark quadrate spot below : apex and outer margin down to third 
median nervule dark brown, below this the margin is ferruginous ; a sub- 
marginal lunular dark brown line ; cilia dark brown. Hindwing with 
the apical part of the outer margin light ferruginous ; a largo round spot 
in the middle of the cell -with many spots and fines round about it ; a 
discal curved fascia, parallel with the margin, commencing from the 
costa about, two-thirds from the base, and ending near the alidorainal 
margin, composed of two quadrate dark spots followed by lines in groups 



BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED IN THE TA VO Y DISTRICT . 135 



of three ; a submarginal dark brown lunulated line, two anal spots as on 
upperside, the metaUic green anal area larger and brighter than in the 
male ; black marginal thread and ciha as on upjiersido. 
33G. Marmessus lysias. Fab. 

Very common all over in heavy jungle and at all seasons. 

337. Suasa lisides, Hew. 

Males uncommon but females are very rare. Several males and three 
females were taken between November and April on hill-tops. Pagayo 
hill is the best spot for tliis specie. 
33S. Thrix gama, Dist. S No. XI in plate. 

Three males were taken on the top of Pagaye hill, 600', on 6th January 
1920. As this species is new to the Indian region, I give a description of the 
same. 
Male : Expanse 1 4 inches. 

Upperside. Forewings fuscus, sKghtly paler on the disc. Hindwings 
fuscus, the anal angular area greyish-white and containing two black 
marginal spots, separated by the first median nervulo, a smaller spot at 
the extreme anal angle ; a marginal blackish line ; tails greyish-white 
with dark medial lines. A large cupshaped depression on the disc, 
below the inner margin, shining and very conspicuous in certain lights. 
Underside. Forewing pale reddish ochraceous with the area beneath the 
median nervure and first median nervule greyish. A small grey cavity in 
the middle of the inner margin of the forewing bearing a tuft of orange 
hairs and placed exactly above the depression on the upperside of the 
hindwing. Hindwings with the anal angular greyish-white area as above 
inwardly containing a transverse series of five blackish linear marks, the 
spots as above, but the middle one very obscure and that at the anal angle 
larger and brighter, inwardly margined with bluish. Body, above 
brown, below con-colourous with the wings. Antennae brown, the tips 
of the clubs yellow. 
839. Jacoona anasuja, c? No. IX, $ No. X in plate. 

Two males and throe females of this rare species were taken at Pagayo 
and Sabataung during December 1919. 

This species was recorded from Malacca and is new to the Indian region. 
Description. — Expanse cJ 1-8, $ 2 inches. 

Male. Forewing: Produced somewhat at apex, external margin sHghtly 
concave inner margin straight. Hindwing : anal region somewhat 
produced, a long tail from the tip of the upper internal nervule and an 
acute tooth at the end of the first median nervule. Underside, both 
wings black. Forewing with a large spot of dull cerulean blue from the 
base to beyond the middle, bounded by the inner margin, very much as 
in Charana mandarinus. Hew,; an oblique fascicle beyond the cell dull 
cyaneus. Hindwing ; the costal border pale fuscus, a large internal area 
pale cyaneus, the internal groove grey, anal area whitish with two 
transverse black spots, one on each side of the first median nervule, the 
spot nearer the tail larger. Tails white, black at the base, the line 
before the ciha and tooth black. Underside: Forewing ochraceous- 
hoary, about the outermost part rufescent brownisli. Hindwing : The 
costal and outer margin, the latter as far as the median nervules, pale 
ochraceous hoary, the rest of the wing wliitish. The anal region with a 
double series of black marks, four in each series, the 2nd and 4th spots of 
the outer series sprinkled with dull cyaneus scales; tail and tooth as on 
upperside, taU -7 inch long. 

Female. UjDperside : forewing brown immaculate. Hindwing ; brown 
with a broad wliitish band, separating the anal from the middle region, the 
inner margin of the white band much waved ; three large blackish spots 



136 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



on the white area, the outermost touching the margin between the 1st and 
2nd median norvules, outwardly sprinkled with bhie scales, the middle spot 
shifted inwards and the third at the extreme anal angle also sprinkled 
with grey scales. There are two tails and an acute tooth ; a long tail at 
tip of upper internal nervule, 1-1 inch long, wlii te with a dark medial 
streak along its entire lengthy a small tail emitted from the tip of the first 
median nervule, about half inch long, white tipped with brown and bearing 
a dark spot at its base ; an acute tooth from the second median 
nervule, black ; scilia white. Underside: much as in the male, but the 
apex and outer margins of forewings of & brighter tint, the white anal 
patch margined with a much waved black hne ; spots as on upperside. 

340. Manto martina, Hew. 

This is a rare species of which I secured three males and two females ; a 
jnale at Yeawing on 15th May 1915, a pair on Pagaye hill, 600', in December 
1919, and a male at Wagon, 1,000', on 22nd December 1919. On the under- 
side it is very like Ticherra acte, Moore, which may account for it being 
overlooked. 

341. Cheritra freja, Fab. 

A common species found at all elevations, throughout the district from 
November to May. 

342. Ticherra acte, Moore. 

Not uncommon and flies in company with the above. The dry and wet 
season-forms have been both taken. 

343. Zeltus etolus, Fab. 

Very common throughout the district at all seasons. 

344. Bindahara jihocides, Fab. 

Rather an uncommon species, found sjiaringly on the hills during De- 
cember and January, I took a few specimens of both sexes on Pagaye hill in 
December 1919. 

345. Loxura atymmis, Cramer. 

Common at all times all through the district. 

346. Yasoda tripunctata. Hew, 

Appears to be a rare species as I have only succeeded in getting a few, a 
male at Kambauk in January and a female at Maungmagan in April, also 
a pair at Myekhanbaw in January 1919. 

347. Neomyrina hiemalis, God and Salve. 

This butterfly is quite common but is not found West of Pagaye. It is 
most plentiful during December but is difficult to catch, and good specimens 
are seldom taken. During December 1919 it appeared in groat numbers on 
Pagaj'e hill. It keeps to bamboo jungle and flies high, but on a good windy 
day it comes down for shelter and can be taken in fair numbers. It settles 
on the underside of leave, facing downwards, so that if a sweep of the net is 
made from below it invariably escapes. 

348. Drina donina, Hew, 

Rather a common butterfly of which a number of both sexes were taken 
on Kalataung, 1,500', and a female at Pagaye and Kambauk, during Decem- 
ber and Januaiy, It keeps to low trees and bushes and flies httle, even 
when disturbed, I found females more plentiful than males. 

349. Charana tnandarinus, Hew. 

About twelve males and three females wore caught on the top of Pagaye 
hill, 600', during December and January 1919-20. This butterfly seldom 
approaches to within reach of an ordinary net and to secure most of the 
specimens I have, my catcher had to chmb a tree to about 25 feet from the 
ground. 

350. Laliera eryx, L. 

A single male taken at Nabule on 11th August 1914. 



BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED IN THE TAVOY DISTRICT, i 137 



351. Catapcecihna elegans, Druce. 

Many specimens of both soxos taken at Pagayo, Wagon, Kambauk, Saba- 
taung and Maungmagon. It appears to prefer low elevations and heavy 
jungle. 

352. Horaga moulmeina, Moore. 

Numerous males and few females taken at Pagaye, Sabataung, and Kala- 
taung during December and January. It is most plentiful on Pagaye hill 
during December. 

353. Liphyra brassolis, Wd. 

A single female taken in a garden in the town of Tavoy on 10th May 
1917. This specimen was hovering around a nest of the large red ants and 
was at first taken for a day moth. 

Fami ly — HESPERIID^. 

Subfamily — Hesperiin.^. 

354. Orthopcetus lalita, Doh. 

A pair taken at Yeawing in February 1919. It appears to be a rare 
species and was not met with in any other place. 

355. Celcenorrhinus awivittata, Moore. 

A pair taken on Sinbo-Sinma, 300', in October 1918, and a female at 
Pagaye, 600', in December 1919. 

356. Coledenia dan. Fab. 

Very common throughout the district. 

357. Odontoptilum angulata, Felder. 

Not common; a few specimens taken at Pagaye and Wagon during T De- 
comber 1919. " 

358. Odontoptilum pygela. Hew. 

Two males taken at Pagaye, 200', in January 1920. 

359. Tagiades Jielferi ravi, Moore. 

Very common throughout the district on the flowers of a species of Agera- 
turn, locally called " Visa ". 

360. Tagiades gana, Moore. 

A single male taken at Pagayo, 200', on 30th December 1919. 

361. Tagiades lavata, Butler. 

Two males taken at Pagaye, 200', on 6th January 1920. 

362. Tagiades atticus. Fab. 

Very common, especially during December and January, throughout the 
district. 

363. Tagiades dealbata, Dist. 

Two males taken at Pagaye, 200', on 13th December 1919. 

364. Tagiades trichoneura, Felder. 

A few specimens taken on the hills at Pagaye, Wagon and Kadantaung, 
between August and June. 

365. Tagiades pralaya, Moore. 

Several of both sexes taken in company with the above and from which 
they appear to differ but little. 

366. Satarupa bhagava, Moore. 

Taken sparingly at Pagaye and in the Kaleinaung Forest Reserve 
during December and January. 

367. Odina decoratus, Hew.* 

Eleven males and two females were caught on the top of Pagaye hill, 600', 
during December and January 1919-20. They generally put in an ajipea- 
rance, at one particular spot on this hill top at about 4 p.m., but were never 
numerous, the most I saw in a day being throe. They are most restless 
creatures and fly almost continuously for an hour or so and then disappear, 

18 



138 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

Occasionally they settle on the underside of a leaf and give one a chance, but 
to take them on the wing is almost impossible owing to their extremely rapid 
flight. 

368. Odina ortygia, DeN. 

A single male taken on the top of Pagaye hill, 600', in company with 
Odina decoratus, Hew, on 5th January 1920. This species has the same 
habits as 0. decoratus, flies extremely fast and suddenly settles on the 
underside of a leaf with wings outspread. 

Subfamily — Pamphilin^. 

369. Sancus pulligo, Mab. 

Extremely common everywhere at all seasons. 

370. Koruthaialos xaniies, But. 

A common species found throughout the district. It keeps to damp and 
shady ravines in dense forest. 

371. Koruthaialos rubecola, Plotz. 

Not near so plentiful as K. xanites, but flies in company with it. Maung- 
magan and Kambauk are the best places for this species. 

372. Suada sioerga, DeN. 

Fairly common at Pagaye and along the Pachaung-Kambauk road, it 
comes to the flowers of the " Visa ". 

373. lambrix salsala, Moore. 

Common at the foot of the hills all over the district. 

374. Scobura cephala, Hew. 

Several specimens of both sexes taken at Pagaye and along the Pachaung - 
Kambauk road during December and January. 
365. Erionota thrax, L. 

Very common at the foot of the hills and on the plains throughout the 
district. 

376. Erionota batara, Moore. 

Appears to be rather a rare species as I only secured three males and 
two females. A pair were taken on Sabataung, 200', on 3rd December, and 
a pair at Maungmagan on 28th December 1919, and a male at Pagaye, 200' 
on 17th May 1916. 

377. Gangara thyrsis, Fab. 

Rather uncommon ; a few specimens of both sexes taken during Decem- 
ber and January. 

378. Matapa aria, Moore. 

A few of both sexes taken on Sabataung, 500', and at Paga3^e, 200', in 
December. 

379. Kerana diodes, Moore. 

Common all through the district and at all seasons. 

380. Siimula, swinhoei. El. and Ed. 

A single male taken at Yeawing in February 1918. 

381. Plastingia calUneura, Felder. 

Two males taken at Pagaye, 300', during January 1920 and a pair in 
October 1919. 
383. Plastingia corissa. Hew. 

A pair taken on the Pachaung-Kambauk road on 10th January 1920. 

383. Plastirgia naga, DeN. 

Several males and two females were taken on Pagaye hill, 600', from Decem- 
ber to January 1919-20. These were all caught in one spot, in deep shade. 

384. Lotongus calathus. Hew. 

A single male taken on Pagaj'o hill, 200', on 17th January 1920. 

385. Pithauria marsena. 

A few males taken at Pagaye and along the Pachaung-Kambauk road in 
January 1920. 



BUTTEIiFLIES COLLECTED IN THE TA VOY DISTRICT. 139 

386. Notocrypta feistJiamelii, Bdl. 
Extromoly common at all elevations. 

387. Udaspes folus, Cramer. 

Fairly plentiful at Pagaye and Wagon in June. 

388. Cvjritha purrea, Moore. 

Taken sparingly ; a male at Maungmagan and one at Kambauk in January 
and a few of both sexes at Pagaye during December. 

389. Telicota bambusce, Moore. 

Extremely common all over the district and at all elevations. 

390. Telicota gola, Moore. 
Very common at all seasons. 

391. Telicota dara, KoU. 

Very common throughout the district. 

392. Pirdana hi/ela rudolphii, El. and DeN. 

Taken sparingly at Pagaye and along the Pachaung-Kambauk road, 
during December and January. 

393. Halpe zema, Hew. 

Common everywhere. I found it very plentiful along the Pachaung- 
Kambauk road during January 1920. 

394. Halpe sikkima, Moore. 

Many of both sexes taken along the Pachaung-Kambauk road, during 
January, on the flowers of the Ageratum (Visa). 

395. Halpe masoni, Moore. 

Taken very sparingly at Pagaye in December and at Kambauk during 
January 1920. 

396. Hon semamora, Moore. 

Fairly common at low elevations, along roads and streams. 

397. Parnara oceia, Hew. 

Several of both sexes taken at Pagaye during December 1919 and on the 
Pachaung-Kambauk road in January 1920. 

398. Badamia exclamationis. Fab. 

Extremely common throughout the district but appears to keep to low 
elevations. 

399. Ismcna gomata, Moore. 

A single female taken on Pagaye hill, 300', on 16th December 1919. 

400. Hasora chuza. Hew. 

A rare species of which only four males and one female were secured. 
Two males on Kalataung, 1,700', in November, one at Pagaye, 400', in 
April and one in May and a female at Myekhanbow in April. 

401. Hasora chabrona, PI. 

Not common, a few taken at Pagaye and Maungmagan during December 
1919. At Maungmagan I found this species on some prickly bushes on the 
beach. 



140 



A NOTE ON THE NIDIFICATION AND HABITS OF SOME 
BIRDS IN BRITISH GARHWAL. 

BY 
A. E. OSMASTON. 

( IVith three 2>la,tes and a map) 

This note is the result of about ten years' residence in the district of Garhwal 
lasting from 1910 to 1920. My work as Forest Officer necessitated much tour- 
ing throughout this portion of the hills and often led me for weeks together into 
more or less remote places where I had ample opportunities for observing the 
very interesting and varied bird life of these forests. My remarks are only 
intended to cover the hilly portion of the district and do not include the plains 
portion lying to the south. Actually my observations did not even extend to 
the Une of the plains and were almost entirely confined to the hills Ijdng north of 
a hne drawn south-east and north-west through Lansdowne. 

British Garhwal occupies a strip of the Himalaya running from the plains right 
up to the borders of Tibet. The rivers drain directly into the Ganges, which 
itself forms the western boundary of the district for a distance of some 80 miles. 
Thence onwards to its source this fine rivor with all its tributaries, excepting only 
the upper reaches of the Pindar, lie entirely within the district. To the east of 
Garhwal are the hills of the Almora and Nani Tal districts, and to the west lie 
the liiUs of the Tehri Garhwal State. 

The rainfall varies considerably according to the local configuration, but it is 
possible to differentiate three tracts as follows: — Firstly a wet tract comprising 
all the hiUs south of Joshimath (and this incluides about f of the whole area to 
which this note applies) where the average annual precipitation varies roughly 
between 50 and 80 inches. Secondly the area north of Joshimath excepting 
that portion of the Dhaiili Ganga above its junction with the Rishi Ganga. 
Here the average annual precipitation probably varies between 20 and 40 
inches. And thirdly the remaining area up the Dhauli valley as far as the 
borders of Tibet where the average annual precipitation probably does not 
exceed 10 to 20 inches. 

There are in all some 2,000 square miles of forest which often forms uninterrupt- 
ed blocks of large extent. In the central hill ranges, however, practically all the 
available land below 8,000' elevation has been brought under cultivation, though 
even here there are always many slopes too steep for cultivation where forest, 
often of a secondary type, intersects the broad expanses of terraced fields. 

In a normal year snow does not fall below 5,000' in winter, and it never lies 
for many days together at elevations below 7,000'. By the beginning of June 
there is seldom much snow left below 12,000' and from this time on through the 
months of July, August and September the beautiful alpine pasture lands offer 
a welcome to those birds which retire each year to rear their famihes in the peace- 
ful seclusion of these lofty mountains. 

The uppermost limit at which forest wiU grow in the wet tract is about 11,000'^ 
but in the dry interior tract it reaches an elevation of 12,000' to 13,000'. 

In the notes which follow the numbers in brackets which will be found after 
each scientific name refer to the numbers given in the Fauna of British India. 

Corims corax (1).— The Raven. 

The Raven is, I befieve, only found in Garhwal -\vithin a narrow belt of country 
about ten miles wide Ijang along the Tibetan border eastwards from the Niti 
pass. This tract lies entirely above 13,000' elevation and consists of treeless 
barren slopes. During two visits to these parts I only saw two or three pairs 
and the siiecies is certainly far from common. 

Urocissa flavirostris (13). — The Yellow-billed Blue Magpie. 
Tolerably common in forests of the central and interior ranges from about 
fi;000' to 9,000' elevation. I took a clutch of four fresh eggs in May from a nest 






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niRDS IN BRITISH GARHWAL. 141 



which was placed 8' from the ground in a shrub of Rhododendron arboreum. 
The nest was a deep saucer of matted rootlets with a few twigs on the outside. 
Though the range of this magpie slightly overlaps that of its equally common 
relative U. occipitalis I have never soon the two associate together. 

Nucijraga hemispila (27). — The Himalayan Nutcracker. 

This bird is found all over the central and interior hill ranges wherever forest 
of coniferous species occurs, though I have not noted its occurrence south of the 
Dudatoli and Dhanpur ranges. This however is what one would naturally expect 
since the only conifer found here is the chir {Pinus longifolia) and though the 
nutcracker frequently descends to 6,000' elevation to feed on the chir seed it would 
not appear to be a permanent resident at this level except in some of the cooler 
valleysof theinterior ranges. The bird is usually found between 6,000' and 10,000', 
and in many of the coniferous forests, especially those composed of spruce and 
blue pine, it is very common at those elevations. It frequently utters a raucous 
" Kurr ", which is the only note I have ever heard. There is apparently a 
mistake in Blanford's Fauna whore the nasal bristles are descibed as chocolate 
brown. The nasal bristles of this bird are in reality black-and-white and are 
quite similar to those of N. muUipunctata. The latter is found according to 
Blanford as far east as Kumaon and should therefore occur in Garhwal, but 
though I have taken some pains to discover its identity in Garhwal I did not 
succeed in doing so. 

Graculus eremita (29). — ^The Red-billed Chough. 

This bird, like the yellow-billed chough, does not extend its range south of 
the slopes immediately surrounding the main line of snows. Like its cousin it is 
a bird of the open steep pasture-lands and rocky slopes which lie above and be- 
yond the limits of tree forest, though it also frequents similar open ground at ele- 
vations down to 6,000'. The two species are about equally common. The na- 
tives call the bird "Kangni" and though it is not by any means shy it is not often 
seen round habitations or cultivation. It breeds in clefts in vertical or over- 
hanging cUffs from 6,500' up to 14,000' elevation. The lowest place at which I 
found it breeding was in a vertical chff overhanging the Dhauli River a few miles 
below Surai Tota, but all the nests I located were so inaccessible that I was unable 
to reach them. On 1st June some nests had young, so they probably commence 
laying towards the end of April or early in May. I never found more than one 
pair breeding in the same locality. A carcase of a burhal which, as I have men- 
tioned elsewhere, was largely patronised by the yellow-billed species, did not to 
my knowledge attract any of the red-billed spr>cies though they wore not uncom- 
mon in the immediate neighbourhood. The old birds have a call closely resembl- 
ing that of the common jackdaw. By the end of July the young birds have left 
the nest and at this time they congregate in large flocks, mainly I think at high 
levels. At about 13,000' elevation in August, I counted as many as 100 birds in 
a single flock. I have never observed this species circling about in the air in 
pursuit of insects in the manner so characteristic of the yellow-billed species. 

Pyrrliocorax alpinus (30). — ^Tho Yellow-billed Chough. 

In Garhwal this bird doos not seem to wander south from the slopes which 
directly diverge from the main axis of snowy peaks. Open rocky or grassy slopes 
are its favourite haunts and it is never seen in forest. It also seems to shun cul- 
tivation and this no doubt accounts for its absence from the high central ranges 
which are either densely wooded or under cultivation. Their food seems to be 
of a varied nature. I have seen a flock of them in July feeding on the ripe fruit 
of Berberis lycium and on another occasion I took from their gizzards the stones 
of some wild fruit. I have also watched numbers of them come and feed on the 
carcase of a barhal which had been killed by a snow leopard. They may 
often be seen hawking about in the air for insects in parties of 20 or 30 and whe 



142 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIL 



thus engaged they float about in graceful circles on almost motionless wings 
until attracted by the sight of some insect they suddenly dive headlong with 
rapid twists and turns in deft pursuit of the quarry. They may also be observed 
busily quartering the ground for insects, and should an insect be disturbed and 
take to flight on the approach of one of the birds, the chough will immediately 
take to its wings to continue the pursuit in the air. They may sometimes be 
seen sitting on the backs of barhal just as starlings sit on the backs of sheep in 
England. During the winter months they are commonly found as low as 6,000' 
elevation, but as the snow disappears they seem to prefer higher elevations and 
in July I did not find any birds below Juma in the Niti Valley which is at about 
8,000' elevation. Moreover as early as the beginning of June I found them 
common up to 15,000' elevation. The note of those birds closely resembles to 
my mind that of the common bank-myna of the plains. 
^giihaUscus erythrocepJmlus (35).— The Red-headed Tit. 

This bird is widely distributed throughout the hills and may be classed as one 
of the common species though I have never seen them in large numbers together. 
Four nests which I found on different occasions were situated at elevations bet- 
ween 6,500' and 8,000', and eggs were laid during April or the first half of May. 
They were situated at varying heights from a few inches up to 10' above the 
ground and were well concealed. The oval nest was in every case, of fine moss 
lio-htly held together or intermingled with either spider's web (especially the 
cocoons) or vegetable doAvn, and this Avas followed by a httle bark, fibre, grass 
or hair. The interior was copiously lined with feathers, I notice that Blan- 
ford does not mention the feathers, but mentions roots instead, which I have 
never found. 

^rjithaliscus niveigularis (38).— The White -throated Tit. 

The only place where I have seen this apparently rather rare bird is in the 
forests of the Dhauli vaUey in Painkhanda Malla, Here in a mixed forest of 
birch {Betula utilis) and silver fir {Abies pindrow) I came across two old birds, 
feeding a flock of young ones. This was at 11,000' elevation on 24:th June, In 
my notes on one of the old birds which I shot I recorded that the bill was black 
and the feet pale yellowish brown. 

Garrulax albigularis (76),— The White -throated Laughing Thrush, 
These birds are found practically throughout the hills at all elevations up to 
10 000', and are fairly common wherever there is forest, I have taken eggs at 
7,500' in April and again at 9,500' in May, These two nests were placed from 5 
to 10' above the ground in the midst of oak forest. On the three occasions 
when I have taken the eggs of this bird I have always been more or less surround- 
ed by quite a number of individuals of the same species who invariably showed 
their disapproval of my presence by loud and vehement hissing. From this, 
one might reasonably expect to find several pairs breeding in close proximity 
and possibly they do so, though I have never found more than one nest in the 
same immediate neighbourhood. One of the nests I found was composed ci 
thin fibrous material and lined with a substantial layer of roots and rhizomorphs ; 
the other was constructed of masses of rhizomorphs mixed with feathery grey 
lichen and followed by a layer of dead ringal leaves with a thick lining of fine 
roots and rhizomorphs, • , . r^, , 

Trochalopterum variegatum (90).— The Eastern Variegated Laughing Thrush. 
This is the common laughing thrush of the high level forests, namely those 
situated above about 8,000' elevation. The only two nests I found contained 
eggs during the second week of June, They were placed in bushes from 3' to 
5' above the ground, and both were constructed of very similar material. On 
the outside there was dry grass and fibre, and this was followed by a thick layer 
of papery bark which in one case had been taken from the " burans " {Rhodo- 
dendron arboreum) and in the other from the " bhuj " {Betula utilis). In both 
cases there was a lining of fine roots. 



BIRDS IN BRITISH GARHWAL. 143 



Grammatoptila striata (101).— Tho Striated Laughing-Thrush. 

Well distributed all over the hills wherever suitable dense forest occurs. Blan- 
ford gives its range as 6,000' to 9,000', but in Garhwal it is found down to 
4,000' along densely wooded moist ravines of the outer hills. 

Proparus vinipectus (183). — The Plain-brown Tit-Babbler. 

On the 24th June I came across a nest of this bird at an elevation of 9,500' in 
the Dhanpur range of hills in central Garhwal. The nest was suspended among 
the fine pendant branchlets of a ringal culm {Arundinaria spathijlora) at a height 
of about 4' from the ground. It Avas situated in the middle of a fairly dense 
forest of brushwood and ringal. The nest was a deep cup composed outside of 
green moss and rhizomorphs, then a thin layer of lonicera fibre, birch bark, and 
dead ringal leaves, then a thick layer of rhizomorphs and rootlets, with a final 
lining of hair. The two eggs which the nest contained averaged • 68" x • 53 ' 
and were pale green heavily blotched round the larger end Avith pale sepia. 

Hodgsonms phoenicuroides (199). — ^Hodgson's Short-wing. 

This bird is very skulking in its habits which may partly account for the fact 
that I very seldom observed it ; yet I do not think that the bird can be common. 
Blanford writes of this bird " Bill dusky reddish at tho gape," but I find my 
own notes on a female are " Bill black, lower mandible yellow at the base." 
I found it breeding in the middle of Juno up the DhauU valley close to Dunagiri. 
Of the two nests I found, one at 10,000' elevation contained two fresh eggs, the 
other at 11,500' elevation contained three shghtly incubated eggs. They were 
placed in low bushes in the vicinity of cultivation at a height of 1' to 2' above the 
ground. Both nests were deep cups and were similarly constructed. Outside 
there was bark fibre followed by grass with a fining of hair. The dark blue eggs 
averaged •84" X "61" for the clutch of two, and • 88" x "62" for the clutch of 
three. 

Oligura castaneicoronata (202). — The Chestnut -headed Short-wing. 

In view of the limited distribution recorded by Blanford for this species its 
occurrence in Garhwal deserves mention, though I am aware that it has already 
been shot some years ago by my brother Mr. B. B. Osmaston, C.I.E., as far west 
as Jaunsar, I only obtained one specimen in Garhwal and this bird was shot 
close to Pauri at 6,000' elevation in April. The skin was identified for me at the 
British Museum. 

Siva strigula (219). — The Stripe-throated Siva. 

This bird is found over practically the whole of the hill ranges of Garhwal at 
least as far north as Pipalkoti. In spite of its wide distribution it is not a bird 
that is very frequently seen. It has a rather plaintive whistling caU of throe 
notes uttered somewhat slowly and defiberately at equal intervals, the last note 
pitched lower than the other two. The ffight is rather slow and laboured. 

YuJiina gularis (223). — The Stripe -throated Yuhina. 

Blanford has not recorded this species west of Nepal. I only shot the bird 
once and this was in a " banj" oak forest not very far from Rudrapryag at 7,500' 
elevation. This bird, which was shot on 12th April, was one of a pair. 

Sitta Uucopsis (323). — The White-cheeked Nuthatch. 

Blanford does not mention the occurrence of this species east of Mussoorie. 
I however came across it in the dry interior blue pine {Pinus excelsa) forests of 
the Dhauli vaUey where I obtained specimens at 9,500' elevation in June. I did 
not find the bird in any way common. 

Dicrurus longicaudatus (328). — The Indian Ashy Drongo. 

This is the common drongo of these hills and it breeds at all elevations up to 
8,000', and possibly higher. In the outer Himalayan valleys Chaptia cenea and 
other drongos are found and D. ater is also found locaUy in the outer hills, parti- 
cularly in the more cultivated tracts, and occasionally at low elevations as far 
north as Nandpryag. But in central and upper Garhwal D. longicaudatus is the 
only common species. They leave the hills in the cold weather returning in 



144 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIL 



April and May for the nesting season, the eggs being usually laid in May. I 
noticed birds as far north as Tapoban beyond which they probably do not go. 
In the outer ranges they breed in the sal forest, but in the central hills they are 
most numerous in the forests of " banj " oak, whilst in the forests to the north 
they seem to prefer above all those mixed strips of deciduous forest in which 
horse-chestnut, elm, birch and similar species abound. The nest is usually 
placed from 10 to 20 feet above the ground wedged in a half-suspended position 
into the fork of a bough. The material of which the nest is constructed is in- 
variably strengthened and more or less covered on the exterior (but especially 
the rim) with cobweb which is also used to bind the nest to its support. The 
nest is a lightly -built deep saucer composed outside of herbaceous stems and 
grasses, and for this part of the work the birds exercise considerable skill in 
selecting material which has a natural stickiness and is of suitable shape to 
conform to the curves of the nest. Thus where the tree Pliyllanthus emhlica is 
found these birds, like many others, use the curved leafless and discarded 
deciduous shoots which easily attach themselves by means of the numerous 
slightly raised leaf-bases on either side of the twig. Similarly in the forests 
beyond the region of PhyllantJius emhlica these birds commonly use the dry 
fruiting si^ikes of Desmodium concinnum which not only possess a natural 
curvature suitable to the nest, but are also somewhat sticky owing to their 
hairiness. The interior of the nest is hned with fine grass stems or the heads 
of grasses or occasionally fine black rhizomorphs. Like most drongos they ai-e 
extremely bold and the parents frequently make angry sallies at any person 
who approaches close to the nest. 

Anorthura neglecta (352). — The Kashmir Wren. 

Blanford says " I have seen no specimens of wrens collected between Simla 
and the Nepal frontier and cannot say which of the two species occurs in that 
portion of the Himalayas." I wish now therefore to record the occurrence of 
the above species in the northern ranges of Garhwal. 

Tribura thoracica (371). — The Spotted Bush-wren Warbler. 

This bird is fairly common in suitable localities throughout the high ranges 
north of the Pindar river. As I had some doubts about the identification of 
the species, I sent two skins to the British Museum where they were kindly 
identified for me. In summer it frequents open grassy places up to about 12,500' 
elevation and is mainly found where the grass and other herbaceous growth is 
rankest. It is thus frequently seen round sites where sheep are temporarily 
quartered at this time of the year, and which are locally known as " kharaks ". 
Here the well manured soil often produces a vigorous growth of a species of 
dock. The bird has a most persistent " see see " note, and when uttering its 
song it usually rises a short distance above the ground dropping again out of 
sight into the grass and herbage. It may also occasionally be seen moving 
about amongst low shrubs. 

Phylloscopus affinis (405). — TickeU's Willow-warbler. 

Between the Chor-Hoti pass and the border of Tibet there lies a valley of gently 
undulating slopes occupying an area some 6 miles long by 2 broad, much of which 
lies between 12,000' and 14,000' elevation. This valley forms the head- 
waters of the Girthi river. The climate is Tibetan and the dry stony and sandy 
ground supports a scanty vegetation of dwarf loniceras, caragana, junij^jer 
and willow. It was in this valley that I found P. affinis breeding at 13,500' 
elevation in considerable numbers, though I noticed no other member of the 
warbler family here. Two birds which I shot were identified for me at the 
British Museum, and I will give my own note on the freslily killed birds as it 
differs in some respects from Blanford's description. " Logs, feet and claws 
pale yellowish brown, the feet darker above but yellowish beneath. Irides dark 
brown. Upper mandible blackish turning yellowish brown at the gape, lower 
mandible yellowish brown." The bird has a "tack-tack" note similar to that of 



BIRDS IN BRITISH GARHWAL. 143 



many other warblers. It also possesses a song, if such it may be called, composed 
of a single note uttered some 4 to 6 times in rapid succession and preceded 
by a single rather higher pitched note. In the first week of August nesting is 
almost complete and at this time I could only find one nest with half-fledged 
young, two from which the young had already flown, and one deserted nest with 
eggs. These eggs were pure white and the average measurement of three of 
them was • 6" x ' 45". The nests were all placed from 6" to 1' above the ground 
in low dense willow bushes which were growing in a gregarious manner on a 
piece of level ground bordering the stream. They were almost round in shape 
with a side entrance and were constructed of rough dry grass and lined with 
feathers. 

Phylloscopus jmlcher (414). — ^The Orange-barred Willow-warbler. 

This species breeds in considerable numbers in the birch (Betulautilis) forests of 
the interior, and is abundant during the breeding season in forest of this species 
at elevations between 11,000' and 12,000' situated in the Dhauli vallej'. They seem 
to be entirely arboreal in their habits and do not frequent bushes. Their note 
during the breeding season is very characteristic and when once learnt readily 
serves to distinguish them from their many relations of somewhat similar appear- 
ance. The song is composed of rapidly vibrated notes forming a high pitched 
trill in a slightly descending cadence and is a very perfect imitation of a similar 
trill uttered by the wood-wren in England. The only nest I succeeded in finding 
was placed against the trunk of a birch where it had been securely wedged 
between the trunk itself and some loosely attached pieces of the bark. The tree 
was in the middle of fairly dense birch forest, and the nest was placed about 
10' from the ground. It was domed and composed externally of a few strips of 
birch bark, a Uttle moss, and grass, and lined with monal feathers. It contained 
three hard set eggs which were white with pale reddish brown spots mostlycentered 
round the larger end. Two of the eggs were so damaged in the process of blow- 
ing that they could not be accurately measured, but the third egg measured 
•58" X -42". 

Phylloscopus proregulus (415). — Pallas's Willow-warbler. 

I found two nests of this bird in forests up the Dhauli valley. One nest con- 
tained 3 fresh eggs on 12th June and was placed about 10' above the ground on 
a horizontal deodar bough in open deodar forest at 9,500' elevation. The other 
nest contained 2 fresh eggs on 25th June and was placed about 10' above the 
ground near the top of a young silver fir in a fairly dense mixed silver fir and birch 
forest at 11,000' elevation. Both nests were domed, and whilst one was composed 
of grass and blue pine needles ■with a little hair, the other was composed of moss 
and grass with a few strips of birch bark. Both were copiously lined inside 
with feathers. 

Acanthopneuste lugiibris (426). — The DuU-green Willow-warbler. 

It appears that Blanford had no definite record of the occurrence of this spe- 
cies anywhere west of Sikhim, but I found it not uncommon during the breeding 
season in the birch (Betula utilis) forests of the Dhauli valley from 11,500' to 
12,500' elevation. Two of the specimens I obtained were identified for me at 
the British Museum and there can therefore be no doubt about the identification 
being correct. During the breeding season the bird utters a loud sparrow-Uke 
chirp repeated once or several times together. On 26th June I found a nest 
with two fresh eggs. It was placed in a crevice in the side of an old birch tree 
about 6' from the ground, the tree being so situated that birch forest extended 
in one direction and open grassy slopes in the other. The nest was domed and 
was composed outside of moss with a little lichen. This was followed by a 
mixture of grass lichen and moss, and there was a final lining of fine moss 
mixed with just a few hairs and one or two small feathers. The eggs which wcro 
pure white average • 62" x • 46". 
19 



146 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



Cryptolopha hurlcii (433). — ^The Black-browed Flycatcher-warblor. 

This is not a common species in Garhwal and its distribution seems to be rather 
local. During the breeding season it is found in some of the inner densely forest- 
ed vallej's, the Birai Ganga valley being.to my knowledge a regular resort of these 
birds though seldom met mth elsewhere. The cock bird has a really fine song 
of loud clear notes, and it sometimes utters a trill resembhng that of a trained 
canary. On several occasions I have been filled with admiration for the song 
which might easily be attributed to a much larger bird, and the notes loose none 
of their enchantment when uttered from the depths of some shady forest such 
as these birds frequent. On 24th June I foimd a nest near Lata village in the 
DhauU valley at 9,500' elevation. It was placed on the ground and domed, be- 
ing constructed entirely of strips of bark fibre and a little coarse grass, whilst 
inside there was a thick pad of fine moss. There were four pure white eggs 
which were on the point of hatching and which measured on the average 
•65" X -5". 

Horornis brunnescens (447). — Hume's Bush- warbler. 

The distribution of this interesting httle bird is given by Blanford as Sikhira 
and probably also Nepal. It however occurs in Garhwal though it is local in 
its distribution and probably rather rare. A skin obtained bj- me in March at 
4,500' elevation was kiudly identified for me by the British Museum. From 
April onwards I have observed it between 8,000' and 9,000' elevation where it 
frequents dense forest of ringal (usually Arundinaria jaunsarensis) either pure 
or mixed with a more or less open forest of karshu {Quercus semecar pi folia). The 
song of this bird is most peculiar and striking, and consists of three very shrill 
notes uttered in an ascending scale and pitched so as to give one the 
impression of being out of tune. They are uttered slowly and with great 
dehberation and are followed by a double note, somethine like " chee chew, " 
repeated two or three times. The bird is a great skulker and extremely 
difficult to detect amongst the thick ringal undergrowth which seems to form 
its usual habitat during the breeding season. 

Horornis pnllidus (450). — The Pale Bush-warbler. 

Blanford gives the distribution of this bird as extending east to the Bhagi- 
rathi valley in the Tehri Garhwal State, but it is quite fairly common in the 
central and interior bill ranges of British Garhwal. In summer it is found at 
about 8,000' elevation frequenting dense scnibbj^ secondary fores^t of the tj-pe 
usually found in the yncinity of Aillages where the trees and shrubs are continu- 
ally lopped or periodically cleared. It has a very peculiar loud song consisting 
of two distinct parts. These two parts are generally uttered alternately at an 
interval of a minute or less. One part consists of 3 or occasionally 4 notes, the 
other of 5 notes. In each case special stress is laid on the first note which is 
drawn out to a considerable length in contrast to the notes which follow. When 
singing, it occasionally mounts to a commanding position above the surround- 
ing scrub; though it more frequently remains, as at other times, well hidden. It 
is not however a shy bird. A skin of this species was kindly identified for me 
by the British Museum. 

Horeites hrunneijrons (455). — The Rufous-capped Bush-warbler. 

During the month of May I found this species not uncommon in open banj 
{Quercus incana) forest near Pauri. Its habits were those of a confirmed skulker 
and it largely frequented some low bushy undergrowfh composed of Myrsine 
africana and other small shrubs. It was observed creei^ing about on the ground 
in and out of ere Alices, and even when forced to break cover it seldom rose more 
than a foot or two. Its note is an abrupt " pick pick ", but as it was probably 
not breeding in these low hills it may have quite a different breeding song. A 
skin obtained at Pauri was identified for me at the British Museum. 





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BIRDS IN BRITISH GARHWAL. 147 



Suya crinigera (458). — The Brown Hill-waibler. 

This is a common bird throughout tho hill ranges of Garhwal and is found 
up to at least 7,000' elevation. It occurs in all forms of open forest, secondary- 
scrub, and along banks and hedges bordering cultivated fields. The breeding 
season seems to commence about the beginning of June and at this time the cock 
spends much of his time perched on the top of a bush, preferably some 10' to 15' 
from the ground, whence he continually utters his rather monotonous " tsee 
tswee-tsee tswoe etc." From time to time he performs rather curious aerial evo- 
lutions consisting of a series of short headlong dives which are moreover accom- 
panied by a loud flutter, though how exactly this noise is produced I could not 
discover. The nest is placed a few inches above the ground attached (in the 
few cases I observed) to young growing grass stems. Blanford describes it as 
a deep cup, but those I saw were egg shaped with a side entrance near the top 
It is constructed of fine dry grass stems and lined with vegetable down. 
Lanius vittatus (473). — ^The Bay-backed Shrike. 

Found all over the outer and central ranges at least as far north as the Pindar 
vaUey where I have observed it up to 6,000' elevation. 

Campophaga melanoschista (505). — The Dark-grey Cuckoo Shrike. 
This bird is well distributed all over the low outer ranges during the breeding 
season, and appears to rather prefer the cultivated tracts to continuous forest 
areas. On the 20th May 1912 I succeeded in finding a nest with well incubated 
eggs at an elevation of 3,500'. The nest, which was placed in a fork of a 
pine bough about 10' above the ground, was a flimsy structure with only a 
shallow depression in the centre. It was composed almost entirely of the dead 
deciduous shoots of Phyllanthus emblica woven together with spider's web and 
well decorated all round the rim with Uchen. This nest was one of several built 
apparently under the protection afforded by the proximity of a drongo's nest. 
This drongo, D. longicaudatus, had a nest in another chir tree and in this tree 
there was also a nest of Molpastes leucogenys placed only 3 or 4 feet above the 
drongo's nest. The former contained young a few days old. The cuckoo- 
shrike's nest was not fifteen paces away, and in the same tree with the cuckoo- 
shrike's nest there was a nest of Oriolus kundoo just ready for eggs. But this 
was not all ; within a similar radius of 15 paces from the drongo's tree a green 
pigeon had its nest in a pollard Terminalia chebula and a rose starhng was nest- 
ing in a hole in an Engelhardtia tree. Thus five pairs representing five distinct 
species had availed themselves of the protection afforded by the drongos. The 
ciTckoo-shrike has a dipping flight similar to that of an oriole. 
Oriolus traillii (522). — The Maroon Oriole. 

I have only observed this beautiful oriole on three occasions, once at Kanol 
and twice in the Malla Kaliphat patti, and Blanford I think is correct when 
he mentions that the distribution of this species is local. I found it dm-ing the 
months of April and May in forest composed of banj {Quercus incana) and Moru 
{Quercus dilatata) and also in mixed deciduous forest containing walnut, maple 
hornbeam, alder and horse-chestnut at elevations between 5,000' and 7,000'. 
Hemichelidon sibirica (558). — The Sooty Flycatcher, 

On the 12th June I found a nest containing two recently hatched young ones 
and one rotten egg. This was at 9,500' elevation in an open deodar forest in the 
Dhauli valley. The bird was identified for me at the British Museum as M. 
sibirica fuliginosa which differs from the typical bird in having the first primary 
longer than the primary coverts and in possessing a shorter wing. The nest was 
placed about 8' from the ground resting on the top of a horizontal deodar bough. 
It was composed of a little lichen, moss and grass woven together into a flimsy 
shallow cup and lined with a Httle hair. The egg which is very pale green faintly 
mottled all over with pinkish brown, measures '63" x '44". 



148 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI 11 



Cyornis nnicolor (574). — The Pale Blue Flycatcher. 

This bird has not been recorded west of Sikhim and hence its occurrence in 
Garhwal is of some interest. I obtained a specimen in April at 5,500' elevation 
in the Parson Gadh which is a side valley of the Pindar river, and the skin was 
afterwards kindly identified for me at the British Museum. This was the only 
occasion on which I came across this beautiful flycatcher and it is therefore pro- 
bably rare in these parts. It was found frequenting rather dense forest. 

Culicicapa ceylonensis (592). — The Grey-headed Flycatcher. 

This bird leaves the hills during the winter months and returns about the end 
of February or beginning of March at which season its cheery little song is con- 
stantly heard in the lower valleys of the outer hill ranges. By the middle of 
May nesting operations are in full swing, Blanford says that the nest is built 
against a rock or tree, but the former must be very exceptional in Garhwal, 
where out of nearly a dozen nests which I have seen all have been placed against 
a tree trunk. I have found nests at all heights from 2 to 40 feet above the 
ground. Trunks of oak trees seem to be special favourites, probably on account 
of their convenient rough bark. The nest is a deep cup composed entirely of. 
fine green mosses Avhich are lightly woven together on the outside with spider's 
web. The rim of the cup is prolonged some two or three inches on each side 
in a vertical direction up the tree trunk thus giving considerable support to the 
nest, and occasionally these prolongations actually meet above to form a sort of 
projection over the egg cavity. 

ChelidorJiynx hypoxanthum (603). — The Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. 

This graceful httle bird may be seen during the cold weather months along the 
main valleys where the elevation is only 1,000' to 3,000'. It breeds however at 
high altitudes, and on 29th June I found a nest with 3 fresh eggs in the middle 
of a large forest at 11,500' elevation. It was placed about 15' from the ground 
at a distance of a few feet from the main stem on the horizontal branch of a fair- 
sized silver fir tree. The nest was a deep cup with rather thick walls, the exter- 
nal diameter being about 3" whilst the cavity only measured 1" diameter and \\" 
deep. It was composed of green moss thickly adorned with lichen which was 
attached by means of spider's web, and lined with moss fructifications. The eggs 
are a very pale pinkish white clouded in more or less of a ring round the larger 
end with pinkish brown and average ■ 57" x ' 43". 

RM'pidura albicollis (605). — The White-throated Fantail Flycatcher. 

Found along streams and valleys all over the outer and central hills at least 
as far north as the Pindar valley where I found a nest on 25th April at 5,500' 
elevation. 

Saxicola oenantJie (624). — The Wheatear Chat. 

On the 16th April I shot a female at about 6,000' elevation in Ranigarh patti 
in central Garhwal, and the skin was identified for me at the British Museum as 
S. oenantJie atrigularis. This species Avas never seen on any other occasion. 

Henicums maculatus (630). — The Western Spotted Forktail. 

Common, and found over all the lower, central, and some of the inner ranges. 
Blanford also includes Garhwal within the habitat of H. immaculatus but I 
never succeeded in identifying this species and if it occurs in Garhwal I think 
it must be rare or very locally distributed. 

Ruticilla frontalis (639).— The Blue-fronted Redstart. 

In August I found these birds not uncommon on the hillsides round Niti 
village frequenting bare stony ground, with large rocks scattered about, and 
grassy patches between — but no bushes. Amidst such surroundings they were 
observed from 11,500' to 13,500' elevation, and at the former altitude I found a 
nest on 20th August built inside a crevice in a stone wall and containing half- 
fledged young ones. During the cold weather months these birds are common 
all over the outer and central hill ranges between 4,000' and 7,000' elevation^ 
often amongst cultivation. 



BIRDS ly BRITISH GARHWAL. 



Ruticilla rufiventris (644). — ^The Indian Redstart. 

In August I found this to be a not uncommon bird in tho country north of 
Niti bordering Tibet where it frequents the Bhutia camping grounds and be- 
comes very tame. Th"y appeared to have ah'eaiy completed breeding 
operations. 

Tarsiger chrysceus (653). — The Golden Bush-robin. 

Widely distributed, but not common. It certainly oocurs up to 6,000' eleva- 
tion, if not higher. 

lanthia nifilata (654). — The Red-flanked Bush-robin. 

This is a fairly common resident species in Garhwal, During the coil weather 
months it is most frequently seen from 5,000' to 6,000' elevation whilst in the 
summer season it ascends to much higher altitudes, and I have then shot it at 
12,000'. The ultramarine eyebrow is mixed with a narrow streak of white fea- 
thers in all my specimens, and I am informed that white feathers are also present 
in most of the specimens at the British Museum, thovxgh the description in Blan- 
ford makes no mention of this. These birds frequent beds of streams, either dry 
or containing water, and they appear to prefer those bordered with dense bushes 
and shrubs, as they are of a retiring disposition and seldom expose themselves 
'in the open for long. The,y have a habit of rapidly expanding and contracting 
the tail like a fan, but they do not move it vertically up and down. 

Merula albicincta (672). — The White-collared Ouzel. 

This fine ouzel is abundant all over the large forests of central and upper 
Garhwal above about 9,000'. When going to roost, and again at dawn, it utters 
a note closely resembling that made by the English blackbird under similar 
circumstances ; but the actual song, which is distinctly fine, is more like that of 
the Enghsh thrush. A nest which I found on 14th May contained 3 slightly 
incubated eggs. It was placed 5' from the ground against the mossy stem of a 
karshu {Quercus semecarpijolia). The nest was constructed of masses of green 
moss and lined with a pad of fine dry grass mixed with a few rhizomorplis. 

Merula castavea (673). — The Grey-headed Ouzel. 

I have only seen this ouzel once. This was in Malla Nagpur on 31st January 
1919 on the day following a very heavy fall of snow which on this occasion actu- 
ally fell as low as 3,500' elevation. The bird which I shot at 5,000' elevation was, 
as far as I could discover, a solitary individual. 

3Ierula houlhoul (676). — The Grey-winged Ouzel. 

This is a fairly common bird in some of the larger forests of central Garhwal, 
but it always keeps to dense forest and is also rather shy. Two nests found in 
May between 7,000' and 8,000' elevation were placed in trees at 7' and 15' from 
the ground respectively. The alarm note is a plaintive whistle usually repeated 
twice, but the cock has also a fine song of clear rich notes which are combined 
in most pleasing variations. 

Geocichla vardi (683). — The Pied Ground-Thrush. 

In these hills this bird is rather uncommon. On 15th June I found a nest 
with two eggs placed about 8' from the ground in a small tree at 7,500' elevation. 
The nest was constructed of green moss with a thick lining of roots. The eggs 
which are very pale greenish mottled all cover with pinkish brown and pale purple 
measure on the average 1 • 02" X ' 73". 

PetropUla cijanus (693). — The Western Blue Rock-Thrush. 

This bird is never very common and appears to be rather local, frequenting 
steep rocky or boulder-strewn ground interspersed with grassy slopes. It occurs 
over the whole tract of hills even up to the borders of Tibet where I found it in 
August at 13,500' elevation. The cock bird's song is a soft melodious rather 
short whistle which at times reminded me of an EngUsh blackbird. During the 
latter half of June I found three nests with eggs between 5,500' and 6,500' in the 
vicinity of Pauri. They were placed in ca\'ities or crevices in the rocks so as to 
be partly screened from view, and the sites selected are sometimes situated on 



150 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL MIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIl, 



siic-n steep rocky ground that they can only be reached with difficulty. The 
nest is a shallow cup composed of dry grass and lined with fine roots. The eggs 
are a rather pale blue and most of them have a few speckles of pinkish brown, 
though one egg in each of two clutches of four is quite unspotted. In one of the 
clutches the surface is rather glossy, but not in the other two. The average 
measurements in two clutches of four eggs each are 1 • 04" x * 76" and 1 • 06" x 
• 75" and a single egg measures 1 • 01" X " 77". 
Orecinda dauma (698). — The Small-biUed Mountain-Thrush. 
On several occasions I have met wdth this bird during the months of April and 
May at elevations between 8,500' and 9,500' in the forests of central and upper 
Garhwal. On each occasion I flushed the bird off the gi-ound in fairly dense 
forest of karshu {Qtiercxis semecarpifolia) or silver fir. 
Oreocin da tvhiteh eadi. 

This mountain-thrush is described by Stuart Baker in Bull. B. 0. C. XXXI, 
p. 79 (1913) and two skins which I sent to the British Museum were identified 
there as belonging to this species. One of these birds was shot on 27th April 
at 8,000' elevation about 5 miles below Badrinath on open rocky ground with 
scattered bushes growing here and there. It was accompanied by 3 or 4 others 
of the same species. The other bird was shot on 20th June at 12,800' elevation 
near Kulara camping ground in Dasoli where the surroundings for some consider- 
able distance were open pasture land interspersed with rocky ground. This 
bird was an apparently solitary male. For this bird I noted " Inside mouth 
yellow. Legs yellowish." 

Zoothera monticola (704). — The Large Brown Thrush. 

I have seldom seen this bird and I think it must be a rather uncommon species 
in these liills. On 12th June I found a nest near Wan with fresh or nearly fresh 
eggs. It was placed about 15' from the ground on the horizontal branch of a 
small walnut tree growing at the side of a large rocky stream with dense karshu 
(Quercvs semecarpifolia) forest on all sides, the elevation being about 8,000'. 
The nest was a bulky structure and was composed of fresh damp green moss 
with a firm fining of roots, lichen and rhizomorphs. The eggs are a pale greenish 
mottled all over with reddish brown and very pale purple, and closely resemble 
a clutch I have of Merula boulbonl. They average 1 • 26" X ' 86". 
Cindus asiaticus (709). — The Brown Dipper. 

A common bird over the whole of the hilly portion of Garhwal. When I have 
been at high elevations I have usually made a point of examining any dijiper I 
came across to see if it were C. kashmiriensis, a bird which I expected to find, 
but for which I have searched in vain; so that if it occurs in these parts it must, 
I think, be either rare or very local. 

TTiarrhaleiis strophiatns (718). — The Rufous-breasted Accentor. 
In the Girthi valley bordering Tibet which I have briefly described in a note 
above on Phylloscoims affinis I also met with this accentor and it is possible that 
it does not occur elsewhere in Garhwal. During the first week of August I found 
three nests from one of which the birds had already fiown. In one of the others 
there were 3 deserted eggs, and in the third nest there was one single hard set 
egg ; probably a second nest. The nests were placed from 12" to 18" above the 
ground in low, rather dense, willow scrub (Salix sderophylla). They were rather 
deep substantially built cups. On the outside were a few twigs or coarse herb- 
aceous stems, and this was followed by masses of green moss mixed with wool 
and hair (of the Marmot). Moss fructifications were conspicuous throughout 
the structure and especially in the interior, but I doubt if they are collected 
separately from the moss itself. All these nests were at 13,500' elevation. The 
clutch of 3 eggs gave an average measurement of "81" X "57" and the single egg 
measured .75" x .55". The only note I heard these birds utter was a rather 
high pitched " tr-r-r " somewhat resembling the noise produced by striking two 
stones together. 



BIRDS IN BRITISH GARHWAL. 151 



Pycnorhamphus affmis (742). — The Allied Grosbeak. 

Blanford gives the distribution of this species as Nepal and Sikhim, whilst ho 
includes Garhwal within the distribution of P. icteroides. I found P. affinis 
widely distributed all over central and upper Garhwal and locally quite common 
in some of the larger forests of this tract such as Dudatoli and Dasoli, whilst I 
never succeeded in procuring a single specimen of P. icteroides. If Blanford • 
based his " Garhwal " on specimens collected in Tehri Garhwal, then I think P. 
icteroides is probably not found at all in British Garhwal. I have seen P. affinis 
at all elevations from 6,000' up to 11,500'. They usually frequent forest con- 
taining a certain i)ercentage of one of the conifers, namely, spruce, silver fir, blue 
pine, or chir, though I have also come across them in almost pure karshu (Quercus 
semecarpifolia) forest. They probably feed mainly on coniferous seed though I 
have watched them eating the kernels of the unripe fruit of Machilus Duthiei, 
and on one occasion I extracted two hairless caterpillars from the gizzard of a 
specimen I had shot. The alarm call is a double note somewhat resembling 
the striking together of two stones, and might be written " kurr ". They have 
also a fine loud musical whistle of either 5 or 7 notes. When the fviU 7 notes 
are uttered, the first six fall into two series of 3 ascending notes each, the seventh 
note being pitched much lower. When only 5 notes are uttered the second and 
third are omitted. The call might be written " Ti-di-li-ti-di-li-um", emphasis 
being placed on the first and fourth syllables. From what I have seen they 
appear to commence building the end of May or beginning of June. 

Mycerobas melanoxanthus (744). — The Spotted-winged Grosbeak. 

I have only met with this bird on three occasions, and all three places where 
it was seen were in upper Garhwal. On two of the three occasions I came on a 
flock of these birds feeding on the fruit of " kaphal " {Myrica Nagi) the stones 
of which are cracked and the kernel extracted. As the stone of this fmit is 
extremely hard the bird's bill must be very powerful indeed. 

Propasser pulcherri7nus (755). — The Beautiful Rose-Finch. 

This is another species which I found breeding in the Girthi valley bordering 
Tibet. It was not nearly so common as Carpodarus erythrinus, but there were 
quite a fair number of birds about, and I managed to find three nests with eggs 
between the 3rd and 8th of August, The nests were at 13,000' to 13,500' eleva- 
tion and were placed 6" to 18" above the ground in bushes of Juniper us 
pseudosabinus. They were fairly deep cups composed outside of the fibrous 
bark of juniper and Lonicera with or without a little grass ; this was followed 
by a layer of fine roots mixed with a little sheeps' wool, and there was a final 
lining of hair mixed in one case with red moss fructifications. All the nests 
contained full clutches of 3 eggs each the average measurements for the three 
clutches being 75" x -55" X -75" — -55" and -76" x -54". All the eggs are 
greenish blue sparingly spotted or streaked with black round the larger end. 

Blanford's description of this bird contains the following: " Iris reddish brown; 
bill horny brown with the lower mandible greyish ; legs rosy grey " but my notes 
on these parts being somewhat dissimilar are perhaps worth recording ; they 
are " Iris nut brown. Legs and feet pale fleshy brown, claws darker brown. 
Bill dark horny brown, the lower mandible much paler." 

When the parent birds are flushed off the nest they do not utter tho canary-like 
note so distinctive of Carpodacus erythrinus, but they have instead a rather 
sparrow hke " Cheet-cheet ", and whenever they are excited they also raise a 
distinct crest of feathers. 

Carpodacus erythrinus (761). — The Common Rose-Finch. 

In the part of the Girthi valley which I have already described I found these 
rose-finches breeding in considerable numbers and I took altogether nine clut- 
ches of eggs here during the first ten days of August. They were all at 13,000' to 
13,500' elevation and were placed from 6" to 4' above the ground in dense low 
bushes of wiUow (.Salix sclerophylla and Saliz Wallichiana) growing along the 



152 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXTIIL 



banks of streams. The nest is a deepisli cup of herbaceous stems and dry coarse 
grass, followed by a layer of fine roots or grass, with a lining of hair or fine roots 
or both. In one case a Mttle wool had been introduced. Six of the clutches 
which were complete contained four eggs each and one only contained three 
eggs. The eggs in the six complete clutches measured on the average: — • 81" X • 57", 
• 84" X • 56", • 81" X • 60", • 82" x ' 58", 83" x • 60" and • 80" x '56". They are pale 
greenish blue lightly spotted round the larger end with dark sepia and pale 
brown madder. Three out of 4 eggs in one clutch are unspotted. When driven 
off her nest the hen bird almost invariably utters a canary-like wining "twee-ee." 
The cock bird's song is composed of three loud shrill notes which may be written 
" Ter-twee-j'ou." the middle note being pitched higher than the other two. 
This is also sometimes varied by the addition of a few more notes. But the cock 
has also another quite different and distinct song composed of 4 high-pitched 
notes which may be rendered " Tee-diew-di-diew." 

Carduelis cam'ceps (767). — The Himalayan Goldfinch. 

During the months of June and July I found these finches not uncommon 
along the Dhauli valley from Joshimath right up to the borders of Tibet. The 
highest elevation at which I observed them was 13,500'. I could not discover 
where they were breeding, though from the enlarged testes of a male shot on 20th 
June I think this would be the nesting season, I have never met with these 
birds south of Joshimath though it seems probable that in winter they move 
down further south. 

Metoponia pusilla (771). — The Gold-fronted Finch. 

On 20th July I found a nest containing a clvitch of 5 eggs at about 11,500' ele- 
vation close to Niti village. The nest was placed about 4' from the ground in 
a Rosa sericm bush. It was a deep cup composed of dead grass and bark fibre 
and lined with a thick pad of wool and a little hair. The eggs, which are white 
tinged with green and spotted round the larger end with pale pinkish brown, 
measure on the average • 65" x * 48". These birds were common at this time round 
Niti, and were seen as high as 14,000' near Rimkim in an adjoining valley, but 
I did not find any other nests. During the winter months they extend their 
range over a large part of north Garhwal and are found at least as low as 5,000' 
elevation. 

Fringillauda sordida (787). — StoHczka's Mountain-Finch. 

This bird breeds in the tract of country lying north of Niti village on the borders 
of Tibet. They were seen here during the latter half of July and early in August 
frequenting the open grassy slopes between 13,000' and 14,000' elevation. On 
several occasions I came across them in small flocks the members of which did 
not appear to have commenced nesting operations, but on 3rd August I found 
two nests at 13,500' elevation one of which contained 3 and the other 4 freshly 
hatched young ones. The nests were jjlaced within natural crevices which had 
formed beneath large stones half-buried in the ground surface on steep bare 
slopes.. As the nests were situated some 6" from the entrance they were practi- 
cally invisible from outside. They were shallow cups composed of dry grass 
stems and lined with a few feathers. In winter these birds congregate in large 
flocks composed of 50 to 100 individuals and are found down to 7,000' elevation. 

Emheriza stracheyi (794). — The Eastern Meadow-Bunting. 

During the breeding season this bunting is very abundant on open grassy or, 
bush-clad slopes at elevations from 9,000' to 11,000'. I have also found a nest as 
high as 13,500' elevation in the dry interior hills bordering Tibet. Blanford 
says it breeds from 4,000' to 9,000', but in Garhwal I have never found a nest 
below 8,000' which is certainly I think the lowest level at which it breeds at all 
commonly here. The nest is placed on sloping ground and is usually more or 
less concealed by some small shrub, but may be merely placed beneath a tuft of 
grass. It is a cup constructed of dry grass and lined with a little hair. 




1-5 

K 

w 

02 




BIRDS IJS BRITISH GARHWAL. 153 



Chelidon nepalensis (807). — Hodgson's Martin, 

A colony of these birds breeds every year on some cliffs at 7,000' elevation in 
the vicinity of Lohba in central Garhwal. In 1913 I obtained eggs on 19th June, 
but in many nests the young had then already hatched. There were from 50 to 
100 pairs of birds breeding together here, and in one favoured spot I counted 
50 nests built over a space of about two square yards, most of the nests actually 
touching one another. The chff where the birds were nesting is in the middle of 
banj {Quercus incana) forest, and during the winter it is frequented by rock 
pigeons. The nests were placed on parts of the cliJ0E where the surface shelved 
shghtly outwards from below. They were shaped like large mud saucers with a 
small hole to one side. A specimen which I shot was identified for me at the 
British Museum. Blanford's description of this bird reads " Bill brown, paler 
at gape ;" but in my description I have recorded " Bill black. Inside mouth 
nearly white." 

Ptyonoprogne nipestris (810). — The Crag-Martin. 

Towards the end of May 1914 I found two freshly built nests of this species 
along the Girthi valley in Painkhanda Malla at an elevation of 10,500'. They 
were unfortunately built against an overhanging rock in such a position that I 
was unable to reach them. In August 1916 these birds were very common at 
13,500' elevation near the border of Tibet. 

Hirundo nepalensis (822). — Hodgson's Striated Swallow. 

During the breeding season this bird is found aU over the outer and central 
ranges at least as far north as the Pindar vaUey. On 10th June I found a nest 
with 4 eggs placed against the lower surface of a large overhanging boulder on 
a steep hill side where the boulder was half hidden by bushy scrub, and again 
on 18th June I found a nest with 3 hard set eggs in a bungalow verandah, the 
nest being placed in the angle formed by the verandah roof with the outer wall. 
The first of these nests was at 4,000' elevation and the second at nearly 7,000'. 
The nests were retort-shaped and 10" to 12" long and were lined with a few scraps 
of dry grass and feathers. The parents of both were identified for me at the 
British Museum. 

Anthus rosaceus (850). — Hodgson's Pipit. 

During the breeding season this bird is found in abundance all over the high- 
level grazing grounds which lie above the limits of tree forest along the outer 
slopes of the high snowy ranges between 11,000' and 13,000' elevation. I did not 
however come across it in the dry interior hills situated along the Dhauli valley. 
Six nests with eggs were found on varying dates between 26th May and 26th 
June. The nest is a shallow cup of dry grass (lined with hair of the musk deer 
in one of the nests) placed on the ground in a slight depression beneath a tuft of 
grass or occasionally half hidden by some small shrub. The parents in two 
cases feigned a broken wing when flushed from the nest. One clutch was res- 
tricted to two eggs only, but all the others contained three. The clutches of 3 
eggs each averaged as follows : — "85" X "60", "85" X "61", '87" X -61", "80" 
X • 59" and • 83" X ' 60". The eggs are white tinged with grey or brown and 
more or less thickly marked all over with shades of colour varying from sepia to 
chocolate brown. 

Oreocorys sylvanus (853). — The Upland Pipit. 

This pipit occurs in considerable numbers practically throughout the hills. 
Steep grassy slopes interspersed with bushes or broken up by rocky ground are 
its favourite haunts, and it is also common in open chir (Pinus longifolia) forest 
where there is always abundance of grass. This bird has a characteristic mono- 
tonous song of two rather prolonged notes which might be written " See-saw. " 
Two nests containing eggs were found on 13th April and 12th May. 

Gecinus squamatv.s (946). — ^The West-himalayan Scaly-bellied Green-wood- 
pecker. 
20 



154 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Tol. XXVIll, 



This woodpecker is found over practically the whole of the hilly portion of 
Garhwal between 5,000' and 9,000' elevation and throughout its range it seems 
to be far commoner than (?, occi'pi'teZis, which is also found. Its call is loud and 
highpitched, normally consisting of two notes, but occasionally only one and 
sometimes three. 

Dendrocopus auriceps (969). — The Brown-fronted Pied Woodpecker. 

This bird is extremely common throughout Garhwal in almost all forests below 
7,000' elevation. I discovered an interesting fact in regard to their diet, namely 
that they eat considerable quantities of the seed of the chir pine {Pinus longi' 
folia). Another woodpecker I have observed eating chir seed is Dendrocopus 
himalayensis, and the latter species spends considerable time and energy in 
breaking open the cones some months before they naturally open to let the seed 
escape. 

Cyanops asiatica (1012). — The Blue-throated Barbet. 

Very common in the foot hills and low outer valleys as far north as the Nayar 
river. Beyond this I have only observed it along the main valley of the 
Alakhnanda where it occurs as far north as Rudrapryag. 

Coracias indica (1022). — The Indian Roller. 

This bird is seldom seen in the interior of the hills and I was much astonished 
to find it at 4,500' elevation near Gwaldam in the Pindar valley. This was in 
June and I am unable to say whether these birds are resident here throughout 
the year, but I think it improbable. 

Merops viridis (1026). — The Common Indian Bee-eater. 

I have seen this bird in July on the sandy banks of the Alakhnanda river be- 
tween Karnpryag and Nandpryag, and it is found all along the Alakhnanda valley 
up to this point which is over 100 miles from where the river leaves the foothills. 

Halcyon smyrnensis (1044). — The White-breasted Kingfisher. 

This kingfisher penetrates a considerable distance into the hills, namely as 
far as Nagnath and the Pindar valley, and here I have seen it as high as 5,500' 
elevation. 

Cypselns pacificus (1071). — The Large White-rumped Swift. 

Blanford does not include any point west of Assam within the distribution 
of this species. On 21st May 1913 I shot several specimens in Garhwal and one 
of the skins was kindly identified for me at the British Museum. When I shot 
them they were apparently on migration, as for three days in succession they 
were observed between 5 and 7 p.m., to pass northwards over a pass at 8,000' in 
upper Garhwal called Lohajang. They kept flying over in small parties of 3 or 
4 birds at a time, and always in exactly the same direction. An examination of 
their crops revealed the remains of winged termites. 

Caprimmgns monficola (1090). — Franklin's Nightjar. 

This nightjar frequents scrubby forest along the outer ranges at elevations up 
to 4,000' and possibly higher, and here it occurs in large numbers during the 
breeding season. It seems to have a special predilection for the broad dry stony 
stream beds which are a marked feature of the outer hills. Its call during the 
breeding season is a loud piercing " tweet " uttered both when the bird is on the 
ground and when flying. I never heard this species make any call resembling 
that of C. asiaticus as stated by Blanford. As far as I have observed neither 
this species or C. macrurus penetrate far into the hills ; probably not beyond the 
limits of sal forest, or the Nayar valley, which are approximately coincident. 

Caprimulgus indicus (1095). — The Jungle Nightjar. 

This nightjar is very abundant in the low outer hills during the breeding sea- 
son. At this time the call of the male is a single note repeated very fast 4 or 5 
up to about 15 times together, followed by an interval. The note is similar in 
character to that of C. macrurus and may be hkened to the noise produced by 
striking wood with a hammer, the call note of C. macrurus is however repeated 
vei-y much slower. The jungle nightjar has also another note, not heard 




(U 







BIRDS IN BItlTISH GARHWAL, 155 



at any great distance, which almost exactly resembles the " whish-whish " of 
the wings of some powerful bird of flight. They penetrate well into the hilla 
and on 21st May I found a clutch of 2 eggs at 4,700' elevation only a few mile 
south of Chamoh. 

Cuculus canorus (1104). — The Cuckoo. 

This cuckoo may be heard from the middle of April onwards at almost any 
elevation up to 13,000' throughout the whole district. In Juno I heard it up 
the Dhauli valley in the vicinity of Niti and Malari villages though I heard no 
other species of cuckoo in these parts, not even C. poliocephalus. 

Surniculus lugnbris (1117). — The Drongo Cuckoo. 

These bii-ds are very common in the outer hill ranges between 3,000' and 4,000' 
elevation during May, at -which season their monotonous call is constantly hoard 
in open forest areas. Blanford quotes Legge as stating that the flight is straight 
and that it has a remarkably human whistle of six ascending notes. As regards 
the flight I cannot agree that it is straight, and I should rather compare it to 
the dipping flight of a magpie ; nor does the bird flap its wings in a regular and 
continuous manner as do most of the cuckoos with a sti-aight flight. After 
listening to the call of a large number of birds I found that it most frequently 
consists of 5 ascending notes, but that occasionally it utters as few as 4 or as 
many as eight. The furthest north that I have heard this bird is in the Pindar 
valley at 5,600' elevation. 

Coccystus coromandus (1119).— The Red-winged Crested Cuckoo. 

On 3rd May I shot one of these birds in tho outer hills at 4,000' elevation. This 
is the only bird of this species which I have seen and the record is an extension 
of its range as given by Blanford. 

Bubo bengalensis (1168). — The Rock Horned Owl. 

In November 1913 I shot one of these owls in the Pindar valley at an elevation 
of 5,500'. 

Columba intermedia (1292). — The Indian Blue Rock Pigeon. 

This pigeon is found all over tho district, but is most numorous along the 
Ganges valley above Chamoli and thence right up the Dhauli valley as far as 
Niti village. The innumerable cliffs which here drop sheer down to the river 
banks from a height of many hundred feet constitute ideal surroundings. They 
are often seen in large flocks of over 100 birds, and being seldom shot, they are 
usually not very difficult to approach. Some birds have a distinct pale band 
about IJ" wide on the lower back, but the band is always pale grey and never 
white as in C. livia. 

Columba rupestris (1294). — The Blue Hill Pigeon. 

After I had left Niti callage some miles to the south I found this bird fairly 
common along the path leading over the Chor Hoti pass into Tibet. This was 
during the months of July and August when the Bhotias and Tibetans are busy 
bringing over merchandise from Tibet and carrying back grain packed on the 
backs of their sheep and goats. A certain, amount of grain drops out of the 
packs, and pigeons take full advantage of this easy method of obtaining their 
food. They are extremely tame and will let anyone approach within a few yards 
before flying on. I saw them here at elevations between 13,000' and 17,000', 
and always either singly or in pairs. Some females I shot had ovaries in such 
an advanced stage of development that they would certainly have laid in a few 
days. I took the measurements of four females and it appears that birds here 
are rather above the average size. Stuart Baker in his "Indian Pigeons and Doves'' 
says that the average wing measurement for females is 8" 73", though the largest 
have a wing up to 9 . 2". The four birds I measured had wing measurements of 
9-2", 9-3", 9-4" and 9-55" respectively. Except in this dry region bordering 
Tibet, I have only once shot this species. This was on 6th November when I 
shot a single bird at 4,000' elevation near Pipalkoti out of a flock of C. intermedia. 



156 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, I'ol. XXI III. 



Columba lenconota (1296). — ^The White-bellied Pigeon. 

In Stuart Baker's Indian Pigeons and Doves there are two remarks concerning 
this pigeon which I should like to criticise. In the first place he says that they 
are apparently never seen below 5,000'. This remark is not quite correct for 
Garhwal where they constantly descend to 4,000' in the Pindar valley opposite 
to Gwaldam during the winter months, in fact there is a large cUff here facing 
the Pindar river at a little below 4,000' elevation to which snow pigeon regularly 
resort at this season. Then he remarks a little further on that it is entirely a 
rock-pigeon in its habits, and only very severe stress of weather will drive it 
into forested country. With this remark I also cannot fully agree. It is cer- 
tainly mainly a rock-pigeon in its habits, but I have constantly found it through- 
out the cold weather in forested country, in fact at this time of year in Garhwal 
these pigeons live mainly in tracts which are covered with forest. At the same 
time I do not mean to imply that they actually feed about inside the forest. 
They feed at all times in the open, either in cultivated fields or on more or less 
bare grassy slopes but the immediate surroundings are frequently well forested, 
and during the day time they often sit for hours in some tree at the edge of the 
forest. The habits of snow pigeon in Garhwal differ somewhat according to the 
time of year. In December, January and February which are the coldest months 
they live very largely in flocks of 50 to 100 birds at elevations between 4,000' 
and 7,000'. In the Pindar valley at this time of year they roost amongst steep 
cliffs bordering the river itself. Early in the morning they come to feed on the 
stubble and about 10 o'clock return to the cliffs where, after a drink from the 
river, they seem to remain for the rest of the day. Sometimes a flock will sit 
the greater part of the day in some large chir tree near their roosting cliff. The 
crops of pigeons which I examined at this time contained small quantities of barley 
and other grains, but much larger quantities of the seed of a leguminous plant 
Vicia sativa, Linn., which is common in cultivated fields. They never seemed to 
feed on crops which had germinated but only on bare stubble. When feeding 
in this manner they keep rapidly on the move and often form up in a close phalanx 
moving forward over the ground like a flock of sheep, each bird trying to rival 
with his neighbours in being the first to investigate new ground. During April 
and May the fiocks are usually seen from 7,000' to 10,000',and at this season they 
I'etire to roost amongst cliffs approximating the latter elevation. At about 7 a.m., 
they may be seen arriving on the stubbles which will probably be somewhere 
between 7,000' and 8,000' elevation. They appear in pairs or small parties of half 
a dozen or so, but they soon all join on the feeding grounds to form small flocks. 
They were usually seen drinking between 8 or 9 in the morning and about 10 
o'clock they commenced to work upwards again towards their roosting quarters 
though they seemed to feed largely throughout the day at elevations between 
9,000' and 10,000', where they investigate patches of bare ground from which 
the snow has only recently disappeared. They do not return to lower feeding 
grounds in the evening. 

Dendrotreron Jwdgsoni (1297). — The Speckled Wood-Pigeon. 

This is rather a rare pigeon in Garhwal and I have only seen it in the north of 
the district, and here always in well-wooded parts at elevations between 7,000' 
and 9,000'. I have never seen more than 6 birds together at a time. Its native 
name is " Bhekala " which is also the name for Prinsepia utilis, a small thorny 
shrub which has a bluish black fruit like a small plum. The pigeons are parti- 
cularly fond of this fruit which in fact seems to be one of their principal foods, 
and it is on this account that the native name for the shrub and the bird are 
identical. 

Palumhus casiotis (1298). — The Eastern Wood-Pigeon. 

Stuart Baker in his "Indian Pigeons and Doves" quotes Humg to the effect that 
these pigeons appear in this part of the Himalaya about the beginning of Novem- 
ber and stay until the middle of April when they depart for other quarters, and 



BIRDS IN BRITISH GARHWAL. 



157 



then he goes on to romark that this curious local migration is probably governed 
by the birds' food supply. These statements I can fully confirm from my ex- 
perience of their occurrence in Garhwal, only I would add that in Garhwal 
they do not seem to appear at all in four seasons out of five. During my ten 
years' residence in this district I only saw this species in two seasons. One of 
these was the winter of 1917-18 when there were immense quantities of banj 
(Quarcus incana) acorns, and during this winter from the beginning of December 
up to the end of March they were to be seen in flocks of 50 to 100 birds in practi- 
cally every banj forest in the district, generally at about 6,000' elevation. The 
last date on which I saw them was 3rd April. I examined the crops of several 
birds and nearly always found them full of banj acorns, as niany as 47 being 
taken from a single bird's crop, and I feel sui-e that these acorns are the princi- 
pal attraction which affects their migration to these parts. They also eat the 
seed of the chir pine of which I have taken 85 seeds from a single bird's crop, 
and green leaves and shoots are also not infrequently found to hav^^ been eaten, 
though I never succeeded in identifying the plants to which they belonged. 

Turtur ferrago (1305). — The Indian Turtle-Dove. 

During the breeding season this dove is extremely abundant in all well-wooded 
parts of the hills at elevations between 5,500' and 10,500'. Blanford says that 
it breeds at elevations from 4,000' to 8,000', and Stuart Baker whilst quoting a 
record of a nest found at 8,500' does not suggest that the usual height at which 
they breed may exceed 8,000'. I am, however, quite convinced that they breed 
in Garhwal in large numbers as high as 10,500', as in June they are quite common 
up to this height though they perhaps do not go much higher. That I never 
actually found a nest above 8,000' was I am sure merely becauss I never looked 
for their nests and did not happen to come across one. 

Galhis furrugineus (1328). — The Red -Jungle Fowl. 

Jungle fowl are found only in the outermost ranges and do not penetrate fur- 
ther than the Nayar valley which lies just north of Lansdowne. In this respect 
their distribution here corresponds with that of the pea fowl. 

Catreus wallichi (1333). — The Cheer Pheasant. 




A morning bag at 7,000' 8 Cheer Pheasant anel one Kalij. 



158 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIl. 

The cheer is widely distributed in Garhwal, but is very seldom indeed found 
in any numbers. Its favourite haunts being steep grassy slopes from 5,000' to 
8,000' elevation, and ground of this description apparently well suited to cheer 
occurring over very large areas, I have often wondered why this bird should not 
become more numerous. I am inclined to the belief that annual forest fires, which 
usually occur just about the time these birds are breeding, must be the principal 
check to their further increase, and I believe that this fine pheasant will become 
very much more plentiful now that large areas of chir pine forests are yearly 
closed to fire by the Forest Department to enable the forests to be successfully 
regenerated. Blanford's distribution of this bird is distinctly misleading so 
far as Garhwal is concerned. They are quite as common in the interior valleys 
as they are in the outer hills, in fact more so ; for they even penetrate up the 
Dhauli valley as far as its junction with the Rishi Ganga, and are also not un- 
common along the Vishnu Ganga. Wilson's description of this bird as quoted 
by Stuart Baker in his work which is now appearing in this Journal seems to me 
extremely good, and I am incHned to agree with Wilson when he says that the 
cheer generally roosts on the ground, as I have spent some time trying to discover 
their habits in this respect. Nothing is more characteristic of this bird than the 
way it invariably calls at daybreak and again at dusk as mentioned by Wilson, 
and the early morning call is often made when it is still too dark to perceive 
objects more than a dozen yards away. I have also once heard these birds 
continue calUng for about ten minutes at midnight. The marked predilection 
these birds exhibit for running away up — hill instead of taking to their wings to 
escape danger was well shown on one occasion when several cheer started up 
only 4 or 5 yards away from my feet on an open burned grassy area and immedi- 
ately sought safety by running away up the hillside without making any attempt 
to fly. 

Gennceus albocristatus (1336). — The White-crested Kalij Pheasant, 

The kalij is by far the commonest pheasant throughout Garhwal in all forests 
below 8,000' except such open grassy slopes as are especially adapted to the cheer. 
It is found up the Dhauli valley leading to Tibet at least as far as its junction 
with the Vishnu Ganga, and possibly further, though I have no actual record of 
its occurrence further north than this. On several occasions I have examined the 
crops of these pheasants, and besides many kinds of roots which were seldom iden- 
tifiable for certain I have found the following : Banj acorns with the outer husk 
removed, the ripe fruit of Pyriis Pashia, the green stems of Fi-SCMW japonicum, 
pods of Desmodium tilicejolium, bulbils of species of Dioscorea, ripe fruits of Rosa 
moschata and the ripe seeds of Nydanthes arbortristis. In most cases the food is 
quite clean and free from suspicion, though I regret to have to record that in the 
vicinity of travellers' paraos and human habitations this is by no means always 
the case. 

Lophophorus refidgens (1342). — The Monal. 

As indicated in Stuart Baker's work which is now appearing in this Journal 
the monal is still tolerably common in parts of British Garhwal. In the Dudatoli 
forest and along the Dhanpur ridge in central Garhwal monal are still to be found, 
but they are scarce, and it is not till one reaches the spurs which diverge directly 
from the main snowy range that they become at all abundant. Along the Dhauli 
valley leading to the Niti pass I have seen them as far as the village of Malari, but 
not north of this. Blanford and Stuart Baker both state that monal are found up 
to 15,000' during the breeding season, but I have never seen them above 13,000' 
in Garhwal and I much doubt if they ever wander in Garhwal above this eleva- 
tion. It must be remembered that the tree limit in Garhwal usually lies between 
11,000' and 12,000', whilst in the eastern Himalaya I believe it is not less than 
13,000' and as the monal is really a forest bird this fact would be quite sufficient 
to make a difference of 2,000' in the maximum height at which the birds are to 
be found. Stuart Baker says that in summer time they are generally to be found 



BIRDS IN BRITISH GARHWAL. 159 



from 10,000' to 14,000' elevation, but for Garhwal I should say without 
hesitation 9,000' to 12,000'. The same author .states that in winter they descend 
to 6,000' and even 5,000', but under the most severe conditions of weather I have 
never seen a bird below 6,500', and the normal elevation for this time of year 
would be 8,000' to 10,000'. As regards the destruction of these birds for their 
plumage no such case has ever come to my notice in Garhwal where I behove this 
practice does not now exist. Hume's note on the food of this bird agrees with 
my own observations, and I might add that the monal is very fond of the ripe 
fruit of Cotoneaster microphylla. 

Tragopan satijra (1344). — The Crimson Horned Pheasant. 

I have only met vith this pheasant on two occasions, one was near the village 
of Wan and the other in the Nawali reserve. Both these places are within the 
water-shed of the Kail Ganga and situated fully 20 miles in a direct line east of 
the Alakhnanda river, which has hitherto always been quoted as the western 
limit of this bird. On both occasions the birds were frequenting dense ringal 
forest. 

Arhoricola torqueola (1362).— The Common Hill-Partridge. 

This partridge is found at suitable elevations throughout the hills. It is com- 
monest in dense forest of banj {Quercus incana) from 6,000' to 7,000' elevation. 
As a rule few birds are seen during a dav's excursion, though in specially favoured 
localities perhaps two dozen or more birds may be flushed within an area of a 
few acres. Such favoured localities occur where the gradients are not too steep 
and there is a rich moist humus beneath dense forest of oak, laurel and other 
evergreen trees and shrubs. They usually run when first disturbed, and a dog 
may have to follow a considerable distance before he comes up with one of these 
birds when it is running on ahead ; but when they have once been flushed 
they almost invariably sit very close, and this is especially the case if they have 
been already fired at and missed. 

Francolinus vulgaris (1372). — ^The Black Partridge. 

The Black Partridge is widely distributed all over Garhwal, and at Wan I have 
observed it at an elevation of 8,800' which is unusually high. 

Tetraogallus himalmjensis (1378). — The Himalayan Snow-Cock. 

In summer this bird not uncommonly descends to 8,000' elevation, but never 
to my knowledge enters forests of any description. It is never found away from 
those spurs which diverge directly from the main Himalayan range, though a 
few birds annually frequent the bare slopes above Kheta in the Pindar valley 
during the winter months. I have never seen it in any numbers except in the 
tract lying north of Malari and Niti where it is fairly common and a great source 
of annoyance to anyone attempting to approach the wary burhal. In the early 
spring I found it feeding on a small grass-hke herb Gagea lutea which grows in 
large quantities round deserted habitations and old camping grounds. When 
disturbed these birds, unless at very close quarters, usually commence to run 
away up hill and continue to climb till they have reached a point of vantage on 
some high ridge or projecting rock whence they probably make an extended 
flight. I have seen them make flights of fully a mile, often straight across some 
wide intervening valley, and whilst on the wing they seem invariably to utter a 
whistling note. When running away up hill they carry their short tails rather 
high up so as to show the white feathers beneath, and at this time their waddhng 
gait is distinctly i-eminiscent of a goose. From the middle of May onwards 
they are found in pairs usually at elevations from 12,000' to 14,000'. The breed- 
ing call is a prolonged whistle uttered with great persistence. The male when 
courting pursues the female in a crouching position with his tail held verticaUy 
up in the air. After a few minutes of this courtship they probably both take to 
their wings making a loud wild whisthng cackle as long as the flightfcontinufis. 



IGO JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

Lerwa nivicola (1380). — The Snow-Partridge. 

This partridge is never seen in large numbers though it is by no means rare. 
The breeding call is very similar indeed to that of the common grey partridge of 
the plains, but when alarmed a single whistle is uttered. 

Scolopax rusHcola (1482). — The Woodcock. 

Though similar cases have I feel sure been frequently recorded, the following 
note written 28th June 1914 at Kulara, a camping ground at 10,500' elevation in 
Painkhanda Malla, may still be of some interest: " The forest here is mostly 
composed of silver fir with a fairly dense undergrowth of shrubs. As I was 
walking through the forest to-day a woodcock got up from a few yards off, flew 
some ten yards and then began to flap its wings wildly and to scream as if some- 
thing was killing it. I was completely taken in by the ruse and rushed up to where 
the bird was. But when I got a few yards off it flew on another ten yards and 
repeated the trick. It did this several times, and finally flew some distance 
away. I went back and sat down in concealment close to where I had first seen 
the bird. In about one minute she came running back through the undergrowth, 
and was at once met by one of her young ones. In another minute I showed 
myself and the mother flew off some 20 yards as before. I found the youngster 
crouching under a log. Its quiUs were just emerging from their sheaths." 

During May and June Avoodcock may usually be seen round kharaks (cleared 
camping grounds in the forest w-here sheep and goats are temporarily located 
for grazing purposes) between 9,000' and 11,000' elevation. Both at dusk and 
again at dawn they may be observed slowly flapping across the open spaces and 
uttering at frequent intervals a bat -like squeak. In the winter they may be 
found at almost any elevation from 5,000' upwards, but owing to the steepness 
of the slopes and the comparative absence of flat marshy ground woodcock are 
never found in any abundance, and it has seldom been my fortune to see more 
than a couple of birds during a day's march. 

Gallinago solitaria (1486). — The Himalayan Solitary Snipe. 

I have shot this bird on very few occasions as they are not at all common. 
In May and June, at which time they might possibly be breeding, I have twice 
met with them along stony beds of streams at about 8,000' elevation. I have 
never seen or shot the wood-snipe, Gallinago nemoricola. 

PhalacTocorax carbo (1526). — The Large Cormorant. 

This bird is not uncommonly seen along the Alakhnanda and its main tribu- 
taries, the Mandagini and Pindar. 



161 



SHAKESPEARE ON THE NOBLE ART OF HAWKING. 



Lt.-Col. C. E. Luard. 

The Hawker's sporting toast : " A health to all that shot and missed ". 

Two classes of hawks are used for hunting, the true falcon or long-winged 
hawk and the short -winged hawk : the peregrine par excellence representing the 
former and the goshawk the latter. Shakespeare is always most careful never 
to confound these two and everywhere his terms show a genuine and absolutely 
accurate knowledge of the sport. Such accuracy disappeared when hawking 
went out as a general sport, and only Chaucer, Spenser and lastly Dryden show 
that they also knew well what they were writing about. The females among 
hawks are usually the larger, and hence the males were called " tassels " or 
" tiercels," being about one-third less than the size of the female. The male 
peregrine was called the " tiercel-gentle ", a compliment to his noble character, 
which explains Juliet's use of the term of her lover (R. & J. :II-ii-159). Shakes- 
peare names the falcon, tercel-gentle, the estridge or goshawk, and her tercel, 
and the musket. The big gerfalcon did not do well in the damp of England 
and was little used. The " musket " was the male sparrow-hawk, and had the 
least repute, especially as an "eyass"* (M. W. W.: III-iii-22). Ignorant commen- 
tators changed "estridge" into " ostrich ", and made nonsense of the line '* the 
dove will peck the estridge" (A. & C. III-ii-195) so too^in Henry IV we should 
follow the folio reading 

all furnished, all in arms 

All plumed Uke estridges, that with the wind 

Bated, Uke eagles having lately bathed 

The reading " baited " makes nonsense ; " bated " means beating their 
wings, fluttering. 

Hawks were kept in the " mews ". To " mew " is to moult, (Fr. muer, 
Lat. mutare). The Royal Stables in St. Martin's Lane were built on the old 
*' Mews " site and after them, all London stables have been called mews. Hence 
the use of the word to mean shut up (T. S. I-i-87 ; MND : I-i-71 ; KJ : IV-ii-57 ; 
R. Ill, I-i-38, 131 ; R. & J : III-iv-11). The hawks each had a perch on a pole 
where they stood " weathering ". They were attached by thongs which were 
fastened to flat silver rings caUed " varvels " which were fastened to soft leather 
bands on the feet called " jesses " (R. & J. : III-iii-261) ; when out of doors the 
thong was held by the falconer. 

A " falconer " is a man who deals with the long-winged hawk or falcon, of 
which the peregrine was the finest. The man in charge of the short-winged 
hawk, favoured in France, was called an " astringer " or " ostringer ", from the 
estridge or goshawk which he chiefly used (Fr. austour, autour ; Lat. astur). 
Thus all falcons are hawks, but not all hawks are falcons. The methods of attack 
of the two birds, as Shakespeare well knew, are totally different. The falcon 
attacks from high up, is used in open country and " towering in her pride of place" 
(Mac: II-iv-12 ; Luc: 506) " stoops " or " swoops " upon her quarry, while 
the short-winged hawk being used in woodlands flies after the bird, thi'eading its 
way among trees and bushes. The falcon is recovered by the lure, the goshawk 
returns to his master's wrist just as in nature he would to his perch on a bush. 

The peregrine was held the hawk of an earl, the goshawk of a yeoman, and 
French falconers even now distinguish the two arts as " faucoimerie " and 
" autouserie ". The French were expert at the use of the small hawk, and were 
rather looked down on by EngUsh professors (Ham: II-iii-58), for flying at every 
thing, but Tubervile, the old writer on hawking, always quotes them in reference 
to short -winged hawks. Hence the appropriateness of introducing " a gentle 
astringer " into the French court (Alls Well : V-i-7) changed by some commenta- 
tors into " a gentle stranger " ; in this case he is a man of gentle blood and as 
such a favourite at court. 
21 



•iawk clasee 



Tiercels. 
Note.— The Ox- 
ford Diction- 
ary has gone 
wrong here 
calling the 
young and 
female of a 
goshawk a 
"faicon gen- 
tel." 
Estridfe... 
Musket. 
* Fr. niaie, a 
nestling-fool- 
ish young thing, 
Eyass. 
Bate. 



Mews. 



Weather , 
Varvels. 

Jesses. 

Falconet* 
Astringer. 



Tower pride 
of place. 



Lure. 



Classes using 
hawks. 



Astriujer. 



162 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST . SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



Train in 'J 



"Haggard.' 
Checking. 



Hoods. 
Bate. 



Treatment of 
liawks. 



Other raptores. 



Seel. 



Imp. 



Weather for 
hawking. 

Starving. 



Cadge. 
Knave. 



Making a 
l>oint. — pitcli. 



Pride of place 
towering. 



Falcons were trained by two methods, either, that is, by taking a nestling or 
" eyass " (Fr. niais) or a full grown bird in its first mature plumage. The latter 
makes the keenest hunter, as she has already been taught in nature's school in 
which hunger is mistress, while the other, brought up by hand, has no such 
knowledge. Moreover, the eyass, though quite tame, is more difficult to train, 
and is querulous like a small child (Ham: II-ii-363), and indeed Baert (1619), the 
writer on training hawks, says," he that meddleth with an eyass will spend his 
time to no purpo.so ". So you should prefer to train a " haggard " or wild hawk, 
that is a hawk after its first moult ; but sometimes she remains haggard (0th : 
TII-iii-260), she is wayward and is always " checking " or going after some fresh 
quarry (T. N., II-v-72 ; Ham. : IV-vii-62); such " proud disdainful birds " are 
hard to reclaim (T. S. : IV-ii-39). To tame a haggard it must be starved of food 
and rest, being watched and kept awake (M. W. W.: V-v-109 ; 0th. : III-iii-22); 
and also constantly handled (V. & A. : 560). But the haggard, so hard to deal 
with (Much Ado. : III-i-35) is when once tamed far more affectionate than the 
eyass and more constant (ibid, 109). 

The falcon must be taken out hooded, as she remembers the past and gets 
excited, while the eyass with no recollections of wild life needs no hood. If not 
hooded, the tamed haggard will " bate " (Fr. se battre) or flutter and beat its 
wings in eagerness (T. S. : IV-i-99 ; 1 Hen. IV-iiv-99, where read " bated " 
with folio and not " baited "; R. & J. : III-ii-10 ; Hen. V, III-vii-121). 

The kite or " puttock " was despised (T. S. : IV-i-198 ; R. Ill, I-i-133 ; Cymb : 
I-i-140). Petruchio (a Gloucestershire gentleman masquerading as an Italian) 
gives us a regular resume of the proper treatment of hawks (T. S. : IV-i-191 to 
214). Fletcher who wrote: " The Woman's Prize" as a sequel to this play carries 
on the simile in a passage spoken by one of the female characters, Maria, who 
is not unnaturally answered, " You are learned, sister ". 

In the same category as kites came kestrils (Cym. : I-i-140) which though long- 
winged are hopeless cowards) buzzards (Rich. III-I-i-132) and hen-harriers : 
for these Shakespeare had the true falconer's contempt (T. S. : IV-i-198). The 
kestril is also called the " staniel ", (T. N. I-iii-43 ; II-v-126) or " coystril." 

The eyes of newly caught haggard falcons were " seeled ", that is closed by 
a silken thread drawn through the eyelids (0th. : I-iii-271 ; III-iii-210). The 
bird so blinded struts about in a comic way (A. & C. : III-xi-112) to the amuse- 
ment of those looking on. Occasionally a hawk loses feathers, these, if wing 
feathers, must be replaced, hence they were replaced by " imping." The stump 
of the broken feather being rejoined to the old upper part or to a new feather, 
of which a large stock was kept, by inserting a thin flexible iron wire into the 
piths ; this was dipj^ed in brine to make it rust, the rust forming an adhesive 
(T. & Cr. II, II-i-292). To restrain a wild hawk, feathers were removed (J. C. 
I-i-77). 

A clear day, not too hot, and above all without a strong Avind (2 Hen, VI, 
II-i-3) in which a hawk may be lost, must be chosen for the sport unless you wish 
to get rid of a useless haggard (0th. : III-iii-262). The hawk must be starved 
on this day or he will not hunt (1 Hen. VI, I-ii-38, V. & A. 55 ; Luc. 694) 

The hawks were brought out on a frame called a " cadge ", carried by the 
" cadger ", whose lowly occupation has led to his being classed with a " knave " 
(a menial servant Ger. knabe). We may suppose a flight made for a partridge. 
This was done with a dog. The spaniel " Troilus ", some favourite, may be of 
Shakespeare (T. S. : IV-i-152), is called up and sets at a covey. The hawk is 
then set free and soars up in circles until she has made her point and reached her 
full "pitch " (1 Hen. VI, II-iv-11 ; 2 Hen. VI, II-i-6 ; J. C. I-i-87 and figuratively 
Rich II, I-i-109 ; T. A. II-i-14 ; R. & J. I-iv-28 ; J. C. 8-i-78 ;.Son— Ixxxat ; and 
as to height in general, T. N. I-i-82 ; 1 Hen. VI, I-iii-55 ; Rich. Ill, II-i-vii-188 ; 
Son : vii). Thus soaring (Mac. II-iv-12 ; Luc. 506) she reaches " her pride of 
place" and there waits or "towers". The dog is now set on and off go the birds. 



i 



SHAKESPEARE ON THE NOBLE ART OF HA MAKING. 163 



the hawk at once selecting its bird and stooping (T. S. IV-i-194) or swooping 
(Mac. IV-iii-219) '' foots " the quarry (Cym.: V-iv-116) and " souses" it, that is, 
seizes it with her talons (K. J. V. ii-150) and starts to " tiro " on it or devour it 
(3 Hen. VI, I-i-268 ■; Tof A. III-vi-5 ; V. & A. 55 ; Luc. 417) so as to " disedge" 
its appetite (Cyiu. : III-iv-96 : Ric. II, I-iii-296 ; Ham. III-ii-264). If the dog 
is let go too soon to rouse tlie birds, before the falcon has reached her pitch, she 
may miss (2 Hen. VI, II-i-44) and must be recalled (T. S. IV-i-42 ; Ham. I-v-115) 
or lured back (R. J. I-ii-159). The lure was a sham bird made with pigeon's 
wings to which a piece of meat, the " train ", was attached (Mac. IV-iii-117, and 
hence " to train " in C. of E. III-ii-45 ; K.J. III-iv-175 ; 1 Hen. IV, V-ii-21 ; 
1 Hen. VI, I-iii-.35 : TA. V-i-104). 

The falcon had bells on her feet which assisted in cowing (3 Hon. VI, I-i-45 ; 
Luc, 510) or " enmewing " the birds (M. for M. III-i-89). They also indicated 
where she was (Alls- Well, III-iii-80). This sport took place in open country over 
the fields or " acres " (1 Hen. IV, I-i-125) divided up by " balks " or heaped up 
mounds (1 Hen. IV, I-i-69). 

The stoop of a falcon is done in one rush full of confidence (Ric. II, I-iii-67 ; 
V. & A. 1027). While the falcon or female is required for all bigger and more 
difficult game, the tercel can be used on duck (T. & C. III-ii-55). 

The short -winged hawks are used as noted above for woodland work, they 
start from the hand and return to it. Instead of swooping they follow the bird 
in a stern chase, lurching from tree to tree and then, on sighting the game, shoot 
forward, whence the term " musket'' passed on to a gun, being applied to 
early fowling pieces. 

In hawking a " hawking eye " is useful (Alls-Well, I-i-105) ; to " tell a hawk 
from a handshaw (heron) ", no easy thing when the hawks are attacking and the 
birds are between you and the sun (Ham. II-ii-397) ; a common trick with herons 
it seems, as an old French writer says, he purposely flies thus (pour se couviier 
de la clarte). 

Reverting to the mistakes often made in dealing with hawking. Scott makes 
goshawks soar, and his falcons are males (see the Abbot, Ivanhoe, Rob Roy) 
Tennyson and Morris in their jDoem on this bird make it a male. As regards the 
Bacon-Shakespeare myth, from Bacon's writings his attitude to such sports is 
that of his relative Burleigh of whom Fuller recounts that Avhen taken out and 
kept standing during a check he exclaimed "What call you this " — "Oh now the 
dogs are at fault " — " Yea take me again in such a fault and I'll give you leave 
to punish me." 

A hawk had to be purged of his " ensayne " or grease (Ham. III-iv-92) for 
this he was given a mixture of fur and feathers which acted as an emetic or purge, 
called "castings" (MWW, III-i-91). A hawk was sometimes rolled up in a 
cloth to keep it from struggling, " mailed" as it was called (2 Hen. VI, I-iv-q 1). 

Small indurated knobs which appear on hawk feet are called " gouts ", but 
this does not seem to be the use in Macbeth (II-i-45). Other terms are " to hold 
a wing " (1 Hen. IV-iii-20), in Lear " Oh well flown bird " (IV-vi-32) and to the 
waste of time in hunting snipe with hawks (0th. I-iii-9) Merlins and Hobbies 
were flown at lesser birds. On the Hobby's approach the birds are scared or 
" dared " and sit still till the fowler catches them. In the absence of a Hobby 
a piece of red cloth or a mirror was used to secure them (Hen. VIII, III-ii-279). 
Irish goshawks were famous, especially from Tyrone, whence the saying " Tyrone 
among the bushes ", and Master Ford had a "fine hawk for the bush" (MWW, 
III-iii-245). 

Note also " croucheth " (Inc : 50G) that is makes them cower down : 
" prune " (Cym : V. iv-118) meaning preen; "dis-edge," mentioned above is of 
course to take the edge of one's appetite ; and " cloys "(Cym V. iv-1 18) that 
is cleys or, i.e., claws at or cleans his beak on his foot. 



Foot. 
Sou^e & tire. 



Lure train. 



Bells enmew. 



fttoop. 



Musket. 



Grease. 



Castings. 

Maileil. 

Gouts, 



164 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST, SOCIETY, Vol. XXV III. 

The hawks belong to the ornithological Family of Falconidse which includes 
the Caracaras, Long-legged hawks. Buzzards, Bearded Vultures, Eagles and 
Falcons. The falcons are characterized by the strong short bill, suddenly curved 
from the base, with a tooth like process on each side. Among them are the Ger 
or Jer falcon (Hierofalco), much the largest, the Peregrine {Falco peregrinus), 
the Indian variety of it, the " Shahin " (F. peregrinator), the Merhn {F. cesalon) 
and Hobby (F. huteo), also the red-headed Merlin (J5. chiquera). 

The short-winged hawks such as the Goshawk {Astur palumbarius), Sparrow 
hawk {Accipter 7iisus) belong to the Sub-family of Buteconince, short-winged 
and short-tailed generally. The Hen harriers (Circus) belong to this group. 

The foregoing paper was not originally written for publication, but for a 
young ornithologist. It is drawn mainly from that delightful but too little 
known book " The Diary of WilUam Silence " by Professor Madden. If this 
note leads to its being better known, bird and Shakespeare lovers will alike be 
grateful, and these few lines will have not 1 een made public in vain. All 
references are to the " Oxford Shakespeare." 



MYRIAPODS FROM MESOPOTAMIA AND PERSIA. 
Collected bv Mr. P. A. BUXTON 

BY 

H. W. Brolemann, Pau, France. 
( With hvo plates. ) 
The material collected by Mr. P. A. Buxton, though limited to a few specimena, 
is far from being void of interest. 

A new Lithobiid has had to be inscribed to the Persian fauna. The redis- 
covery of Humbert and Saussure's Strong ylosoma persicum offered good oppor- 
tunity for describing the sexual characters of the female, which were still un- 
known ; such a type of vulva has not been observed before. The capture of a 
species of the genus Polyxenus, most likely to be P. ponticm, afforded the possi- 
bility of making up for the blanks of Lignau's diagnosis. 

For the favor granted in enabling him to put on records such valuable speci- 
mens, the author wishes to express his sincerest thanks to Mr. Buxton. 

MESOPOTAMIA. 
Pachymerium ferruginetjm (C. Koch, 1835). 
Two female specimens with 55 pair of legs, from Amara ; XII, 1917. 

LiTHOBius ? AERtJGiNOSus L. Koch, 1862. 
Length 10,50 miU. ; breadth 1,30 mill. 

Tergites 9, 11, and 13 with rounded angles. Antennae 20-jointed. Ocelli 
l-|-3 in a single irregular row. Coxosternal teeth of maxillipedes 2-|-2 and 
strong lateral spines. 
Tarsi 1 to 13 single- jointed. Coxal pores: 2, 2, 2, 2. Spinal armature of legs 

, , . 2l-^ P- ^ • ^ . I occasionally p is to be seen 

P n n mr» m "^ | dorsally ou the 4th joint. 

— -. ^,. „ . V. . o. o. p. a p. a p. 

2nd pair or 

^ o. o. mp. am . m • o. o. - mp. am 

o. o. D. an. a n. 

3rd pair 

4th pair 

5th pair 

6th & 7th pair 

8th pair 

9th & 10th pair 

11th pair 

12th & 13th pair 

14th pair 

15th pair 

o. m. amp. am . a 

An additional dorsal p exists on the 4th joint of legs of 2nd, 6th and 9th pair, 

but on one side only. No sexual structure on the last two pairs of legs, the last 

being somewhat swollen (vet not as much as in L. crassipes) and bearing a 

single claw. 



o. 


o. 


p- 


a 


a 


o. 


0. 


mp. 


m . 


m . 


o. 


o. 


P- 


a 


a 


o. 


o. 


mp. 


am . 


m • 


o. 


o. 


P- 


a p. 


a p. 


0. 


0. 


mp. 


am . 


m . 


o. 


o. 
o. 


P- 


a p. 


a p. 


o. 


mp. 


amp. 


am . 


o. 


o. 


P- 


a p. 


a p. 


o. 


0. 


mp. 


am . 


am . 


o. 


o. 


P- 


a p. 


a p. 


0. 


0. 


mp. 


am . 


am . 


0. 


o. 


amp. 


P- 


a p. 


0. 


o. 


mp. 


am . 


am . 


o. 


o. 


amp. 


P- 


a p. 


o. 


o. 


mp. 


am . 


am . 


o. 


0. 


amp. 


P- 


p. 


o. 


o. 


mp. 


amp. 


am . 


o. 


o. 


amp. 


P- 


P' 


o. 


o. 


amp. 


am . 


m . 


o. 


o. 


amp. 


P- 


P 


o. 


m. 


amp. 


am . 


a 


o. 


o. 


amp. 


P- 


o 



o. 


o. 


a p. 


a p. 


a p. 


o. 


o. 


mp. 


am . 


am . 


o. 


o. 


amp. 


a p. 


a p. 



mp. 



im JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIl. 

Female unknown. A single male specimen from Amara ; XII, 1917. 

The palearctic members of the same group of Lithobius having rounded angles 
of tergites 9, 11 and 13, ocelli few disposed in rows, and the anal legs without 
coxolateral spine, without sexual structure and with a single claw, are: crassipes 
L. K., ceruginosiis L. K., fallax Mural., ignotus Mural., and (possibly ?) 
argcensis Att. With none of them does the above specimen agree entirely, 
and nothing is known of the legs of argcensis. Therefore, rather than create a 
new name for a single specimen, it is deemed wiser to ascribe it to the nearest 
related form, L. ceruginosus, in spite of the difference noticed in the spinal 
armature of the hind legs. 

Strong YLOSOMA peksicum Humbert & Saussure, 1869. 

The sterno-pleui-al suture is a curved ridge sharpened on the second segment 
and gradually rounded backwards ; it disappears after the 10th segment. The 
dorsal furrow of the lateral keels is straight on the non-poriferous segments and 
sinuate on the others. 

The vulvar aperture of the 3rd segment is very wide, rounded laterally ; the 
posterior margin is almost straight and moderately erected. Sternum of the 
second pair of legs poorly developed, very low and not as wide as the lateral 
expansions of the coxae. The posterior surface of the latter is hollowed at the 
base so as to cause the distal half to appear swollen. 

Vulvar invaginations shallow, scarcely deep enough to conceal the vulvae 
and hardly distinct from one another. When at rest the vulvae have the oper- 
culum ( ^ ) turned upwards and the ridge outwards, the posterior end of the 
mound filling the aperture of the 3rd segment. Vulvae (fig. 1 and 2) not much 
longer than deep. Operculum smaller than the mound, excised apically ; the 
distal angles are produced and bear a particularly long and thick macrochaeta 
pointing backwards. Mound with its posterior end abruptly truncate. Outer 
palve shorter and higher than the inner, the latter being much lower than 
long. The valves are not fused posteriorly but the upper angles are produced 
internally into hooks, the concavities of which face each other. Surface 
of the valves with few and rather short setae ; no macrochaetae. The apodema 
is sinuous, it shows no superficial ornaments (as seen in Polydesmus) and seems 
destitute of internal appendages. No trace of a shield could be noticed. 

(') The description of vulvae having so far been entirely neglected and no English 
terms having been applied to the different parts of these organs, it is pro- 
posed to use provisionally the following :— 

operculum = (I'opercule) the smallest, plate-like part of the vulva, theo- 
retically considered to be anterior ; 
mound =(la bourse) the largest and theoretically the posterior part, 
the anterior truncate surface of which is covered by the 
operculum ; 
valves =(les valves) inner and outer chitinized slopes of the mound 

bearing setse and often macrochaetae ; 
ridge =(le cimier) apical space left between the valves, beginning 

immediately behind the anterior troncature and extending 
more or less backwards ; 
apodema =(rapodeme) gutter-shaped chitinous thickening extending 
longitudinally below the ridge and communicating with 
the latter by means of a 
ilit =(la fente de I'apodeme) ; 

diverticula =(les diverticules apodematiques) differently shaped append- 
ages of the apodematic gutter, erroneously considered as 
glands by some authors ; 

The operculum articulates with the mound by means of 
hinges =(les fourches) ; 

diield =(le gorgerin) accessory posterior plate which is often missing 

and is eventually replaced by some expansion of the valves . 
The French terms are those used by Brolemann and Lichtenstein, " Les 
vulves des Diplopodes," Arch. Zool. exper. gen., LVIII, 4, 1919. 




e 




50 



S3 
a. 

CO 

a 

00 



ME80P0TAMIAN AND PERSIAN MyitlAPOEiS. 167 

A sketch of the male gonapods (tig. 3) is added to show the development of 
the secondary ramus. Attems states that this ramus is formed of two laminae, 
a fact which could not be ascertained. 

Amara; XII, 1917; 2, I, 1918, "under fallen palm branches"; III, 1918. 

PERSIA. 

Pachymerium caucasicum Attems, 190.3. 

One male specimen with 47 pair of legs. 
Resht; II, 1919. 

LiTHOBIUS BUXTONI, n. Sp. 

S : length about 10 mill. 

Colour drab. Head-plate with black margins and a black median spot. Main 
tergites with black lateral and posterior edges and a black dorso-median line. 
Mouth-pieces and ventral surface pale yellow. Anterior legs pale becoming 
gradually fuscate backwards and from the apex towards the base, the last legs 
being entirely dark coloured. 

The cephalic plate as well as the anterior main tergites have their marginal 
pad entire ; this is interrupted mesially on the 7th tergite only. Posterior 
margin of the 8th, 10th and 15th tergites scarcely or feebly emarginate ; poste- 
rior margin of the 12th and 14th tergites decidedly excised, the posterior angles 
being acute and somewhat raised. Tergites 9, 11 and 13 with moderately 
produced, but sharp angles. Surface of all the tergites strongly rugose and 
showing oblique, irregular longitudinal furrows. 

Ocelli few, l-j-S, 2, 2. Antennae long, 37-40 jointed. 

Coxosternum of maxillipedes with the produced anterior margin armed with 
2+2 small teeth ; no lateral spines could be detected. 

Coxal pores 3, 2, 2, 2, small, rounded. 

Spine armature of legs of 

1st pair 
2nd pair 
3rd pair 
4th pair 



o. 


o. 


P- 


a p. 


a 


.0. 


o 


o . 


am . 


m . 


o. 


o. 


mp. 


a p. 


a 


o. 


0. 


m . 


am . 


m . 


o. 


o. 


mp. 


a p. 


a p. 


o. 


o. 


m . 


am . 


m . 


o. 


o. 


mp. 


a p. 


a p. 


o. 


o. 


m . 


am . 


m . 


o. 


o. 


amp. 


a p. 


a p. 


o. 


o. 


m . 


am . 


am , 


o. 


o. 


amp. 


a p. 


a p. 


o. 


o. 


mp. 


am . 


am . 


o. 


o. 


amp. 


a p. 


a p. 


o. 


m. 


amp. 


am . 


am . 


o. 


o. 


amp. 


a p. 


a p. 


o. 


m. 


amp. 


am . 


m . 


o. 


o. 


amp. 


P- 






K+i, +^ n+1 . • o. O' a mp, a p. a p. with an occasional p below 

5th to 11th pair or ,, ,4.1 • ,. d m 

^ 0.0. m . am . am , I the 4th joint on P. 10. 

12th pair 

13th pair o. o. amp, a p. a p. f accidentally a dorsal m ia 

o. m. amp. am . am . \ found on the 4th joint. 

14th pair 

o. o. amp. p. o . o. o. amp. 

P^'^ o. m. amp. am . m . °' o. m. amp. amp. m . 

15th pan- without coxolateral spine ; claw double. No special sexual structure 
on 14th or 15th pair. 

The female is unknown. 
Resht : II, 1919. 



168 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVIU. 



This new species is to be distinguished from L. melanops, Newpt., apparently 
its nearest relative, by its rugose tergites and by the spinal armature of the legs. 
The only Lithobius so far recorded from Persia is L. persicus Pocock, 1899, from 
Seir. The possibility of identifjdng the above described specimen with Pocock's 
species is excluded considering that the latter has only the 13th dorsal plate 
angularly produced, that the anal leg is armed with O. 3. 3. 1 spines below, with 
a single apical claw and with a coxolateral spine, and that the legs of the two 
last pairs are sulcate above in the male. 
Chokdeumoidea, sp. 

One female specimen from Resht ; II, 1919. 
luLoiDEA, sp. 

One immature specimen from Resht ; II, 1919. 

POLYXENUS PONTICFS (Lignau, 1903) nob. 

Length (without the anal bunch) 8, 50 to 9 mill. Breadth of the 7th segment 
(including pleurae) about 0.95 mill. 

In most of the morphological details the Persian specimens are identical 
with P. lagunis Latr. The sense cones of the palpi are single-jointed. OcelU 
six. Sense calicles of the head disposed in a triangle as in the western species. 
Also the anal bunches are located alike. 




'A. B. C. D. E. 



F. 



Fig 5 '-Polyxenus lagurus, Latr. 

A to E, setse corresponding to those represented in fig. 4 -, F, not 
observed in ponticus. 



( 




t^ 



c< 



"^ 



"^ 



^ 



55 



•^ 



w 







ME80P0TAMIAN AND PERSIAN Ml'RIAPODS. 



169 



Yet the setae are differently shaped. Generally speaking they are more 
slender and longer in ponticus than in lagunts ; fig. 4 and 5 show the differences 
in the corresponding setae of the head (A and B), of the dorsal rows of the ter- 
gites (C and D) and of the pleural plumes (E). Quite striking are the setae of 
the posterior marginal row of the tergites ; these are blade-Uke, with parallel 
margins, and are neatly arranged side by side m a single line. The seta^ of 
the anterior-marginal rows of the tergites are comparatively shorter and more 
numerous. The hooked trichomes of the anal bunches are much (almost one 
half) shorter than the central brush-like setae ; they show two to five apical 
lobes, as in lagurus ; the five-lobed trichomes appear to be less numerous than 
the fewer-lobed ones, the contrary being witnessed in lagurus. 

EnzeU (N. W. Persia); VI, 1919. 

Whether this is Lignau's true ponticus has still to be ascertained. The Rus- 
sian author (Die Myriopoden der Pontus-Kusten von Caucasus. Odessa, 
1903, p. 131 of the German summary) only announces the description to appear 
in a later work and states that the new species is to be known from lagurus 
through the structure of the antennae, the setae of the anal bunch and other 
particulars ( ? ). Although no difference could be detected in the antennae 
(the proportions of which are similar to those indicated by Latzel), it may be 
assumed that the Persian specimens are specifically similar to those of the Cau- 
casus considering the vicinity of the locaUties. 

Explanation of Plates. 

Fig. I. — Strongylosoma persicum, H. & S. 

The left vulva from above. o=opsrcuIum ; F=hinges ; 
ev, ti;=outer and inner valve ; c=tidge 

Fig. 2 — Strongylosoma persicum, H. & S. 

The left vulva from without. Same lettering as fig. 
1, plus: ov^= oviduct. 

Fig. 3 — Strongylosoma persicum, H. & S. 
Male copulatory leg. 

Fig. 4 — -Polyxenus ponticus (Lign.) nob. 

^ Differently shaped setae : A and B, from tho head ; C, 
from the anterior-marginal rows of the tergites ; 
D, from the posterior-marginal row of same ; E, 
from the pleural plumes ; F and G, from unascer- 
tained parts of the body and not observed in lagurus. 



Plate I. ^ 
Plate 11.^ 



22 



170 
MOTHS OF MESPOTAMIA AND N. W. PERSIA. 

BY 

Various authors. 

Note. — Throughout this series of papers the following abbreviations are used 
for the collectors' names and initials : — 

B. r.— Major R. Brewitt-Taylor, R.A.M.O. ; P. A. 5.— Capt. P. A. Buxton, 
R.A.M.C.; Sr.— Major T. D. Broughton, R.E.; C— Lt.-Col. R P. Connor: W. E. 
^.— Capt. W. E. Evans, R.A.M.C; L. ^.— Capt. L. Harrison; H. D. P.— 
Lt.-Col. H. D. PeUe, I.M.S. 

[The specimens taken by Col. Connor and Major Broughton are in the 
B. N. H. S. Museum. No map is published, because all the localities mentioned 
Mall be found on the maps which accompany Major R. E. Cheesman's paper on 
the Mammalia of Mesopotamia and Dr. P. A. Buxton's paper on the Birds of 
N. W. Persia] 

Part I. 

NOCTUID.^, LEM0N1ID.E AND PYRALID^. 

BY 

Lord Rothschild, P.R.S. 

I have been asked to contribute the portion deahng with the above 3 families 
to this list of Mesopotamian and Western Persian Lepidoptera. As in the other 
portions of the paper the captors' names are indicated by initials. 

The nature of the lepidopterous fauna as indicated by the insects of the above 
3 groups is decidedly Central Asian in character, though appertaining to the 
general desert fauna. As was to be expected, however, a few purely tropical 
forms are present. These are specially the 2 Noctuids Erebus macrops, Linn and 
Hylodes caranea\ Guen. All the types except that of Lemonia peilei are in the 
Tring Museum. 

NOCTUID.E. 

Agrotince. 

1. Chloridea peltigera, Schiff. 

3, Mirjana, Dyala River, November, 1 Jebel Hamrin, June 1918, H. D. P.; 
1 J, Amara, Mesopotamia, July 1916, B. T. : 1, Amara, May 1918, P. A. B. 

2. Chloridea nubigera, Herr. — ^Sch. 

1, Amara, Mesopotamia, November 1918, P. A, B.; 1, Mirjana, Dyala 
River, June 1918, H. D. P. 

3. Euxoa lata golickei, Ersch. 

1 J, Amara, Mesopotamia, November 1918, P. A. B.; 1 §, Mirjana, Dyala 
River, October 1918, H. D. P. 

Sir George Hampson and many other writers have erroneously placed lata, 
Treits and golickei, Ersch, as varieties of crassa, Hbn., but the much longer and 
differently arranged pectinations of the antennae of the two latter forms at 
once separate them from crassa. The 3 forms hitherto united under crassa 
must therefore stand as Euxoa crassa. Hbn.; Euxoa lata lata, Treibs. and Euxoa 
lata golickei, Ersch. 

4. Euxoa lasserrei, Oberth. 

1 d', Khaniqin, Mesopotamia, November 1918, P. A. B. 

5. Euxoa messaonda matritensis, Vasq. 

1 2 , Baiji, River Tigris, November 1919, H. D. P. 

6. Euxoa segetum, Schiff. 

1 y , Mirjana, Mesopotamia, December 1918, H. D. P. 

7. Euxoa spinifera. Hiibn. 



MOTHS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND N. JV. PERSIA. 171 

2 (5 J, 1 $, Amara, Mesopotamia, May- August 1918, P. A. B.; 5 — 
Amara, August 1916, B. T.; 1 $, Kut, April 1918, Br. 

la. Evxoa cognita, Shdgr. 

1 2 , Qazvin, September 1919, P. A. B. 
lb. Euxoa mustelina terminalis, Subsp. nov. 

(5 Distinguished from m. mustelitia and m. centralis by the dark ahnost 
black subterminal area of the fore wings. 
Habitat. — Qazvin, September 1919, 1 cT , P. A. B. 

8. Euxoa conspicua, Hbn. 

] J , Enzeli, Caspian, N. W. Persia, June 1919, P. A. B. 

9. Agrotis ipsilon, Hufn, 

1, Amara, Mesopotamia, September 1916, B. T.; 1 J, Kut, May 1918. Br. 

10. Agrotis comes, Hbn. 

1 5 , Enzeh, Caspian (Gilan), N. W. Persia, June 1919, P. A. B. 

11. Agrotis pronuba, Linn. 

3, Qizil Robat, Mesopotamia, March-April 1918, H. D. P. 

12. LycopJwtia margaritosa. Haw. 

1 S, Resht, N. W. Persia, February 1919, P. A. B. 

Hadenince. 

13. Discestra arenaria, Hmpsn. 

1 S , Amara, Mesopotamia, May 1918, P. A. B. 

14. Scotogramma tripolii, Roth. 

2. Amara, Mesopotamia, September 1916, B. T. 

14a. Scotogramma chimoera, Rothock. 1 $, Baghdad, October 1917, 
P. A. B. (2nd known specimen.) 

15. Cardepia taylori, sp. nov. 

S , similar to irrisor, Ersch., but larger and darker. 
Antennse brown; head and thorax greyish wood brown, 7iot pale mouse grey 
abdomen wood grey, not huffish wood grey. Forewing dark brown grey, strongly 
variegated with blue-grey and cinnamon brown. Orbicular much larger than 
in irrisor, reniform more sharply defined and stained wth black on lower por- 
tion, claviform very large and intense brown black ; submarginal line much 
deeper dentate and angulate ; fringe brown, not white, and with a row of large 
dark brown patches. Hindwing basal | less white, outer half sooty black ; 
fringe white. Length of forewing 18mm. Expanse 41 mm. 1 ^5', Amara, 
Mesopotamia, October 1916, B. T. 

16. Sideridis vitellina, Hiibn. 

1 $ , Baku, Caspian, May 1919, P. A. B. 

17. Cirphis loreyi, Dup. 

1 (5, 1 2 , Amara, May- July 1918 ; 1 J, Kumait, River Tigris, November 
1917, P. A. B.; Amara May- August 1916, B. T.; 2 $ ? , Kut, May 1918, Br. 
and B. N. H. S. 

18. Cirphis zece indistincta, Christ. 

1 2 > Basra, August ; 1 d , Amara, October 1918, P. .A. B. ; 2, Amara, 
August 1916, B. T. 

19. Cirphis corrugata, Hmpsn. 

1 2, Amara, July 1918, P. A. B.; 1, Amara, July 1916, B. T. 

Cuculliance, 

20. CucuUia tanaceti, Schiff. and Den. 

1 5 , Enzeh, Caspian, June 1919, P. A. B. 

21. Cleophana boslica diluta, Rothsch. 

3 c?, Mirjana, Dyala River, February 1919, H. D. P. 

22. Metopoceras omar caspica, Alph. 
1 d , Amara. April 1918, P. A. B. 



172 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIH. 

Zenobimce (Achronyctince, Auct.) 

23. Cranioptora pontica, Stdgr. 

1 $ , Qazvin 4,000 feet, July 1919, P. A. B. 

24. Prodenia litura, Fabr. 

2d 6 , Amara, November 1917 and June 1918; 1 d , Basra, August 1918, 
1 2 , Qurnah, May 1918, P. A. B.; 4, Basra, May-June ; 4, Amara, August 
1916, B. T. 

25. Spodoptem ahyssinia, Guen. 

1, Basra, May 16; Amara, June-September 1916. B. T.; 1 5 Basra, August 
1918, P. A. B. 

26. Laphygma exigua, Hiibn. 

1 <S,B 2 2. Amara, May-September ; 1 c? , 2 $2, Qurnah, May 1918, 
P. A. B.; 5, Amara, August 1916, B. T. 

27. Athetis clavipalpis, Scop. 

1 2 Kumait, November 1917, B. A. B. 

28. Athetis pertinax, Stdgr. 

1 J, Amara, April 1918, P. A. B. 

29. Catamecia buxtoni, sp. no v. 

S 2 closely allied to deceptrix, Stdgr., but at once distinguished by the 
postmedian band of forewing being much less strongly and not so evenly curv- 
ed, also this band is not so strongly nor so regularly dentate as in deceptrix. The 
black streak from the base of forewing is much stronger and more bent than in 
deceptrix and the reniform is larger and has on its basal side a large dark patch 
and a similar one is basal of the orbicular which patches are absent in deceptrix ; 
the subterminal band very sharp and angulated on and above vein 4. Hind- 
wings white but not so pure as in deceptrix being irregularly tinged with grey. 

Length of forewing: 19mm. Expanse: 42mm. 
Habitair—2 d d , 1 2 , Ali ash Shargi, November 1917 ( d Type), 1 c? , 4 2 2. 
Kumait, November 1917, P. A. B. 

30. Catamecia minima bacheri, Stdgr. 
1 2 , Amara, June 1918, P. A. B. 

Erastriance. 

31. Eublemina parva, Hiibn. 

1 d", 5 2 2, Amara, May— October 1918, P. A. B. 

32. Eublemma uniformis, Stdgr. 

3 2 2.1 d , Qazvin, July 1919, P. A. B. 
32a. Erastria trabealis algira, Oberth. 

1, Amara, August 1916, B. T. (ab. jlavoniteus, Aust.) ; 1 d , 6 2 2 . Amara 
April-September 1918; 1, Qazvin, July 1919, P. A. B. (2 ab. deleta, Stdgr.) 

Among the 5 t. algira there is only one quite typical, the remaining 4 are 
intermediate between t. algira and typical trabealis in the amount of black on 
the forewings. 

33. Tarache lucida lugens, Alph. 

1 d , 1 2 . Menjil, N. W. Persia, March 1919, P. A. B.; 1 d , Baghdad, Nov- 
ember 1917, L. H. (B. N. H. S.) ; 7, Kizil Robat, February-May; 1, Ba=ji, 
River Tigris, November 1919, H. D. P. 

Westermamilince, Acoutnoeii, Auct. 

34. Earias chlorophyllana, Standgr. 

2 2 2, EnzeU, Caspian, April 1919, P. A. B. 

35. Arcyophora dentula. Led. 

14, Amara, July-October 1916, B. T. 



MOTHS 01' MESOPOTAMIA AND N. W. PERSIA. 173 

Catocalince. 

35c. Mormonia mesopotamica, Kusn. 

1, Karind, July 1, Kermanshah, August 1918, H. D. F. 

36. Mormonia neonympha, Esp. 

1, Basra, May 1916, B. T.; 1, Dyala River, June 1918; 4, Jebel Hamrin, 
June 1919, H. D. P.; 2 d d, I $ , Kut, May-June 1918, Br. (B. N. H. S.); 1 J, 
Qazvin, N. W. Persia, August 1919, P. A, B. 

37. Catocala elocata locala, Stdgr. 

1 c?, Qazvin, N. W. Persia, July 1919, P. A. B.; 1, Jebel Hamrin, June 
1918, H. D. P.; Kermanshah, August 1918, H. D. P. 

38. Catocala puerpera pallida, Alph. 

I d, Kermanshah, September 1918, Br. (B. N. H. S.) 

39. Erebus macrops, Linn. 

1 2 » Off coast of Persia, November 1917, Captain Simmonds. 

40. Homcea arefada, Swinh. 

1 $ , Amara, September 1918, P. A. B.; 20, Amara, July-October 1916, B. T. 

41. Parallelia algira, Linn. 

1, Basra, June, 7; Amara, August 1916, B. T. 

42. Grammodes geometrica, Fabr. 
1, Amara, October 1916, B. T. 

43. Chalciope hyppasia. Cram. 

4, Amara, August-October 1916, B. T. 

44. Leucanitis picta, Christ. 

1 2 y Menjil, March 1919, P. A. B. 

45. Clytie arenosa, Rothsch. 

1 2 , Amara, August 1916, B. T. ; 1 $ , Kut, June 1918, Br. (B. N. H. S.). 

46. Pericyma albidentaria, Frr. 

1 d, Baghdad, October 1917, 2 <S d , Amara, June 1918 ; 1 J, Kut, 
August 1918, P. A. B. ; 3, Basra, June; 22, Amara, July-August 1916, B. T. 

47. Pericyma squalens. Led. 

3 $ 2 , Amara, April, June, July 1918, P. A. B.; 34, Amara, August 1916, 
B. T. 

48. Contyta profesta (Christ.) 

25, Amara, August 1916, B.T.; 1, Dyala River, June 1918, H. D. P.; 1, 
Kut, May 1918, Br. (B. N. H. S).; 2 d d, 6 $ $, Amara, June-September; 
2 6 (5, 3 $2, Kut, August 1918, P. A. B. ; 1, Jebel Hamrin, June 1919, 
H. DP. 

Phulometrince [Plusiince, Auct.) 

49. Syngrapha circumflexa (Linn.) 

1, Mirjana, February; 1, Kizil Robat, April 1919, H. D. P. : 2 S S, 
Amara, May 1918, P. A. B. ; 1 $ , Kut, May 1918, Br. (B. N. H. S.). 

50. Phylometra ni, Hiibn. 

1 d . Amara, May 1918, P. A. B.,- 2, Amara, August 1916, B.-T. These 
specimens are very dark. 

51. Phylometra daubei, Boisd. 

1 d , Basra, August 1918, P. A. B. 

52. Phylometra chalcites, Borkh. 

1, Mirjana, February 1919, H. D. P. ; 2, Amara, August 1916, B. T. 

53. Phylometra gamma, Linn. 

8 Mirjana, January-February 1919, H. D. P. 

A^octuince. 

54. Tarachephia hueberi, Ersch. 
22 2, Amara, May 1918, P. A. B. 

55. Hylodes caranea, Guen. 

1 2 , Probably Karmanshah, Br. (B. N. H. S.) 



174 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVIU. 

56. Pandesma anysa, Guen. 

3(5 d, Kut, May 1918 1, Br. (B. N. H. S.); Id, I?. Amara, May- June 
1918 ; 1 cJ , Qazvin, August 1919, P. A. B. 
56o. Apopestes spectrum innotata, Warr. 

7, Kermanshah, August 1918 ; 1. Kirkuk, September 1919, H. D. P.- I S, 
Qazvin, July 1919, P. A. B. 

57. Autophyla gracilis, Stdgr. 

1 2 . Menjil, March 1919, P. A. B. 

58. Rivula sericealis, Scop. 

4 c? d , 3 2$, Amara, October 1917-September 1918, P. A. B. ; I $ , 
Amara, September 1916. B.-T. This series is very variable. 

Polypogonince {Hypenince, Auct.) 

59. Rhynchina eremialis, Swinh. 

Id, 222, Amara, September-October 1918, P. A. B.; id, Amara, 
September 1916, B.-T. 

60. Rhynchina ravalis syniocalis, Stdgr. 

3dd, 2$ 2, Amara, March-October 1918. P. A, B. ; 22 2, Amara, 
August-October 1916, B.-T. 

LEMONTIDiE. 

61. Lemonia peilei, sp. nov. 

d Allied to pia, Piingl., but larger and the wings longer and narrower. An- 
tennse rufous chocolate ; head, thorax, and abdomen dark testaceous buff. Fore- 
wing with apex strongly produced and pointed, costal edge deeply concave, costa 
and terminal edge bright yellowish buff, rest of wing pale cinnamon chocolate, a 
dark brown spot in cell ringed with buff, a submarginal band shghtly convex and 
toothed basad primrose yellow. Hindwing cinnamon chocolate, a postmedian 
band, termen and fringe yeUow. 
Habitat— 2 d , Mirjana, byala Pviver, December 1918, H. D. P. 

62. Lemonia pia, Piingl. 

1 d , Qaz\an. October 1919, P. A. B. 

Pyralid.«. 
Galleriince. 

63. Arenipses sabella, Hmpsn. 

2d d, 32 2. Amara, April-June 1918, P. A. B.; 1 2 , August 1916, B.-T. 

64. Archigalleria huxtoni, sp. nov. 

d , very much smaller than the 2 , forewings very short and at termen very 
square, giving the insect much the appearance of a Hepialus. 

Antennae grey brown ; palpi, head and thorax pale grey mixed with mauve 
brown ; abdomen dark brown grey. 

Forewing pale grey powdered with brown scales ; a partially broken black 
patch below median in basal fths of wing, outer |ths of wing below subcostal 
area with strong cloud-like oil brown markings occupying almost the whole disc . 
of the wing, a post discal whitish dentate band beyond which are black dots ; a 
marginal line of black dots ; a black brown patch followed by a white one with 
black brown spots in it below subcostal, fringe pale grey with chain of brown 
spots. Hindwing basal \ whitisli j^assing gradually into the sooty black brown 
of remainder of ^\'ing, fringe greyish white. 

2 . Antennae greyish white annulated with " brown ; head, thorax and 
abdomen grey slightly sprinkled with brown, Forewing similar to d but much 
'paler and dark spots and markings smaller. Hindwing semivitreous white, with 



MOTHS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND N. IV. PERSIA, 175 

brown grey terminal hairline. One specimen of the 5 has all light parts of 
forcwings sandj' buff as well as head, thorax and abdomen and 2 others have all 
these parts suffused with brown. 

Length of forewing : d, 13 mm., 2, 19 mm. Expanse: d,29mm., 2 *2 mm. 

Habitat— Z 6 6,^2 2, Amara, June 1918, P. A. B. 

65. Lamoria anella, Schiff. 

2 J c? , Enzeli, May-June 1919, P. A. B. 

Cmmbime. 

66. Ommatopleryx ramburella, Dup. 

5 J J, 3 §2, Amara, May 1917-June 1918 : 1 2 Baghdad, September 
1917 : 1 2 , EnzeU, June 1919, P. A. B. 

67. Ommatopteryx ocellea. Maw. 

1 d , 1 2, Amara, June 1918, P. A. B. 

68. Chilo phrarjmitellu.% Hiibn. 

1 6 , Enzeli, June 1919, P. A. B. 

69. Chilo suppressalis. Walk. 

1 2 , Amara, April 1918, P. A. B, 

70. Ancylolomia affinis, sp. nov. 

J , Nearest to palpella, Schiff., but at once distinguishable by the entire 
absence of the silver bands on the median nervure and costo-subcostal area. 

Palpi, head and thorox sandy buff : antcnnte strongly pectinated, shaft white 
pectmatious brown black ; abdomen whitish buff with broad brown bandlike 
markings, aval tuft white. Forewing sandy buff with intraneural brown bands 
which are dotted sparsely with minute black and silver dots ; a broad silver 
streak from discocellulars to submarginal band which is brown and strongly 
dentate on both sides, wing from submarginal band to termen whitish with 2 
brown lines, terminal line metallic. Hindmng pale brownish grey with darker 
terminal line ; fringe white. 

2 . Antennae filiform brown ; head and thorax pale buff ; abdomen bush 
segment glistening white, rest pale buff. Forewing yellowish buff. Hindwing 
white. 

Length of forewing : S 20 mm., 9 24 mm. 

Expanse : (J, 43 mm., 2 > 52 mm. 

Habitat— 1 d , Amara, November 1917 ; 1 $ , Qazvin, September 1919. P. A. B. 

Sigince (Schoenobiince, Auct.). 

71. Scirpophaga prcdata, Scop. 

1 2 ' Enzeli, June 1919. P. A. B. 

72. Schoenobius incertellus, Walk. 

1 d , 5 2 2 , Amara, June-July 1918 ; 1 $ , Qurnah, May 1918, P. A. B.; 1 J , 
1 9 —ah. mimdellus. ZeW ; 2 2 2 =nh, hnoDiesceus, Moore. 

I have not used the genus Topentis for pruiata as Sir C4eorge Hampson has done 
because, although included mTop)entis by Hiibner ; the genus Topentis was res- 
tricted by Stephens in 1829 iiS=Chilo, Zincken and therefore prcelata, Scop.= 
phantasmella, Hbn, is excluded, the 4 species Stephens restricts Chilo= Topentis 
to, not including it. 

Hypsotropince {Anerastiince, Auct.). 

73. Raphimetopus ablutella, Zell. 

1 2 , Baghdad, October 1917 ; 1 2 , Qazvin, July 1919, P. A. B. 

74. Saluria maodivitella. Rag. 

1 d , Baghdad, October 1917 : 1 d , 3 2 2 . Amara, October 1917 and June 
1918, P. A. B. 

75. Saluria pulverosa, Hmpsn. 

3 d d , 2 2 2 , Baghdad. October 1917 : 2 2 2 • Azizieh, October 1917; 1 d , 
4 2 2, Amara, October 1917— May 1918, P. A. B. 



176 JO UJtNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XX fill 

Anerastiinos {Phycitince, Auct.). 

7fi, Ephestia cautella, Walk. 
1 2 , Basra, September 1918 ; 1 $ , Amara, April 1918 ; 1 $ , Enzeli, May 
1919, P. A. B. 

77. Ephestia elutella, Hiibn. 

1 $ , Amara, April 1918, P. A. B. 
77a. Ephestia induct ella, Stdgr. 

2 S S, Enzeli, June 1919, P. A. B. 

78. Ephestia calideUa, Guen. 

1 2 , Baghdad, September 1917; S (S 6 , Amara, June-September 1918, P. A. B 

79. Spermotophora hornigii, Led. 

I 2 } Basrah, September 1918 ; 1 5 , Amara, September 1918 ; Baghdad, 
September 1917, P. A. B. ; 1 2, Amara, September 1916, B. T. 
Larva found in August feeding on windfall Dates. 

80. Heterographis hellenica. Stdg. 

3 d c? , 2 $ 2 , Amara, April -September 1918, P. A. B. 

81. Heterographis subcandidatella. Rag. 

7 d d, 3 9 9, Amara, May- July 1918, P. A. B. 

82. Heterographis convexella, Led. 
1 9 , Amara, June 1918, P. A. B. 

83. Heterographis fulvobasella. Rag. 
1 9 , Amara, June 1918, P. A. B. 

84. Heterographis monostictella, Rag. 

1 S J Amara, September 1918, P. A. B. 
86. Heterographis microshictella, Hmpsn. 
1 9, Amara, June 1918, P. A. B. 

86. Heterographis pallida, Stdgr. 

1 d, 1 $, Qazvin, July- August 1919, P. A. B. 

87. Heterographis huxtoni, sp. nov. 

2 • Antennae brownish cream ; head, thorax and abdomen cream colour, 
Forewings cream colour. Hindwings silvery white. 

Length of forewings : 10 mm. Expanse : 22 mm. 
Habitat— \ 2 > Baghdad, October 1917, P. A. B. 
87a. Heterographis deserticola, Stdgr. 
1 S , Qazvin, September 1919, P. A. B. 

88. Psorosa nucleoleUa, Mseschl. 

1 d , 1 $ , Amara, June-October 1918, P. A, B. 

89. Zasiosticha hieroglyphiella, Rag. 

1 d , Qazvin, July 1919 ; 1 d , Amara, June 1918, P. A. B. 

90. Aphyteles ochreella, Rag. 

2 2$, Amara, September 1918 ; 1 d , September 1919, P. A. B. 
90a. Melanastia cerraticornella, Zell. 

1 2 , Amara, September 1918, P. A. B. 

91. Salehria acervella, Eusch. 

1 9, Baghdad, September 1917, P. A. B. 
91a. Laodamia fusca postalbidior, subsp. nov. 
Differs from/, infausta, Rag., in the much whiter hindwings. 
Habitat— I d , 1 2 , Amara, April 1918, P. A. B. 

92. Auxacia bilineela, Rag. 

4d ^, 6 9 9, Amara, June-September 1918, P. A. B. 

93. Tlithyia semirubella. Scop. 

1 d • 1 9, Amara, April-September 1918 ; 1 9, Enzeli, June 1919, P, A. B. 

94. Tlithyia buxtoni, sp. nov. 



MOTHS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND N. W. PERSIA. 177 

2 Antennae grey; head and thorax silvery elate grey ; abdomen slate grey. 
Forewing slate grey, an oblique antemedian white band and 2 subterminal white 
lines, disc between oblique band and basal subterminal line except on costa and 
in cell variegated with greyish white. Hindwing silvery grey, whiter towards 
base, fringe white. 

Length of forewing ; 1 1 mm. Expan.se : 24 mm. 

Habitat— \ $ , Menjil, March 1919, P. A. B. 

95. Zophodia suberastriella, sp. nov. 

9 closely allied to erastriella, Rag., but much greyer, less rufous. 

Differs principally in having the curved oblique black antemedian line stopping 
short in cell and the postmedian line more sinuate and more strongly angled. 

Length of forewing : 9 mm. Expanse : 20 mm. 

Habitat— Enzeli, Caspian, June 1919, 1 $ , P. A. B. 

95a. Eurhodope buxtoni, sp. nov. 

S Nearest to monogrammos, Zell, but smaller and without metallic fringe 
and submarginal line. Uniform mouse grey ; fringe of forewing and marginal 
lines of both wings darker. 

Habitat— \ S , Amara, June 1918, P. A. B. 

Length of forewing : 8 mm. Expanse : 18 mm. 

Fyraliiife. 

96. Bostra marginalis, sp. nov. 

2 Antenna? black partially ringed with white ; head and thorax blackish 
' purple brown, slightly sprinkled with clay colour ; abdomen purple brown, 
sprinkled with yellowish wood brown. 

Forewing sooty brown black, a pale antemedian angled band, a row of pale 
spots along costa, a black stigmatic patch at end of cell, a sinuate strongly 
dentate greyish buff postmedian line, termino-subterminal area beyond this 
line yellowish wood grey with a smoky Une and terminal row of black dots in 
it. Hindwings silky wood brown paler on basal half, an indistinct yellowish 
median band, fringe yellowish grey, terminal line brown. 

Length of forewing : 10-13 mm. Expanse : 22-23 mm. 

Habitat— Km^vA, 1$, November 1918, P. A. B. ; 2? $, August-Septem- 
ber 1916, B.-T. (Type). 

97. Dattinia argentalis, Hmpsn. 

6 $ ? , Amara, September 1918, P. A. B. 

98. Dattinia canifusalis, Hmpsn. 

Id, 1 ?, Amara, May 1918, P. A. B. ; 1 J, Kizil Uobat, March 1919, 
H. D. P. 

99. Dattinia simpUcialis, sp. nov. 

$ Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen chalk white. Forewing chaik 
white, a patch running in from apex to end of cell, a spot at end of cell, 
terminal line, and outer § of inner margin very pale buff. Hindwing silky 
white with pale buff terminal line. 

Length of forewing : 12 mm. Expanse : 27 mm. 

Habitat— Amarei, June 1918, 1 ? , P. A. B. 

There is a $ of the species mixed up with leonalis, Oberth, in the British 
Museum from Elkantara, Algeria. 

100. Dattinia affinis, sp. nov. 

9 Nearest to poliopastalis, Hmpsn., in pattern, but with shorter rounder 
wiiigs more like vulgaris, Butl. 

Differs from poliopastalis in lacking all blue-grey tints, in having a snow 
white not buff first abdominal segment, in the antemedian band of forewings 
being much broader and straight not angled in the white markings of forewings 
being much closer together, and in the quadrate brown terminal markings not 
row of terminal black spots. 
•2.3 



178 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL BIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII 

Length of foiewing : 10 mm. Expanse : 22 mm. 
Habitat— Knt, August 1918. 1 9 , P- A. B. 

101. Botys armenialis, Led. 

\$, Azizieh, October 1917 ; 1 $ , Baghdad, October 1917 ; 5 2 $ , Amara 
September- October 1918, P. A. B. 

NymphiilincB. 

102. Nymphula nymphceata latifaseata, subsp. nov. 

2 Differs from n. nymphceata in the bands of the hindwings being much 
broader, less irregular and less excised. The colour of the dark markings in 
this specimen is also much darker. 

Habitat— Enzeli, June 1919, 1 9, P. A. B. 

Staudinger already remarked that Syrian specimens wei*e different. 

10.3. Nymphula nirjroUnealis sordidior, subsp. nov. 

(S Differs from «. nigrolinealis, Pryer, in the yellow being duller and tbe 
yellow marginal band on hindwings less even. 
Habitat— Enzeli, June 1918, 1 J , P. A. B. 

104. Nymphula affinialis, Gnen. 

4(5 ^, 7 9 9, Amara, April-June 1918, P. A B. 

Agroterince. 

105. Sylepta ruralis, Scop. 

1 d , 3 9 9 , Enzeli, May- June 1919, P. A. B. 
105a. JErcta ornotalis, Dup. 
19, Amara, October 1917, P. A. B. 

106. Hellula undalis, Fabr. 

1 $, Enzeli, May 1919 ; 1 9, Qazvin, August 1919, P. A. B. 

107. Nomophila noctuella, Schiff. 

\$, Enzeli, May 1219 . 1 <?, Baghdad, October 1917 : 1 2, Amara, April 
1918, P. A. B. ; 1, Kizil Robat, February 1919 ; 1 Baiji, March 1920, H. D. P. 
107a. Psara pallidalis, Hmpsn. 
1 S , Enzeh, May 1919, P. A. B. 

108. Lonostege sulphuralis. Hub. 
1 d , Enzeli, June 1919, P. A. B. 

109 Loxostege palealis anaxisalis. Walk. 
1 c? , Persian Talysh, July 1919. P. A. B. 

1 10. Loxostege dicticalis, Linn. 

IS , 1 ? , Persian Talysh, July 1919, P. A. B. 

111. Uresphiba polygonalis, Hiibn. 

1 $ , Amara, Septem' er, 1916, B.-T. 
Ilia. Cybolom ia pe n tadalis, Led. 

2S 6 , Amara, June-September 1918, P. A. B. 

112. Metasia ochrifascialis, Christ. 

1 2 , Kut, August 1918, P. A. B. 
I2a. Metasia ossealis, Stdgr. 

2 2 2 , Amara, June 1918, P. A. B. 

113. Pyrausta aurata, Scop. 

1 2 , EnzeU, June 1919, P. A. B. 

1 14. Pyrausta cespilalis, Schiff. 

2d 6, Amara, March- April 1918, P. A. B. 

115. Tegostoma baphialis, Stdgr. 

3 c? d , 2 2 2 . Amara, April-September 1918 ; 1 2 , Qazvin, .July 1919, P. A., 
B.; 2 d d , 1 2 , Amara, July-August 1916, B.-T. 

116. Tegosfoma paralis, Hmpsn. 

1 2 , Baghdad, September'l917; 1 d , Qazvin, July 1919, P. A. B. 



MOTHS 01 MESOPOTAMIA AND N. W. PERSIA. 179 



117. Nortueliajlorabs, Hiibn. 

2 $ 2 , Amara, May-September 1918; 1^,2$ $ , Baghdad, September 1917; 
1 2 , Qazvin, Juiy 1919, 1 $ , Menjil, March 1919, P. A. B. 
As the nomenclature employed may be strange to some of the readers of thi s 
iournal I give below the 1st quotation of the name of each species : — 

1. Noclua jieltiger t, Schiffermuller and Denis; Aukilnd. Sijsl. Werk. Schmett. 
Wier. Geg., p. 89, Class W. No. 1. (1775) (Vienna). 

2. Heliothis nubigera, Herrich-Schiiffer, Si/st. Bearh. Schmett. Eur., Vol. II., 
p. 366 (1845) (Asia Minor). 

3. Agrotis golickei, Erschoff, Hor. Entom. Ross, Vol. VIII., p. 316 (1871) (Tur- 
kestan). 

4. Luperina lasserre.i, Oberthur, Etud. Entom. Fasc. VI., p. 86, pi. 11, fi. 13, 14 
(1881) (Magcrta, Algeria). 

5. Heliopliobus matritensis, Vasquez, Bol. Espan. Hist. Nat., 1905, p. 116, f. 1 
(Madrid). 

6. Noctua segetum, Schiffermuller and Denis, Aukiind. Syst. Werk. Schme't Wier 
Geg., pp. 81, No. 12, 252, pi. 1, ff. 3a, b (1775) (Vienna). 

7. Noctua spinifera, Hiibner, Samm. Europ. Schtnett.Noct, f. 389 (1808) (Europe). 
la. Agrotis cognita, Standinger, Stett. Entom. Zeit., 1881, p. 417 (Ala Tau). 

8. Noctua conspicua, Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmett. Noct., ff. 718-719(1830) 
(Europe). 

9. Phalaena, ipsilon, Hufuagel, Berl. Mag., Vol. Ill, p. 416, No. 99 (1766 
(Berlin) =A^ocf»a suffusa, Schiffermiiller and Denis, Aukiind Syst. Werk. Schmett. 
Wier. Geg.,]). 80, No. 4 (1775) (Vienna.) ^Noctua Ypsilon, Rottenburg, Naturf., 
Vol. IX. p. 141 No. 99 (1776) (Berlin). 

In Vol. 4 of the British Museum Catalogue of Lepidoptera Phalcenae Sir George 
Hampson has used Rottenburg's name of Ypsilon for this insect. He did this on 
the assumption that the " Wiener Verzeichuiss " appeared in 1776 in which 
case the Vol. IX of the " Naturfoni'Jior " has some weeks priority ; but the 
" Wiener Verzeichuiss " like so many of the older works was first put on the 
mai'ketin a few copies in 1775 under the title Ankundigungerves, &c., as an experi- 
ment, and when it was found successful, the remainder of the edition was issued 
in and dated 1776 ; therefore all names given in this work must date from 1775. 
Thus suffusa, Schiff, would, at first sight, appear to be the correct name by prio- 
rity ; but it is not so. Apparently Sir George Hampson has not thoroughly 
studied Rottenburg and Hufnagel's lists, but has relied too implicitly on Staud- 
inger's "Catalogue." The fact is that Rottenburg's list is merely a critical 
survey of Hufnagel's work and in nearly every case Rottenburg's names publish- 
ed in 1776 must be quoted as being of Hufnagel, 1766, this latter author having 
10 years priorit}^ 

10. Noctua comes, Hiibner,. Samml. Europ. Schmett., f. 521 (1818) (Europe)= 
Noctua comes, Tve\isc\>ke, Schmett. Eur., Yo\.Y.,\ia,vt 1., p. 254, No. 2 (1825) 
(Europe). 

In Vol. 4 of the British Museum Catalogue Sir George Hampson gives priority 
to Treitschke (1825) as author of the name comes over Hiibner. This he does 
because nearly all through his various lepidopterological books and articles, he has 
taken 1827 as the date both of Hiibner's " Sammlung Europjiischer Schmetter- 
linge " and of his " Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge " whereas the date of 
the first part of the first edition of the "Sammlung " is 1796 and of the 2nd edition 
1805 and parts of the " Verzeichniss " appeared from 1816 to 1826. 

11. Phalcena pronuha, Linnseus, Sijst. Nat., Edit. X., p. 512, No. 87 (1758) 
(Sweden). 

12. Noctua margaritosa, Haworth, Lepid. Brit., p. 18, No. 156 (1809) (Great 
Britain). 

13. Discestra arenana, Hampson, Cat. Lepid. Phal. Brit. Mus., Vol V p 16 
No. 1139, pi. LXXVIII, f. 25 (1905) (Sind). ' ' 



160 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

14. Phalana trifolii, Hufnagel, Berl: Mag., Vol. III., part IV., p. 398, No. 70 
(1766) (Eev\ix\)-=Noclua trifolii, Rottenburg, Naturf, Vol. TX, p. 131, No. 70 (1776) 
(Berlin). 

Here again Sir George Harapson in Vol. 5 of the British Museum Catalogue 
follows Staudinger and gives Rottenburg as author of the above name, whereas 
the 1st author and describer was Hufnagel. 

14a. Scotogramma chirnaera, RothschUd, Novit. Zool, Vol. 

16. Noctua vitellina, Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmett., ff. 379, 589 (1803) 
(Europe). 

17. Noctua loreyi, Duponche', Hist. Nat. Lepid France., Vol. VII, part I, p. 
No. CCCCXXVIII (1827) (Province). 

18. Leucania indistincta, Chiistoph, Rom. Mem Lepid., Vol. III., p. 79, pi. 4, 
f. 5 (1887) (Kisil-Arwat). 

19. Leucania corrugata, Hampson, Faun. Brit. India Moths., Vol. II, p. 278, 
No. 1923 (1894) (Simla). 

20. Noctua tanaceti, SchifEermiiller and Denis, Ankiind Syst. Werlc. Schmett. 
Wier. Geg., p. 73, class T., No. 5 (1775) (Vienna). 

21. Cleophana boetica diluta, Rothschild, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) VIIT., 
p. 232, No. 2 (1911) (Bon Saada). 

22. Metopoceras sacra var. caspica, Alpheraky, Tris., Vol. VIII, p. 171 (1895) 
(Tekke, Caspian). 

23. Acronycta pontica, Staudinger, Hor. Soc. Entom. Boss., Vol. XIV, p. 
364 (1879) (Kerasdere). 

24. Noctua litura, Fabricius, Syst. Entom. p. 601, No. 50 (1775) (I India 
Oriental is). 

25. Spodoptera abyssinia, Guenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec. Oen. Lepid. Vol. V. 
Noct. I., p. 154, No. 244, (1852) (Abyssinia). 

26. Noctua exigna, Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmett. Nod., f. 362 (1803) 
(Europe). 

27. Phalcena clavipalpis, Scopoli, Entom. Cam., p. 213, No. 526 (1763) (Car- 
niolia). 

28. Caradrina pertinax, Staudinger, Hor. Soc. Entom Boss., Vol. XIV, p. 387 
(1879) (Kerasdere). 

.30. Catamecia jordana var. bacheri, Staudinger, Cat. Lepid. Palaar. Fauneng 
Edit. HI,, Part I, p. 213, No. 2192a, 1901 (Dead Sea). 

31. Noctua parva, Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmett., f. 356 (1803) (Europe). 

32. TJudpochares uniformis, Staudinger, Hor. Soc. Entom. Ross., Vol. XIV., 
p. 414 (1879) (Schahrud, Persia). 

32a. Agrophilas sulphuralis var, algira, Oberthur, Etud. Entom., Ease. VI., 
p. 90 (1881) (Bone). 

33. Acontialmida v&v. lugeths, Alpheraky, Rom. Mem. Lepid., Vol. V., p. 182, 
No. 118 (1889) (Babatagh). 

34. Earirs chhrophyllana, Staudinger, Tris, Vol. IV., p. 249 (1891) (Mardm). 

35. Euxestes dentula, Lederer, Hor. Soc. Entom. Ross., Vol. VI., p. 89., pi. V., 
f. 8. (1870) (Astrabad). 

35a. Catocala mesopotamica, Kusnezov, Bevue Rnsse Entom., p. 74, No. 2680. 
(1903) (Nomen novum). 

.36. Noctua neonympha, Esper, Schmett., part IV., Vol. 2, p. 75, 251st sp., pi. 
CXCVIII., Noct, 49, f. 1, 2 (1796) (Sarepta.) 

.37. Catocala docata var. locata, Staudinger, Tris., Vol. IV., p. 327 (1891) 
(Taschkend, Margelan). 

38. Catocala puerpera var. pallida, Alpheraky, 3Iem. Lepid Roman., Vol. III., 
p. 406 (1887) (Lob-noor-Ak-Su). 

39. Phalcena macrops, Linnaeus, Stjst. Nat., Edit. XII, Vol. m., p. 225 (1768) 
(India Orientalis). ; 



MOTHS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND N. M'. PERSIA. ISl 



40. Remigia arefacta, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc, Land., 1884, p. 521, No. 63 
(Karachi). 

41. PhalTna algira, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Edit. XII, Vol. I., part II, p. 836, 
No. 98 (1767) (Algeria). 

42. Noctua geomitrica, Fabri^ius, Syst. Ent)m., p. 599, No. 37 (1775) (India 
Orientalis). 

43. Phalcena hyppasia, Cramer, Pap. Exot., Vol. Ill, part XXL, p. 99, pi. 
CCL, f. E. (1779) (Coast of Coromandel). 

44. Leucanitis cailino var. pida, Christoph, Hor. Soc. Entom. Ross., Vol. XII., 
p. 257, No. 22, pi. 7, f. 28 (1877) (Krasnowodsk). 

45. Chftie arenosa, Rothschild. Novit. Zool, Vol. XX., p. 128, No. 69 (1913) 
(S. Oned Mya). 

46. Acidalia albidentaria, Freyer, Neu. BpUt. Schmetlerlinqsk., Vol. 4, part 
59, p. 115, No. 597, pi. 354, f. 1 (1842) (S. Russia). 

47. Pericyma sqiialens , Ijederer, Verk. Zool.-bot. Ver. Wien., Vol. V., p. 184, 
pi. 5, L 11 (1855) (Cyprus). 

48. Pericyma prof esta, Christoph, Entom. Zeit. Stett., Vol. 48, p. 165 (1887) 
(Askhabad). 

49. ^Phalcena circumflexa, Linnteus, Syst. Nat., Edit. XII, p. 844, No. 128 
(1767) (Europe). 

59. Noctua ni, Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmett. Noct.. f. 284 (1802) (Europe). 

51. Plusia daubei, Boisduval, Gen. et. Ind. Meth. Europ. Lepid., p. 159, No. 
1281 (1840) (Spain, Andalusia). 

52. Noctua chalcites, Esper, Schmett., Vol. L, part IV, pi. CXLI, Noot. 62, f. 3 
(ante 1792); Borhausen, Syst. Beschr. Europ. Schmett. (Naturg. Europ. Schmett.) 
part 4, p. 774, No. 352 (1792) ; Esper, Vol. I., part IV., p. 447, spec. 167 
(1796-1805) (Central Italy). 

53. Phalcena gamma, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Edit. X., p. 513, No. 91 (1758) 
(Sweden). 

54. Acontia hueberi, Erschoff, in Fedtschenko Voyage an Turkestan Lepid, p. 
49, pi. III., f. 47 (1874) (Desert of Kisil-Kum). 

55. Hulodes caranea, CTuenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec. Gen. Lepid., Vol. VII., 
Noct. IIL, p. 208, No. 1608 (1852) (Yova, Sylhet, &c.). 

56. Pandesma eanysa, Guenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec. Gen. Lepid., Vol. V^I., 
Noct. IL, p. 439, No. 1311 (1852) (Central India). 

56rt. Apopestes spectrum innotata, Warren, in Seitz Grossschmelt. Erde., Vol. 
3, p. 370, pi. 68b (1913) (Amaria, Syria). 

57. Spintherops gracilis, Standinger, Entom. Zeit. Stett., Vol. 35, p. 95 (1874) 
(Krasnosowodsk). 

58. Phalcena sericealis, Scopoli, Entom. Cam., p. 242, No. 615 (1763) (Carnio- 
lia). 

59. Rhychina eremialis, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc, Lond., 1889, p. 417 (Hy- 
drabad). 

60. Hypena ravalis, var. syriacaijs, Staudinger, Tris. Vol. IV., p. 335 (1891) 
(SjTia). 

62. Lemonia pia, Piingler, Tris., Vol. XV., p. 143, No. 2, pi. 6, f. 17 (1902) 
(Dead Sea). 

63. Arenipses sabella, Hampson, in M'cm. Lepid. Roman. Vol. VIIL, p. 501, 
No. 93, pi. XXIV., fig. 1 (1901) (Fao). 

65. Tinea anella, Schiffermiiller and Denis, Aukiind Syst. Werk. Schmett. 
Wier. Geg., p. 135, No. 30 (1775) (Vienna). 

66. Cramhus ramburielhis, Dupouchel, Hist. N^at. Lepid. France, Vol. 10, 
Coutin, Vol. VII, p. 83, No. MCCCLXXXIL, pi. 270, f. 8. (1836) (Ajaccio). 

67. Palparia ocellea, Uawovth, Lepid. Brit., Part III, p. 486, No. 21 (1811) 
(London). 



182 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVI II. 



(68. Tinea phragmitella, Hiibner, Samml. Europ. SchmetL, ff. 297-298 (1811) 
(Europe). 

69. Crambus suppressalis, Wallver, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus., part 
XXVII., p. 166, No. 108 (1863) (Shanghai). 

71. Phalcena prcelata, Scopoli, Entom. Cam., p. 198, No. 494 (1763) (CarniaUa). 

72. Chila incertulas. Walker, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus., part XXVII, 
p. 143, No. 15 (1863) (Sarawak). 

73. Anerastia ablutella, Zeller, Tris. 1839, part III, col. 177, No. 4 (Sicily). 

74. Saluria maculivittella, Ragonot, Ann. Soc. Entom. France., Vol. LVI. 
(Ser. 6, Vol. 7), p. 258, No. 181 (1887) (Gabes ; Mt. Elder ; Marghilan). 

75. Poujadia pulverosa, Hampson, Faun. Brit. Ind. Moths., Vol. IV., p. 60, 
p. 73, No. 27 (1863) (Ceylon). 

76. Pempelia cautella, Walker, List Spec. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus., part 
XXVII, p. No. 4302 (1896) (Sind). 

77. Tinea elutella, Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmett, f. 163 (1796) (Europe). 
77a. Ephestia inductella, Staudinger, Hor. Soc. Entom. Ross., Vol. XV., p. 

229 (1880) (Amasia). 

78. Ephestia calidella, Guenee, Europ. Microl. Ind. Meth., p. 82 (1845) (Islands 
of Hyeres). 

79. Spermatophora hornigii, Lederer, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ver. Wie7i., Vol. II., 
p. 133 (1852) (Vienna). 

80. Myelois rhodochrella var. hellenica, Staudinger, Hor. Soc. Entom. Ross., 
Vol. VII., p. 209, No. 597, pi. II, f. 18 (1871) (Africa). 

81. Heterographis subcandidatella, Ragonot, Ann. Soc. Entom. France., Vol. 
LVI. (Ser. 6, Vol. 7), p. 249, No. 126 (1887) (Marghilan). 

82. Myelois convexella. Lederer, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ver. Wien., Vol. V., p. 222, 
pi. 4, f. 9 (1855) (Beirut). 

83. Heterographis fulvobasella, Ragonot, Ann. Soc. Entom.. France., Vol. LVI., 
(Ser. 6, Vol. 7), p. 248, No. 123 (1887) (Shatrud). 

84. Heterographis monostictella., Ragonot, Ann. Soc. Entom. France., Vol. LVI. 
(Ser. 6, Vol. 7), p. 249, No. 127 (1887) (Derbent). 

85. Heterographis microstictella, Hampson, Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. 
XV., p. 23 (1903). 

86. Myelois pallida, Staudinger, Berl. Entom. Zeitschr., Vol. 14, p. 202, No. 
40 (1870) (Sarepta). 

87«. Myelois deserticola, Staudinger, Berl. Entom. Zeitschr., Vol. 14, p. 201, 
No. 39 (1870) (Sarepta). 

88. Nephopteryx nudeolella, Moschler, Berl. Entom. Zeitschr., Vol. 10, p. 147 
(1866) (Sarepta). 

89. Pempelia hieroglyphiella, Ragonot, Ami. Soc. Entom. France. Vol. LVI. 
(Ser. 6, Vol. 7), p. 244, No. 95 (1887) (Astrabad). 

90. Tephris ochreella, Ragonot, in Mem. Lepid. Roman., Vol. VIL, p. 448, pi. 
XIIL, f. 13 (1893) (Shahrud). 

90a. Nepiliopteryx serraticorndla, Zeller. Tris., 1839, part III, col. 179 (1839) 
(S. Europe). 

91. Alispa acervella, Erschoff in Fedtschenko, Voy. au Turk., p. 90, No. 309, 
pi. v., f. 94 (1874) (Kjsil-Kum). 

92. Aria bUineella, Ragonot, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, Vol. LVI. (Ser. 6, 
Vol. 7), p. 235, No. 50 (1887) (Turkistan). 

93. Phakenu semirubella, ScoT^oli, Entom. Cam., p. 245, No. 623 (1763) (Car- 
niolia). 

97. Constantia argentalis, Hampson, Trans. Entom. Soc, Lond., 1900, p. 380, 
No. 6a (Syria). 

98. Constantia canifusalis, Hampson, Travis. Entom. Soc, Lond., 1900, p. 381, 
No. 7b, pi. Ill, f. 16 (Algeria, &c.). 



MOTHS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND N. W. PERSIA. 183 

101. Cledeobia armenialis, Lederer, Ann. Soc. Entom. Belg., Vol. 1.3, j). 51, 
No. 14, pi. 11, ff. 7, 8 (1869-1870) (Transcaucasia). 

104. N)/)nphula affinialis, Gucnee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec. Gin. Lipid., Vol. 
VIII, p. 270, No. 259 (1854) (Central India). 

10.5. Phalcena riiraUs, Scopoli, Entom. Cam., p. 242, No. 616 (1763) (Carniolia). 

105a, Asopia ornalalis, Duponchel, Hist. Nat. Lipid. France, Vol. VIII., pt. 
II., p. 207, No. MXXX,, pi. 223, f. 8 (1831) (France). 

106. Phalcena undalis, Fabricius, Entom. Si/st., Vol. III., part II., p. 226, No. 
362 (1794) (Italy). 

107. Tinea noctuella, Schiffermiiller and Denis, Ankdnd. Syst. Werk. Schnieti. 
Wier. Geg., p. 136, No. 35 (1775) (Vienna). 

107a. Pachyzanclapcdlidalis, Hampson, A7in. Mag. Nat. Hist, (8) XI., p. 513, 
No. 18c (1913) (Tenimber). 

108. Pyralis sulphuralis,'H.dhner, Samml. Europ Schmett.. fif. 166, 167 (1818) 
(Europe). 

109. Botys anaxisalis, Walker, List. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mas., Part XVIII., p. 
658, No. 194 (1859) (Shanghai). 

110. PJudcena sticticalis, Linnseus, Fauna Suecica, Edit. II., p. 352, No. 1354 
(1761) (Sweden). 

111. Pyrcdis polygovalis, Huhner, Samml. Aiiserl. Vog. and Sclimett, p. 76, 
(1793). 

\\\a. Botys pentadalis, Lederer. Verh. Zool. Bot. Ver. Wien., Vol. V., p. 217 
(1855)(Beii-ut). 

112. Metasia ochrifascialis, Christoph, Hor. Soc. Entom. Ross., Vol. XVII, p. 
121, No. 11 (1883) (Ordubat). 

112a. Metasia ossealis, Staudinger, Hor. Soc. Entom. Ross., Vol. XV., p. 182 
(1880) (Asia Minor). 

113. PhMcenxi aurata, Scopoli, Entom. Cam., p. 227, No. 565 (1763) (Carnio- 
lia). 

114. Pyralis cespitalis, Schiffermiiller and Denis, Ankiind, Syst. Werk. Schmett. 
Wier. Geg., p. 123, No. 32 (1775) (Vienna). 

115. Anthophilodes haphialis, Staudinger, Hor. Soc. Entom Ross., Vol. VII,, 
p. 183, No. 503, pi. II., f. 7 (1870) (Astrochan). 

116. Tegostoma paralis, Hampson, Trans. Entom. Soc, Lond., 1900, p. 399, 
No. 3a (Namangan). 

117. Pyralis floralis, Hiibner, Samtrd. Europ. Schmett., f. 142 (1800) (Europe). 
The numbers left out of the list of first quotations are those of species and 

sub-species described as new in the body of the paper. 

I have enumerated 133 species and sub-species in my section consisting of 64 
Noctuidce, 2 Lemoniidce and 67 Pyralidce. There are 4 Noctuidce, 1 Lemoniidce 
and 11 Pyralidce described here for the first time, making 16 new species and sub- 
species. 



184 

MOTHS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND N. W. PERSIA. 

Part II. 
SPHINGES & BOMBYCES 

BY 
H. T. G. WATKIN3 
AND 

P. A. Buxton, M.A., F.E.S., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

General remarks on the affinities of the Mesopotamian fauna would be out of 
place in a short paper devoted to systematics. One new species and one new 
sub-species are described below : 

Spkingidce. 

1. Acherontia styx, Westw. 

One, July, one. August 1916, Amara, B.-T.; one, Baghdad, 10th October 1917. 
P. A. B. ; one, 30th May 1917, Amara, B. N. H, S. Closely allied to A. atropos, 
of Europe. 

2. Herse convolvuli, L. 

One 15th May 1918, Baghdad — " 11-30 p.m. at light. Insect settled on 
plaster wall Large wall lizard advanced towards it from in front, halting about 
8 inches away. Lizard attacked, biting insect on left fore wing, costa near 
thorax, injuring this regien. Insect escaped after struggle, fell to ground and 
was secured. 

N.B. — Sphingid moths seem very liable to attack by wall lizards, as 
I have witnessed this also in C. lineata and T. alecto. Owing to their size 
they also made their escape in the encounters mentioned," W. E. Waller. 

3. Deilephila nerii, L. 

One, Amara, 20th November 1916, C ; one, 16th November 1918, Basra, C. ; 
one, 30th April 1919, bred from Basra larva, B. N. H. S. ; one, 30th March 
1919, Beit Na'ama, " one caught, several seen," W. E. E. 

4. Celerio lineata, Fab., subsp. livornica, Esp. 

One, Amara, 7th May 1918, P. A. B. ; one, May 1918, Kut ; Qizil Robat, 
14th March to TOth April 1919, " the moth fairly common by day at a white- 
flowered scabious ; larva found on small plantain, pupated April 21st, emerged 
11th May " ; moth at light 15th May, H. D. P. 

5. Celerio nicoea, de Prunner. 

One, Kermanshah, 1918, Br. This specimen is of the typical European race 
and not of the subspecies lathyrus, Wlk., of which the type from N. India is 
in the British Museum. A coloured sketch of the showy larva, and a full 
description of it was sent home by Col. Peile. This larva was found on a rock 
high up at Harir, N. W. Persia, 12th September 1918 ; the food-plant is spurge 
(Euphorbia). 

6. Hippotion celerio, L. 

Two, Beit Na'ama, Basra, 26th March and 1st April 1919, at light, W. E. E. 

7. Theretra alecto subsp. cretica, Boisd. 

We have seen specimens collected in every month from March to September, 
at Basra, Amara and Baghdad. Buxton found pupae at Amara, one on the 
ground under a log, and another under the bark of a Zizyphus tree four feet 
from the ground ; both were completely without any cocoon or earthen cell. 

8. Pergesa elpenor, L. 

One 27th June 1919, Enzeli, Caspian Sea, P. A. B. This specimen is of the 
t3''pical European form. 



MOTHS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND N. W. PERSIA, ISi^ 

9. Laothoe kindermanni, Lederer. 

One, $ , Ararat, Kurdistan, C. This specimen is of the typica 

race. Two (1 (^,1 $ ,) 16th November 1918, Basra, C, are subsp, orbata, Gr. 
which is lighter and more uniformly marked. The species is allied to L. 
icellatus of Europe. 

10. Macroglossa steMatarum, L. 

We have examined a number of specimens collected in September, October 
and November at Basra, Amara, Baghdad, Mirjana, Khaniqin, Kirkuk, and 
Kermanshah and two collected in April at Beit Na'ama, near Basra, W. E. E. 
" one, 18th November 1918, Mirjana, near Qizil Robat ; often comes into tent? 
seeking hybernation ; ibid, 27th January 1919," H. D. P. 

Hypsidce. 

11. Callimorpha quadripunctaria, Poda {^^hera, L). 

13th July to 19th August 1918, Harir and Karind, W. Persia. " In large 
numbers settled on leaves of trees a few feet from the ground, easy to catch ; 
August 10, abundant still but more females ; 19th August nearly over," 
H. D. P. 

Arctiidce. 

12. Utetheisa pulchella, L. 

We have seen a large series collected in every month between 2nd May and 
1st November from Nasiriyeh, Amara, Baghdad, Mirjana near Qizil Robat, 
Jebel Hamrin on the River Diyala, Kut, Kirkuk, and Assur. The moth is 
continuously on the wing throughout this period, and Buxton took two speci- 
mens freshly emerged at Amara on 23rd October. Peile found larvae in dozens 
at Mirjana from December to February. 

13. Ocnogyna loeivii, Zell. 

Five males taken at light between 11th December 1918 and 7th January 1919 
at Mirjana, H. D. P.: Like a small pale Arctia ; the 2 bas rudimentary wings. 

14. Pelosia vmscerda, Hufn. 

One, 31st May 1919, Enzeli, Caspian Sea, P. A. B. 

15. Pelosia uniformis, sp. nov. 

Lord Rothschild has been good enough to give us this description for insertion 
" Female uniform wood-brown. Forewing with three obsolete darker dots on 
veins 3, 4 and 7 respectively. Hindwings slightly paler. Length of forewing 
10 mm. Expanse 23 mm. 1 $ , Enzeli, Caspian Sea, 1st June 1919, P. A. 
Buxton." The type is in the Tring Museum. 

Lasiocampidoe. 

16. Lasiocampa grandiSfRogenh. (=^salomonis, Stgr.) 

One male, 30 May 1917, Amara, C. This specimen agrees with the description 
and figure in Seitz's Macrolepidopfera of the world. L. grandis is already known 
from Palestine, and there appears very little doubt that this specimen belongs 
to that species, but we have been unable to compare it with actual specimens. 

17. Lasiocampa terreni, H. Sch. 

One male, 23rd October 1919, Mosul, H.D.P. This specimen appears to be 
referable to the above species but is more silvery over the whole upper 
surface except the fringes, than the only specimen in the British Museum, a 
male from Transcaucasia. 

18. Chilena proxima, Stgr. 

One male " probably from Kut ", B. N. H. S. ; one male, 12 May 1918. 
Baghdad, at light. (W. E. Waller). 

19. Taragama siva, Lef. 

First brood : male bred 27th April 1918 Amara, W. E. E. ; female. 28th April 

1918, Amara, at light, P. A. B. Second brood : male, 27th September 1916, 

Amara,B. T ; male on poplar tree, 4th October 1918, W. E. E.; 1 J , 1 2, 16th 

November 1918, Basra, C. The larva feeds on the common shrub {Prosopis) 

-i 



86 JOVRNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Tol. XXVIII 

which is generally called acacia ; and its colour makes it exceedingly 
difficult of detection even when a number of larvae are resting on a bush 
which they have rendered almost leafless ; the general colour of the larva is 
a warm purplish brown, and it flattens itself over the surface of the stem in 
the manner of its relative the Lappet Moth {Gastropaclm) in Great Britain. 

Lyinantriidce (Liparidce). 

20. Lymantria dispar, L. 

2 S , 13th July 1918, Harir, W. Persia, H. D. P. 

21. Ocnerogyia amanda, Stgr. 

3 J , 1 2 , 28th July 1918, Ba'qubah, River Diyala, P. A. B. This moth 
though almost unknown in collections is a serious pest of figs in Mesopotamia ; 
it completely defoliates the trees, and has been received from various parts 
of the Diyala basin and from Kerbela ; it was originally described from Mardin 
in the extreme north of Mesopotamia. Notes on its ravages, life history and 
structure have been published by one of us in Bull. Ent. Res. XI. p. 181 — 186. 
(1920). 

22. Ocneria signatoria, Christoph, subsp. pcenitens, Stgr. 

1 2 , Baghdad, 9th October. 11 $, Aziziyeh, River Tigris, 14th October 
1917, at light, P. A. B. 

23. Arctornis (Porthesia) chrysorrhcea, L. 
One female, 29th June 1919, Enzeli, P. A. B. 

Notodontidce (Ceruridce). 

24. Dicranura vinula, L., subsp. intermedia, Teich. 

1 $ , Ararat, Kurdistan, C ; 1 $ , 24th September 1918, Qalat Saleh, River 
Tigris, P. A. B. In the British Museum there is a female from Quetta, and 
a male from Fao, very like these specimens, but there are no specimens from 
Syria. This form is possibly a species distinct from D. vinnla. 

Zygcenidce. 

25. Zygcena dorycnii, O. 

Half a dozen specimens of both sexes from Tula Rud, Persian Talish, 3-8th 
July 1919. The species was fairly common flying over grass and settling on 
flowers of chicory, close to the shore of the Caspian, P. A. B. 

26. Procris solana, Stgr. 

1 6 , 30th March 1919, Menjil, valley of Sufed Rud, N. W. Persia, alt. 2,000 
ft. (P. A. B.) 

27. Procris micane, Frr. 

1 d , 28th March 1919, Menjil. P. A. B. It is curious that the only two 
" foresters " taken at the same time and place represent quite different species ; 
these were the only ones seen though a special effort was made to find more. 

Cossidce. 

28. Cossus araraticus, Teich. 

1 d , 29th May 1919, Enzeli, P. A. B. 

29. Holcocerus gloriosus, Stgr., subsp., mesopotamicus, n. subsp. 

2 d , 3 2 , 28th June 1918, Kut; Br. 5 ? , 30th May to 28th June 1918, Amara, 
P. A. B. It appears that the Mesopotamian race of this insect is undescribed, 

and as we have been able to compare the above specimens -with 9 specimens 
from Bokhara, the terra typica, we feel justified in describing the race as new : 
it differs from the typical form in that all the spots on the forewing are enlarged 
into blotches, with the exception of the spots at the base of the fringe. The 
type is a female collected at Kut by Major Broughton, and has been presented 
to the British Museum by the B. N. H. S. 



187 

MOTHS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND N. W. PERSIA. 

Part III. 

geometrid.t:. 

By 

Louis B. Prout. 
Subfamily — Hemithein(S. 

1. Chloeissa pulmentaria, Guen. 
Nemona pulmentaria, Guen, Spec. Gen. Lep., IX., 349 (1858). 

" Mesopotamia ", witliout more exact data, 1 2 , very rubbed, apparently 
referable to this species (Br.) 

Staudinger records C: pulmentaria from Syria, Asia Minor, Ai-menia and N. 
Persia, as well as a great part of Europe and Central Asia, but as the closely allied 
Indian species solidaria, Guen., extends to Fao on the Persian Gulf, it is possi- 
ble that some of his records, together with the present one, are really referable 
to solidaria. 

2. MiCROLOXIA POLEMIA, PrOUt. 

Microhxia polemia, Prout, Nov. Zool, XXVII, 300 (1920). 

Kut al Amara, 3 2$, 7 -9th August 1918 (P. A. B.) 

The description of this interesting new species, as also that of Lithostege buxtoni, 
appeared m 1920. The types are in my collection. No. 1 of the "Novitates." 
Rather broader- winged than halimaria, Chret., the markings sometimes 
rather suggestive of Xenochlorodes beryllaria, Mann, the hindwing even more 
fully rounded. 

Subfamily — Sten-hina. 

3. SCOPULA ORNATA, Scop. 

Phalcena ornata. Scop., Ent. Carn., 219 (1763). 

Enzeli, N. W. Persia, 2 J c^ , 1st May and 30th June 1919 (P. A. B.) 

The earlier specimen is worn, the later probably represents a second brood. 

The species has not hitherto been recorded from Persia and the form may prove 

racially differentiable. 

4. ScOPULA NIGROPUNCTATA, Hufn. 

Phaloena nigropunctata, Hufn., Berl. Mag., IV., 526 (1767). 
Acidalia strigilaria, Stgr. and Rbl., Cat. Leji. Pal. (i), 275 (1901).' 

Enzeli, N. W. Persia, sea level, 2 ? ? , 6th and 30th June 1919 (P. A. B.) 

5. SCOPTJLA OCHROLEUCATA," H.-Sch. 

{Acidalia) ochroleiicata, H.-Sch., Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Eur.. 111. t. 3, f. 21-23 
1844). 
Acidalia ochroleucaria, H.-Sch., torn. cit. p. 24 (1847). 

Baghdad, 2^6- 22nd September -,16, 25th September ; 1 6 , 7th October 
1917 (P. A. B.) 

Amara, IS, 2nd November 1918 ; 5$ 2» 2nd April, 1.5th June, 22nd June, 
28th October, 19th November 1918 (P. A. B.) 

Qazvin, N. W. Persia, 1 d , 17th July 1919 (P. A. B.) 

Variable as usual, the Amara $, dated 2nd April, much larger than the rest. 
At Baghdad the species was common in melon patches. 



^ 



188 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIL 

Staudinger only records ochroleucata under its own name from the Canaries 
and a few Mediterranean countries, referring to most of the N. African and Asiatic 
localities under " remotata, Guen. (praec. sp. forma Darw. ?)" It is certainly all 
one and is doubtfully distinct, even racially, from minorata, Bdv. (S. Africa, 
Madagascar, Mauritius, etc.) 

6. Sterrha Politata, Hb. 

Phalcena Geometra politata, Hb., Viig. u. Schmett. p. 5, f. 1 (1793). 

Enzeli, sea level, 2d 6, 28th May, 1 d , 8th June, 1 $ , 29th June 1919 (P. A. B.) 
All are referable to the form ahmarginata, Bhtsch., which seems racially constant 
in some places {e.g., Hungary), while in others it occurs with the name-type, I 
am not sure, however, that these Persian specimens may not form a separable 
race from the European — slightly less glossy, more tinged with straw-colour, 
costal markings rather weak, subterminal line broad (in the sole § almost reach- 
ing the distal margin), underside rather sharply marked. 

7. Sterrha elongaria, Rbr. 

Dosithoea elongaria, Rbr., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., II, 38 (1833). 

Kut al Amara, 2 $ 2 , 9th August 1918 (P. A. B.) 

Obscurely marked specimens with a strong sandy tone of colour, somewhat 
doubtfully referred to this widely distributed and variable species, which perhaps 
still comprises more than one not yet satisfactorily differentiated. 

Subfamily — Larentiince. 

8. Rhodometra sacraria, Linn. 

Phalcena Geometra sacraria, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) I (2) 863 (1767). 
Baghdad, ^S 6, 1 $ , 23rd September 1917 (P. A. B.) 

Amara, River Tigris, 4 5 ? , 11th May, 14th June, 16th June and 20th June 
1918, P. A. B. 

Shahroban, Dyala River (close to Persian border) 1 S , 30th July 1918 (P. A. B.). 

Kut al Amara, 1 d , 9th August 1918 (P. A. B.) 

Not very variable, all referable broadly to the name-typical form. On an 
average small, especially the Baghdad specimens. 

9. Lythria purpuraria, Linn. 

Phalcena Geometra purpuraria, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) I, 522 (1758). 
Qazvin, N. W. Persia, 4,000 feet, 1 S , 30th July 1919 (P. A. B.) 
Belongs to the form lutearia, Vill., which seems prevalent in the summer gene 
ration in eastern localities. New for Persia (?). 

10. LiTHOSTEGE BUXTONI, Prout. 

Lithostege biixtoni, Prout, Nov. Zool., XXVII, 312 (1920). 

Kangavar, Hamadan, N. W. Persia, 5,000 feet, 1 d , 6th December 1918 (P.A. 
B.), the type of the species. 

Shergat (Asshur), Mesopotamia, 1 c^ , 27th December 1919, at light (H. D. P.) 
A very interesting new species, forming (together, perhaps, with " Anisopteryx" 
chaoticaria, Alph., which is unknown to me) a new section of the genus, characteri- 
zed by the long ciliation of the J antenna. Apparently variable, the second 
specimen darker than the type, with the longitudinal curved white stripe of the 
forewing more sharply expressed. 



MOTHS OF MESOPOTAMIA AND N. W. PERSIA. 189 

11. LlTHOSTEGE FARINATA, Hufn. 

Phalcena farimta, Hufn., Berl. Mag. IV, 610 (1767). 

Mirjana, near Kizil Robat, Dyala River, 1 c? , 20th February 1919, flying by 
day (H. D. P.) 

• Kizil Robat, IJ , 1 $ , 23rd and 28th February 1919 (H. D. P.) 
Apparently new for Mesopotamia, though recorded from Palestine and Aime- 



12. Orthonama obstipata, Fab. 

Phakeiia obstipaki, Fab., Ent. Syst. Ill (2), 199 (1794). 
Larentia fiuviata Stgr. and Rbl., Cat. Lep. Pal. (i), 298 (1901). 

Amara, River Tigris, 1 S (small), 15th June 1918, 2 2 5, 1st May and 2nd 
November, 1918 (P. A. B.) 

Enzeli, N. W. Persia, \6, 1 $ , (small), 28th May 1919. 

A migrant, found nearly throughout Europe and Continental Asia, besides 
a great part of America. 

13. ClENOTEPHRIA AT.FACAKIATA, Pibr. 

[ ] alfacariata, Rbr., Cat. Syst. Lep. Andal. (2) t. 18, f. 1 (1866). 

Cidaria ibericata, Stgr., Cat. Lep. Eur. (ed. 2) 187 (1871). 

Menjil, N. W. Persia, 2,000 feet, 1 d" , 30th March 1919, at light (P. A. B.) 

Darker and more strongly marked, with a stronger cell-spot, than our western 
forms, but I think referable here. Not hitherto recorded from further east 
than Palestine. The similar redamata Piing. is more elongate-winged, with the 
hindwing whiter. 

14. EUPHYIA POLYGRAMMATA, Bkh. 

Phalcena Geometra %)olygrammata, Bkh., Naturg. Eur. Schmett, V, ,560 
(1794). 

Enzeli, N. W. Persia, sea level, 2 $ $ , 14th and 20th June 1919 (P. A. B.). 
New for Persia, though known from Asia Minor and Turkestan. 

15. EUPITHECIA CENTAUREATA, Schiff. 

Geometra centaureata, Schiff., Schmett. Wien. 114 (1775). 
Tephroclystia oblongata, Stgr. and Rbl., Cat. Lep. Pal. (i), 308 (1901). 

Enzeli, N. W. Persia, sea level, 1 $ . 26th May 1919 (P. A. B.). 
Already known from Syi'ia, Armenia, Transcaspia, etc. 

16. EUPITHECIA ULTIMARTA, Bdv. 

Eupithecia ultimaria, Bdv., Gen. et Ind. Meth., 210 (1840). 

Amara, River Tigris, 1 J , 3rd April 1918, 1 2 at light, 15th June 1918 
(P. A. B.). 

New for Mesopotamia. Both examples have the underside very sharply 
marked and are probably referable to the form opisthographata, Dietze (Iiis 
xix., 66). 

17. Gymnoscelis pumilata, Hb. 

Geometra p^imilata, Hb., Samml. Eur. Schmett. IV., t. 75, f. 388 (1808-17), 

Astara, N. W. Persia, sea level, 1 2 , 4th July 1919, (P. A. B.). 

Qazvin, N. W. Persia, 1 2 , 2nd October 1919, (P. A. B.). 

Recorded from Mesopotamia and Armenia but not, I think, from Persia. 



190 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIl. 

Sub-family — Geometrlne. 

18. Cabera pusaria, Linn. 

Phalcena Geometra imsaria, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. 10), i., 522 (1758). 

Enzeli, N. W. Peisia, sea level, 1 J , 21st June 1919, 1 c5 and 1 ? , 30th June 
1919 (P A. B.). 

19. IVIacaria notata, Linn, 

PhaUna Geometra notata, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) i., 523 (1758), 
Enzeli, N. W. Persia, sea level, 1 $ , 24tli April 1919 (P. A B.,. 

20. IVIacaria signaria, Hb. 

Geometra signaria, Hb., Samml. Eur. Schmett., IV., t. 61, f. 313 (1800-08). 

Talysh, Persian S. W. Caspian, sea level, \S, 9th July 1919 (P. A. B.). 
New for Persia, though known from Armenia. 

21. Macaria .*:.stimaria, Hb. 

Geometra cestimaria,Yih., ^&mm\. Eur. Schmett., IV., t. 64, f. 333(1800-08). 

Amara, 1$, 15th June 1918 (P. A. B.). 

By the shape, tone and underside I think this example really belongs here 
and not to the following, which is evidently the common Macaria of the region. 

22. Macaria hyriacaria, Stgr. 

Macaria cestimaria var. syriacaria, Stgr., Cat. Lep. Eur. (ed. 2) 160 (1871). 

Kutal Amara, 32 $, 18th June 1915 (1918), 18th and 28th June 1918, also 
one labelled "Mesopotamia" and undated (Br.); 2$ $, 8th and 9th August 
1918 (P. A. B.); Amara, 5(5 J , 1st May, 28th June (2), 10th and 26th August 
1918; 12 2 2 ,23rd April (" commoji "), 25th April, 9th June, 2nd and 4th July. 
8th August, 9th August (2), 1st September, 6th September ("2 among weeds 
in garden") 30th September and 28th October, all in 1918 (P. A. B.) ; 1 cJ . 
31st August 1918, at light (W.E.E.) 

Previously recorded from Syria, Cyprus, Armenia and Transcaspia and in 
the form temdata, Stgr., from N. Persia. Standinger regards the last named 
as a possibly distinct species, but unless he would treat the whole of the 
material before me as referable to it — which is gainsaid by his diagnosis — I think 
it is syriacaria which is the species, with temdata as an ab. The distal margin of 
the hindwing is somewhat less crenulate than in cestimaria and there are other 
appreciable differences. 

The series is variable. One 2 (25th April) belongs to the extreme aberration 
tenuiata, a second (25th April) is almost as extreme and the earliest J (1st 
May) in large measure corresponds, though the dark postmedian line is finer 
and reaches the costa. It is thus suggested that this form may be characteristic 
of a first generation or of the earliest emergences. The specimen taken by 
Capt. Evans is a pretty aberration with strong bands, on the hindwing accom- 
panied distally by a large, irregular dark spot in the middle, 

23. Tephrina disputaria, Guen. 

Eubolia (?) disputaria, Guen., Spec. Gen. Lep. X., 489 (1858). 

Amara. cultivated ground by the Chahala Canal, 1 cf , 24th August 1917 

(W.E.E.). 



MOTHS Of MESOPOTAMIA AND N. W. PERSIA. 191 

24. ECTROPIS BISTOBTATA, Gocze. 

PhaUna Geometm bistortata, Goezc, Ent. Beytr., Ill (3), 438 (1781). 

Enzcli, Gilan, N. W. Persia, sea level, 1 $, 30th June 1919 (P. A. B.). 

Apj)aiently not very different from our western forms. The range of these 
widely-distributed species in the Orient is not yet well ascertained, but Stau- 
dinger records it (presumably) under the erroneous name of crepuscularia from 
Armenia. 

25. Gnopharmia colijuidakia, Led. 

Gnophos colchidaria, Led., Ann, Soc. Ent. Belg. XIV., 39, 48 (1870). 

Menjil, N. W. Persia, semi-desert hills, 2,000 feet, 2 J J , 26th and 28th 
March; 4 5$, 26th, 28th and 29th March and 7th April 1919 (P. A. B.). . 

New for Persia but described from Transcaucasia. Unfortunately I have little 
material for comparison and the genus needs further study as regards geo- 
graphical variation. The form before me is darkish, with the contrasts 
of ground colour and bordering beneath not extremely pronounced. 

26. Gnopharmia colchidaria ob.tectaria, Stgr. (?) (sp. div. ?) 

Gnopharmia colchidaria var. objectaria, Stgr., Iris V., 183 (1892). 

Qazvin, N. W. Persia, 4,000 feet, 1 c^ , 27th August 1919. 

Lighter and more variegated with reddish than the foregoing, the contrasts 
of the undersurface extreme. The latter distinction is probably more weighty 
than the former, as the response of the upperside to the immediate environ- 
ment is such a marked feature in the Gnophos group. 

27. Zamacra flabellaria, Heeger. 

Amphidasis flabellaria, Heeger, Beitr. Schmett., p 6, f. 6-11 (1838). 

Mirjana, near Kizil Robat, Dvala River, 10 c? d , 6 2 2 > 7th January 
1919 (H. D. P.) 

More variegated with white than ray examples from Syria and on the 
whole rather large. 



192 



ANNOTATED LISTS OF ACULEATE HYMENOPTERA (EXCEPT 

HETEROGYNA) AND CHRYSIDS RECENTLY COLLECTED 

IN MESOPOTAMIA AND NORTH-WEST PERSIA. 



f. d. morioe, m.a., f.z.s., 

(Formerly President of the Entomological Society of London. 

{With eight Text Figures.) 

(Continued from p. 828, Vol. XXVII.) 

29. Andrena bimaculato , Kirby var. — 1 c? , Resht (P). 18th February. 
According to Schmiedeknecht's tabulation in Apid. Europ. This should be 

hasalis, Sichel, and it is coloured exactly according to Sichel's description. It 
can, however, have nothing to do with albicrus, of which Sichel supposed hasalis 
to be a variety. 

Having examined the genitalia, I feel sure that this specimen (and probably 
hasalis also !) is merely one of the many highly coloured forms of bimaculata 
which are common in most Mediterranean districts, and occur exceptionally 
even in England (decorata, Sm., etc.) though there they seem to appear only in 
the second brood. (I have taken one at Wisley (Surrey) in August, which is 
very nearly as red as Captain Buxton's specimen). Maqrettiana Schmied. 
which I found abundant near Naples in March and April, and a J given to me 
(I believe by Perez) as atrorubricata, Dours, seem to be also local varieties of 
bimaculata. I have met with still more highly coloured forms in Tunisia but 
I do not doubt that these also may be referred to bimaculata, K. 

30. Andrena thoracica, F.— 8 6 6 , Resht (P), 1 5 , llth-18th February. 

1 cT , 1 2, Enzeli (P), 14th-19th June. 

31. Andrena gwynana, Kirby.— 2 $ $ , Resht (P), 25th-27th February. . 

32. Andrena lucens,lmho&. — 5 J c^ , Resht ( P), llth-18th February. 

33. Andrena dorsata, Kirby.— 1 d , Resht (P), 18th February. 

34. Andrena flavipes, Pauzer. (^fulvicrus, K.), 1 <5 , Resht (P), 18th Febr., 

1 (5,1 J , Menjil (P), 30th March, 7th April. 
8 6 6, S 2 2, Amara (M), 24th March to 

18th April. 

13 2 2 , Amara (M), 14th May to 19th June. 

The March-April Amara specimens are smaller than either those from Persia 

or the May-June Amara 5 2 , hut their J J have the peculiarly " notched " 

stipites of the genital armature by which a flavipes d" may, I believe, always be 

identified, (cf. Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond,, 1899, p. 237, where the species is called 

" /"uh/crKS.") The Persian c5' c? shew the same character, but unluckily no 

J ^ were taken with the May -June Amara $ 2 , and some (but not all) of 

these differ from normal flavipes d J in having the hind femora and tibiae more 

or less testaceous. But I believe this character is not specific. Something 

like it occurs with the "second broods" of other Andrena spp. {e.g. dorsata) 

In my opinion all the specimens here recorded should be referred to one species, 

viz., flavipes. 

Of all Andrena spp. flavipes is perhaps the most widely distributed, and its 
main distinguishing characters seem to be exceedingly constant in all districts. 
Unless a specimen is badly ' rubbed ' there can be little difficulty in determining 
it. 

35 Andrena hypopolia, Perez.— 3 2 2, Qazvin (P), 7th July. 
36. Andrena, sp ?— 2 6 c^ , 2. ? $, Amara (M), 24th March- April. 
1 had thought that these specimens also were hypopolia, but after examining 
the c5' genitalia I now doubt it. Unfortunately all the specimens are more or 
less rubbed and faded, so I think it most prudent to leave them nameless. 



ACULEATE HYMENOPTERA FROM MESOPOTAMIA. 193 

37. Andrena cyanescens, ^y\. — 1 ? , Amara (M), 24th Marcli. 

I think this determination is correct, but the sjjecimen has met with an accident 
and the femora, tibiae and tarsi of both hind-legs are missing ! 

38. [Andrena ietula,'Lep. — 1 5 , Basrah (M), 6th April 1919. — Captain Evans. 

39. Andrena cordialis, Morawitz. — 1 ^ , Basrah (M), 31st March 1919. — 

Captain Evans.] 
I know this species only from the author's description, but the latter seems to 
agree well with the characters of the specimen before me. 

40. Cilissa leporina. — 1 5 , Qazvin (P), 17th July. 

41. Nomia diversipes, Latr. — 1 J, Qazvin (P), 27th July. 

42. Nomia edentata, MoTSiw.— 22 d (5-17$ $, Amara (M), 1st June to 9th 

September. 
1 $ , Khaniqin (M), 1st July. 
1 c? , 1 ? , Baquba (M), 27th July. 
The integument in these specimens varies greatly in colour ; it may be 
entirely black, or the abdomen and propodeum may be largely, or even entirely 
red. The most highly coloured examples before me are males, but at least one 
2 has the whole abdomen dark red. I believe this is merely a matter of indi- 
vidual aberration. It does not seem to be accompanied by any structural 
differences. 

43. Nomia rufiventris, Spim. — 1 5 , Amara (M), April. 

Spinola's description suits this specimen perfectly. I believe that Morawitz's 
rufescens is the same species. The puncturation is very sparse and feeble, and the 
basal pilosity of the abdominal tergites consists of long, thin, (not at all scal*'- 
like), hairs. The abdomen (but not the propodeum) is entirely red, except the 
apical margins of the tergites, which are bright yellow. 

44. Eucera dentata, Klug.* — 1 <d , Enzeli (P), 14th June. 

45. Eucera vialvce. Rossi. — 1 J . 1 $ , Talish (P), 10th July. 

1 c?,Enzeh (P), 14th June. 

46. Eucera radoszJcovskyi, Morawitz. — 1 (S , 1 2 , Qazvin (P), 17th-24th July. 

47. Eucera distinguenda. Morawitz. — 1 3" , Amara (M). 

[1 d, Beit-Na'ama near Basrah (M), 
12th April 1919.— Captain Evans.] 

48. Eucera longicornis, L. — 1 d , Amara (M), 15th February. 

3 $ $ , Amara (M), 24th March. 
1 2 , Amara (M), 30th March. 
These appear to me to belong to the true longicornis, L., having the thorax 
punctured just as in specimens from Britain and other North European countries. 

49. Eucera tuberculata,F. — 1 S, Resht (P), 20th March. 

1 2 , Resht (P), April. 
This species is the longicornis, L., of Friesein Bienen Euroim's, but apparently 
not that of Linne. In calling it tuherculata I am following the opinion of Herr 
Alfken, Bienenfauna von Bremen (1913). 

50. Nomada fucata, Panzor.— 1 d , Amara (M), April. 

51. Nomada tigridis, n. sp. — 1 d , Amara (M), 30th March. 

4 2 $ , Amara (M), 28th May-8th June. 

This is a fairly large and conspicuously coloured species, but I can find no 
description to suit it, though several more or less similar forms are recorded by 
Morawitz (robusta, regalis, etc.) 

The antennae in both sexes are short and thick with the 3rd joint somewhat 
shorter than the 4th and the joints near the apex about as broad as long. The 
mandibles are acuminate ; the labrum has a very slight central tuberculatioQ 
(hardly to be called a tooth) at its apex. The 2 hind tibiae have incrassate apices 
with a sort of small black knob-like projection at each corner (as viewed from 
behind), between which projections three or four pale subequal spines may be 

* This and the next three spp. belong to the Macrocera division of Eucera. 



194 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL MIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

seen among the fringing hairs. The apical tergite of the cJ abdomen is deeplj'^ 
incised, so that its apex is bifid or might even be called bispinose. 

The general colour of the 5 is reddish or ferruginous-orange, with the tips of 
the mandibles, the propodeum, and the apices of the intermediate abdominal 
tergites, generally also the breast and pleurae (partly) black. The head and 
mesonotum either entirely ferruginous, or with more or less blackening of the 
ocellar area, and some ill defined vittse on the mesonotum. The pronotum 
humeral tubercles tegulse and scutellum are paler (yellowish), the two last 
abdominal segments have broad fasciae of a brighter yellow, and there may be 
taces of similar fasciae (or at least of lateral spots) on the preceding segments 
but these, if present at all, are almost obsolete. The antennae and legs, including 
the coxae, are ferruginous or yellowish, with no black marking except at the 
extreme apex of the hind tibiae. The jiunctuation of the head, thorax, and 
propodeum is close, rather coarse, and more or less reticulate. That of the 
abdomen is very minute and close, making the tergites look quite dull, except 
their extreme apices which are impunctate and very slightly shining. The wings 
are darkened almost throughout, but dai-kest along their apical margins. The 
pilosity is short and very scanty, hardly noticeable except, of course, at the 
apex of the abdomen. 

The J has the head (except the face) and the thorax except the pronotum, 
tubercles, tegulae, scutellum, and a small spot on the post scutellum black. The 
abdomen is coloured as in the 2 , except that its extreme base is occupied by a 
black mark (triangularly produced in the middle). The antennae are streaked 
with black over a few of the intermediate joints behind, and the coxae of all the 
legs are black. The pilosity of the head and thorax in this sex is j^retty long, 
and much more conspicuous than in the 2 . 

Length 9 to 11 mm. 

52. Lasius ( =Anthophora) * albigemis, Lep.^2 ^ $ , Amara (M), 4th -9th Septw 

1 $ , Baquba (M), 27th July. 

53. Lasius quadrifasciatus, Vill. — 1 2 > Qazvin (P), 17th July. 

54. Lasiusfarinosus,K\.—S $ $,Baquha (M), 27 th July; 2 ^^J, Amara 

(M), 18th-20th July. 
3 2 2 » Amara (M), 10th June (on Cap'paris), 18th- 

20th July. 
[1 2 » " at or near Amara ", 27th August 1918— 
Captain Evans.] 
The specimens before me agree well with King's description, and seem to me 
distinguishable from the commoner quadrifasciatus by the much smaller black 
markings on the face, the testaceous underside of the antennae (the scape is also 
lined beneath with whitish-yellow), and the somewhat, broader abdominal 
white fasciae which are not simply linear, but distinctly dilated in the middle. 
(In another form belonging to the same group, viz., wegeneri, Friese, these fasciae 
are on the contrary dilated at their sides !) The integument of the abdomen 
beneath in all these specimens is more or less rufescent at least at the base. 

55. Lasius garrulus, Rossi.— 1 ^, Tahsh (P), 10th July ; 3 2 2 » Enzeli(P), 

30th June and July. 

56. Lasius Kessleri, Morawitz. — 1 2 » Beit Na'ama, near Basrah (M), 31st 

March 1919. — Captain Evans. 

57. Lasius {Saropoda) hyssimis, Klug. — 1 2 > Amara (M), 7th July. 

I have not seen this species before, but feel sure that it is the true hyssinus. 
Almost the whole body, except the black triangle at the apex is clothed with 
^A'hite (or whitish), subsquamose, decumbent hairs. The antermae beneath, the 
coxae, trochanters, and femora of all the legs, and the ventral side of the abdomen 
are testaceous. The front trochanters and femora are fringed on both sides with 

• L'dnius, .lurine (1801) has ]irioritv oytr A nthophora (Latr) 18'J2 ami invalidates ias(?fS F 
et auott (1804). . 



A C ULEA TE H YMENOPTERA FH OM MESOPO TAMIA . (• 

a row of slightly curving, suberect, white haira. Of the hind-legs the femora are 
nearly naked ; but the knees, tibiae, and bases of the metatarsi have a beautiful 
snow-white scopa externally, while the other hairs of these joints are absolutely 
black. The present $ (like Klug's type) is 11 mm. long. 

58. Lasius pilipes,F.—7 $$, Resht (P), 18-25th February; 1 5, Enzeli 

(P), 24th April, 
The 5 is that common Continental form which has its pilosity coloured like 
that of the $, (not black as in British specimens). 

59. Melecta armata, Pauzer. — 1 $ , Resht (P), 25th February. 

60. Crocisa ashabadensis, Radosz. — 1 5 , Amara (M), 14th June. 

61. Xylocopa olivieri, Lep. — 1 (^, 1 $ , Baquba (M), 30th July. 

I have noticed, both in Greece and in Syria, that the $ $ oi this species have 
the curious habit of suddenly visiting flowers in great numbers about the time 
of sunset. Earlier in the day that sex is usually nowhere to be found. 

62. Xylocopa fenestrata, F. — 3 J d, Amara (M), 10th- 19th June, 1st 
September. 

3 2 $ , Amara, 1st May, 10th 
June (visiting Capparis), 19th 
June. 
[1 ^, Beit Na'ama near Basrah 
(M), 23rd March 1919 "at 
Papaver somnijerumj''' — Cap- 
tain Evans.] 
This is a common " Oriental " species, only exceptionally reaching Palearctic 
districts ! 

63. Xylocopa violacea, L. — 4 $ $ , Enzeli (P), 8th, 14th, and 17th June. 

64. Ceratina tibialis, Morawitz. — 1 ^, Amara (M), 8th June ; 1 ^, Baquba 

(M), 21st July. 
2 ^ ^, 9 $ 2 , Amara (M), 12th September 
[3 $ 2 , near Basrah, 31st March 1919— 
Captain Evans]. 

65. Ceratina nigrolahiata, Friese. — 1 (^, Amara (M), 9th September ; 1 2. 

Baquba, 27th July. 
The 2 is very small, and may possibly be some species unknown to me. The 
clypeus is almost imijunctate on its disc, and the frontal area and mesonotum 
are very sparsely punctured and shining. But in coloration it exactly matches 
a nigrolahiata 2 named for me by the author of the species. 

68. Ceratina laevifrons, Morawitz. — 1 2 . Shahroban (M), 21st July ; 

1 2 Baquba (M), 27th July. 

67. Ceratina cyanea, Kirby. — 1 $,2 2 2 > Enzeli (P), 6th June. 

One of the 2 2 is not quite a normal specimen, having a very small 
yellow spot in the middle of its clypeus. But I believe this is merely an 
individual aberration. 

68. Chelostoma enmrginatum, Ngl. — 1 2 > Enzeli (P), 1st May. 

I give this name with some little doubt, because I only know the species 
in literature, and the present specimen has no less than 10 alar hooks, which 
does not agree with Schletterer's statement in Zool. Jahrb., 1889 (p. 619). 
But its other characters suggest emarginatnm, and that species has been pre- 
viously recorded from N. W. Persia. 

69. Osmia coerulescens, L. — 1 2 > Qazvin (P), 17th July. 

70. Osmia indigroiea, Morawitz (?) — 1 $, 1 2 > near Basrah (M), 31st March 

1919. 

71. Osmia panzeri,M.ovaLwitz.- — 1 $ near Basrah (M), 12th April 1919. 
These specimens (70 and 71) were all taken by Captain Evans in the same 

locality and I thought at first that they were conspecific. But the very different 
ventral segments of the two $ $ shew that this is not so, and I believe the 



196 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

determinations given of them above are probably correct. It is almost impos- 
sible, however, to name, for certain, ^ ^ of this section without special pre- 
jiaration of the specimens, the actual apex of the abdomen being nearly alwaj'^s 
imperfectly exposed. 

72. Osmia dimidiata, Morawitz. — 4 ^ $ , Enzeli (P), 8th- 14th June. 

73. AntUdium florentinum, F.— 2 $ $, Enzeli (P), 10th-23rd July. 

2 2$, Talish (P), 5th-10th Julv. 
1 2 , Qazvin (P), 17th July. 

74. Anthidium strigatum, 'Panzer. — 1 $, Baquba (M), 27th July. 

The specimen is below the usual size, and its ground colour, instead of being 
simply black, is partlj'^ rufescent both on the thorax and abdomen. Probably 
this may be an individual aberration, but it may again be characteristic of a 
special local race. I do not think the peculiarity is " specific." [Cajjtain Evans 
took a ^ near Basrah on 12th April 1919.] 

75. [Anthidium tessellatum ,Kl. — 1 (^,Tanooma (M),Lieut. Harwood,"October."] 

76. Stelis phceoptera, Kirby.— 1 $ , Talish (P), 10th July. 

1 9, near Basrah (M), 6th April 1919. 
The Persian specimen was very much larger than the Mesopotamian. 

77. [Stelis signata, Latr. — 1 (J , near Basrah, 10th April 1919. — Captain Evans.} 

78. Lithurgus chrysurus, Fonsc. — 3 $ $,4^ § $ , Enzeli (P), 15th- 17th June. 

79. Lithurgus tibialis, Morawitz. — - 1 $, Khaniqin (M), 1st August. 

This specimen agrees exactly with Morawitz's description. In May 1896 I 
took at Dakrur in Egypt a ^ which was determined for me by Prof. Friese, no 
doubt correctly, as belonging to this species. But it was a much smaller speci- 
men than that here recorded, and the paradoxical characters of its hind legs 
(perhaps only for that reason) appear to me not quite so well developed. In 
the Figure below (Fig. 5) I have tried to give the exact outline of the right hind 
leg in Captain Buxton's specimen, when so placed that its inner side almost 
directly faces the object glass of the microscope. (The legs are clothed, rather 
thinly, with white hairs, which are very long and fine in the angle between the 
femora and tibiae, much shorter and more bristle-like on the metatarsus, but I 
have not attempted to show this pilosity in the Figure.) 

As usual in Lithurgus spp., 
the ^ genitaha are extremely 
small for the size of the insect. 
I notice that in this species the 
interval which separates the pos- 
terior ocelli from each other is at 
least twice as great as that 
between each of them and the 
nearest compound eye. This is 
not the case in chrysurus, where 
the difference in length between 
the corresponding spaces is very 
slight. 

When viewed from behind the 
hind tibiae are seen to be not only 
dilated, but very incrassate, only, 
however, about half as much so as 
the femora. 



li^cF^'^'^^ 




Fig. 5. Hind-leg of L. tibialis $ , a. coxa. 
h. trochanter, c. femur, d. tibia, e metatar- 
sus. 



ACULEATE HrMENOPTEEA FROM MESOPOTAMIA. 197 



80. Megachih argentata, F. — 1 (^, Amara (M), 20th July : 2 ^(J, Baquba 

(M), 27 th July. 
1 2 , Shahroban (M), 31st July. 
[1 J, below Amara (M), "about Tamarisk" 

31st August. — Captain Evans.] 

About 20 specimens, sujaller than the above, but apparently all argentata $ $ 
and 2 2 were also taken at or near Amara by Captain Buxton in June, July, 
and September, Some of those taken in September were visiting Sunflowers, 
others Z/izyphus. 

81. Megachih mi7intissima,'Radosz{l)— 13 $$, 14 $ $ , Amara (M), 

28th May to 14th June. 
\ $,2 2 2, Shahroban (M), 31st 
July. 

I have named these chiefly in consequence of having compared them with 
$ $ which I took in Egypt in 1899, and which were determined for me as minu- 
tissima by Professor Friese. But except in size (and not very much even in 
that!) they differ very little from argentata S 6- CaiDtain Buxton's 2 $> 
however, certainly differ from argentata 2 $ hi having no silvery pilosity on 
the last abdominal segment. All these specimens, both J 6 and 2 2 > 3,re 
small, but they vary considerably in size, and it is curious that the smallest of 
them all are 2 $ ! Oi^^ of these is only 6 mm. long, while another measures 
fully 8 mm. (Radoszkowsky gives 7 mm. as the length of the 2 > ^^^ 6 as that 
of the <S ). 

82. Megachile rotimdata, F,— 6 J d , Astara (P), 2nd July, 1 2 » EnzeU (P), 

6th June. 
1 2 , Talish (P), 10th July. 

83. Megachile schnahli, Rad. — 3 S 6 , Amara, 14th and 17th June, 6th 

September. 
[1 2 > f'th September, "garden below Amara." — 
Captain Evans.] 
All these ^ ^ agree with Radoszowsky's description, except that the colour 
of the abdomen seems to be altogether variable. In one specimen (June 17th) 
it is completely reddish, and the scutellum is red also ! In the other two the 
antennae, legs, and venter are red, but the dorsal surface of the body shews 
hardly any tendency to rufescence. The pilosity of all three specimens is very 
dense and silvery, giving them that peculiar sheen which characterizes so many 
desert-frequenting Hymenoptera. 

84. Megachile Jlavipes, Spin.— 13 6 $, 8 2 2, Amara (M), 28th May to 9th 

August. 
2 2?. Qazvin (P), 17th July. 

85. Megachile maritima, K. — 1 2 . Enzeli (P), 30th June. 

86. Megachile centuncularis, L. — 1 J , Talish (P), 10th July ; 1 2 Enzeli 

(P), 20th June. 

87. Cmlioxys conoidea, Klug.— 2 d rf , 1 2 , Talish (P), 5th-10th July. 

88. Codioxys elongaia, Lep,— 1 2 . Enzeli (P), 8th June ; 1 2 . Talish (P), 

10th July. 

89. CosUoxys decipiens, S]pm. — 1 d,8 2 2 . Amara (M), 10th-14th June, (visit 

flowers of Acacia.) 

90. Codioxys argentea, Lep. — 1 J. Qazvin (P), 17th July. 

91. Ccdioxys brevis, Eversm. — 1 J . Talish (P), 11th July. 

92. Coslioxys afra, Lep. — 1 $, Amara (M), 12th September. 

93. Coelioxys hosmwrhoa, Forrat. — 2$ S , Amara (M),18th July,9th September 

1 2 . Baquba (M), 27th July. 



198 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



94. Coelioxys coturnix, Perez (?) — 1 



2 , Amara (M), June 26th (also, between 
June 19th and 22nd at Amara a ^J which 
seems to belong to the same form). 

In both these specimens the abdomen is practically iinicolorous, rosy- testace- 
ous throughout ! Otherwise the 5 appears to have exactly the characters by 
which Perez separated his coturnix from hcemorrhoa. {He was not acquainted 
with the $). There is the same ' powdering ' over of the vertex, mesonotum, 
etc., etc., with silvery scales (mostly oval in form, but some of the smaller ones 
almost circular !) the same fine close puncturation, and the same sort of " carene" 
which Perez describes as running into the " premarginal depression " of the 6th 
abdominal dorsal-plate. 

I took at Biskra in Algeria 2 5? which seem to differ from Captain Buxton's 
specimen only in being much smaller, and these were recorded by Edward 
Saunders in Trans. Ent. Soc, Lond., 1908, p. 241 as "coturnix, Perez(?)." I have 
also taken a $ at Jericho which is slightly larger than the Amara $, and has two 
of its abdominal segments (the 4th and the 5th) blackish above. Otherwise this 
also agrees with the Mesopotamian form. 

The ^ so much resembles the $ in colour and general appearance, and was 

taken so nearly at the same time, that I can scarcely 

doubt that the two are conspecific. Apart from 

~'r^ colour and pilosity I have not succeeded in finding 

•--^ any substantial difference to distinguish it from 

^^(i, hcemorrhoa <J. The "eight teeth" on the apex of 

the abdomen seem to be very similar and arranged 

in the same way. (Fig. 6. Outlines of the 6th 

abdominal tergite viewed from above. I have not 

attempted to represent the fovcation, pilosity, etc., 

of the segment. As in hcemorrhoa it is deeply and 

widely sulcate down the middle, and clothed with 

„. ^ ^ ,. „ , scale-like hairs at its base.) 

Fig. 6. Outlines of &h 

abdominal tergite in C. 

coturnix. 





Plate .-' 



(Fig. 7 represents the apex of the 

2 abdomen viewed from above. The 

dotted lines are meant to give an idea 

of the " premarginal depression " and 

••' what Pc'rez calls its " interruption" 

OofSd/ by the carina which projects into it. 

P/sf-e 

The apex of the 6th ventral plate 
seems to be quite pointed, not narrow- 
ly truncate and very slightly emargi- 
nate, as usually in hcemorrhoa.) 



Fig. 7. 



Apex of abdomen in C. 
coturnix. 



95. Coelioxys ohtiisa, Perez.— 2 $ $, Amara (M), 14th-15th June, 
One specimen has the first 3 abdominal segments red, in another there is only 
a touch of that colour at the base of segment 1. (In a $ from Gibraltar given to 
me by E. Saunders the abdomen is entirely black, and it seems to have been 
so in the specimen described by Perez.) 



ACULEATE HYMENOPTERA FROM MESOPOTAMIA. 199 




— c 



The ' teeth ' which form the actual apex of 
the abdomen (Nos. 7 and 8 in the Figure) aie 
very unlike those of hcemorrhoa and " cotur 
nix (?)." 

Instead of being long slender spines, they arc 
short and broad, with broadly subtruncate apices 
and their inner margins converging rapidly 
almost at right angles. (All the 'teeth' in this 
species seem liable to vary somewhat in shape. 
They are even sometimes distinctly asymmetrical. 
Notwithstanding this, their general appearance 
is so far uniform and unlike that of those in 
hcemorrhoa that specimens of the two can 
always be distinguished at a glance by the 
characters of this segment only !) 

The figure above (Fig. 8) is drawn from the redder of the two ^ $, and the 
so-called teeth are numbered as in the corresponding figure (Fig. 6) of the 
^ apex in " coturnix 1 " 

Several specimens were sent by Captain Buxton's from N. W. Persia (Resht, 
Enzeli, Kermanshah,) but none from Mesopotamia. All were workers, and 
belonged to the var. fasciata, Latr. 



96. 



Fig. 8. 
A2ns melUJera, L, 



List 3, Wasps. 



1. Vespa crahro L. var. crabroniforrais, Smith. — 1 5» Enzeli (P), 25th June. 
This specimen is exactly like the Type (at S. Kensington !) of Smith's era- 

hronijormis described from N. China as a new species. It only differs from 
normal examples of V. crahro in having very narrow — in fact almost linear — 
yeUow bands on the 3rd and 4th abdominal tergites. 

2. Vespa orientalis, L. — 1 $ , Amara (M). 25th June. 

2 i^ c^, Amara (M), 6th July. 

[1 5 , Amara (M), " from nest in roof of building " 

17th August 1918.^Captain Evans.] 
1 ^ , Shahroban (M), 31st July. 
All these belong to the bright red and yellow typical form of the species. 
The darker variety oegyptiaca, Andre, occurred in N. W. Persia (1 $ , Qazvin, 
25th July.) 

3. Vespa germaniat, F.— Many $ 5 from Persia (Kermanshah, Enzeli, Qazvin, 

etc.) also ^ $ $, Kermanshah, 3rd and 4th 
December, 1 $ , Enzeli, 20th June. 

No specimens have been sent to me from Mesopotamia, nor is that country 
cited in the list of Asiatic localities given for germanica in R. du Buysson's 
Monogr. des Guepes ou Vespa (1904). 

4. PoUstes gallicus, L. — Many 2 2 ^rid 5 2 were taken by Captain Buxton 
in Persia, but no (J (J , [Captain Evans also sent a 5 > one of " three found under 
a stone," 22nd January 1919, from Harunabad (P).] In Mesopotamia the species 
seems to have been completely anticipated — or evicted ? — by P. hebrceus. At 
any rate none have reached me from thence. 

It may be that I am including under the Linnean name gallicus more than 
one of several forms which have been separated by Kohl on account of differences 
in their ^ ^. There are certainly, there as elsewhere, two easily distinguishable 
types of coloration. Specimens taken at Resht and Enzeli between February 
and June were much darker and generally larger than others which occurred 
at Qazvin and Menjil (July-September). But the Harunabad $ " hibernating 
under a atone " in January was of the light form. 



200 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, FoL XXVIIL 



5. Polistes hebrceus {maccensis ?), F. — Of this species Captain Buxton took 
several $ $ at Amara (M) between November 1917 and June 1918, and seven 

^ ^ at Amara and Baghdad (M) during the same period and in July. [Captain 
Evans found ^ ^ later also, viz., in August and September 1918.] 

I have compared these specimens with Fabricius's original Type of maccensis 
in the Banks Collection ; and, like it, they are very pale forms with hardly any 
black markings. In most of them the mesonotum appears quite immaculate. 

But I prefer to call them hebrceus which is the older name, because, after careful 
consideration of all Fabricius's many descriptions of his hebrceus and maccensis, 
I can find absolutely nothing to shew why he thought them distinct. Some 
authors hold that the two differ in colour, hebronus being a darker insect. It is 
true that some so-called hebrceus and maccensis specimens differ in this respect. 
But all the many specimens of both that I have seen appear to be mere individual 
aberrations from a single specific Type, and both forms certainly occur together 
in most of then Oriental habitats, together with many others which are inter- 
mediate between them. The original descriptions are to all intents and purposes 
identical ; and though Fabricius names one from Palestine (hebrceus), and the 
other from China [maccBnsis,) he cannot have meant to distinguish them as 
differing in 'habitat.' For he gives " India orientalis " as the habitat of hebrceus, 
and " Macao Indise " (sic !) as that of maccensis ! On the whole I believe that 
the two names should be treated as synonymous, and that of the two hebraeus 
has " priority " over the other. 

6. Eumeiies coarctata, L. — 1 $ , Qasr-i-Shirin (P), 24th November 1918. 
This is the mediterranea of Kriechbaumer, the common form in most southern 

districts. Both mediterranea and pomiformis, F, are probably only varieties 
(local races) of the Linnean species. 

7. Eumenes esuriens, Pauzer. — 2^ J , Shahroban (M), Slst July; Amara (M), 

17th September. 
1 2 , Amara (M), 9th September. 
1 2 , Kurna (P), 20th May. 
[I $, Amara (M), 17th August. 
1 2 , Amara (M), 27th August— Capt. Evans.] 

8. Odynerus simplex, F.— 1 f^, 2 $ $ , Talish (P), 10th July. 

9. Odynerus par ietum, L. — 1 $ , Qazvin (P), 20th September. 

10. Odynerus melanocephalus, Gmel. — 6 ^ ^, I $ , Amara (M), 3rd March 

to 19th June. 
In the 2 ^iid in four of the six $ ^ the scutellum bears two distinct yellow 
spots, in another ^ they are almost invisibly small, and in the June ^ the 
scutellum (as in normal melanocephalus) is immaculate. (I do not suppose this 
character to have any systematic significance, but it is as well to mention it.) 

11. Odynerus chloroticus, Spin. — 1 $ and 1 $ Amara, (M), September. 

[1 2 » Beit-Na'ama near Basrah (M), 12th 
April 1919. — Captain Evans.] 

12. Odynerus crenatus, Lep. (?) — 1 $ , Amara (M), 28th May. 

[1 ^ " Four miles below Amara, 17th 
September. — Captain Evans.] 
These are very highly coloured specimens, but I think they do not differ 
specifically from specimens determined as crenatus by Professor Perez. 

13. Odynerus transitorius, Morawitz. — 9 ^ ^ and 11 2 ? of this exceedingly 
pretty little species were taken by Captain Buxton at Amara and Shahroban 
(M). [Captain Evans also found it at Beit-Na'ama (M) on April 12th, 1919.] 
Many specimens, apart from their 'pictura pallida,' were largely or even entirely 
red. They were flying in April, May and June, and frequented the flowers 
of an Acacia. [Captain Evans's specimen occurred " about Tamarisk.''] The 



ACULEATE HYMENOPTERA FROM MESOPOTAMIA. 201 

Species as Morawitz has remarked, much resembles the Algerian blanchardianus, 
specially in the peculiar carinated base of the 1st abdominal tergite (the carina 
distinctly interrupted in the middle !) , ^ ,.,,,«• 

14. Nortonia deceptrix, n. sp.— 4 $ $ , April ; 1 ^ , 28th May ; 1 $ , 14th May, 

Amara (M). 
In many respects, and especially in the form of its 1st and 2nd abdominal 
segments this species much resembles one which I described from several $ $ 
taken on February 12th, 1901, at Abba Eiland, by the Swedish Expedition to 
Ecrypt and the White Nile (See Ann. and Mag. N. H., December 1903).* This 
no doubt was also a Nortonia, but I wrongly referred it to " Odynerus (Ancis- 
trocerus ?) " and called it aberraticus. 

The Mesopotamian species however seems to be certainly different from the 
Ec^yptian in several characters of specific value, (a) The scutellum is transverse 
and not almost quadrate, (6) the excision of the strongly bidentate $ clypeus is 
not triangular, but semi-circular, (c) the lateral angles of the pronotum are 
distinctly subspinose, (d) the costaa at the base of the 2nd ventral segments 
are fairly long, (e) the mandibles of the $ appear to be simply acuminate 
and not tridentate. . 

I notice also that the very coarse rugosities of the mesonotum, when viewed 
from behind, appear as definite longitudinal strigse. I do not remember that 
the specimens I examined in 1903 shewed any such character, and I find no 
mention of it in the description of Kohl's N. moricei. 

The scutellum and postscutellum are both entirely yellow in deceptrix : the 
former in the Egyptian species is black, and the latter only shews two small spots 
of yellow The colour of the abdomen varies to some extent in the specimens 
now before me, but in most of them there is certainly more yellow and less 
black than in the types of " aberraticus:' 

The accompanying sketches (Fi- 
gures 9 and 10) representing the 1st and 
2nd segments (viewed A laterally and B 
dorsally) in the brightest of the J c? , 
will give an idea of this. In the only 
$ there is a larger black triangle on 
the disc of segment 1, but on its 2nd 
segments there is more yellow stUl, the 
yellow lateral maculae at its base being 
all but actually confluent ! 





Fig. 9 A. 



Fig. 10 B. 



First and second segments in N. deceptrix. 

The lateral margins of the propodeum are very spinulose throughout, as is 
also the crest of the postscutellum which resembles those of 0. blancliardianus 
and transitorius. 

List 4. Chrystds. 



1. Hedychrum rutilans, Vahlb.— 1 J , Kazvin (P), 17th July. 

2. Hedychridium hilare, n. sp. — 1 r{ , Amara (M), 25th June. 

At first sight this might be taken for an extreme variety or aberration of the 
common H. roseum. The colour of the abdomen much resembles that which 
characterizes the latter, and contrasts in the same way with the prevaiUng green- 
ness of the head and thorax. But the postscutellum and propodeum (except 

« Oni^ of the same specimens, or one taken at the same place and on the same day, was des- 
cribed three years later by Kohl in his admirable work on Hymenoptera from South Arabia and 
Socotra, Wler, 1906, as Nortonia 7)ioricei, n. s^i. He accredits the capture to me, but 1 never 
visited Abba Eiland, and was not in Egypt at all in 1901. 



202 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIll. 

its lateral angles) are not green at all, the former being violaceous and the latter 
testaceous. Again, though in certain aspects the pronotum appears to be 
green, its real ground colour seems to be testaceous, as is also that of the antennae, 
the mandibles, the sides of the face, and the whole of all the legs. The vertex, 
however, and the tempora are distinctly green, like the mesonotum and scutel- 
lum, but there is a slight touch of a warmer colour (reddish-golden) between 
the ocelli and the compound eyes. Seen from beneath the whole body appears 
testaceous and polished, except the green mesopleures, and occasional reflections 
of the same colour plajdng over the legs which become visible only in certain 
lights. 

But apart from mere colour, it seems to be certainly distinct from roseum by 
more important characters. 

(1) The antennce are shorter and stouter, with joints 2, 3, and 4 subequal 
but joint 4 slightly longer than the others. (In rosetim, joint 3 is evidently 
longer than 4, and fully twice as long as 2.) 

(2) The green areas of the thorax are very shining, and their puncturation 
irregular and mostly very sparse. (In roseum the whole thorax is almost 
opaque, its puncturation being uniform and close.) This difference is apparent 
even to the naked eye. 

(3) The abdomen, especially its basal segment, is also much more sparsel}^ 
punctured than that of roseum, the punctures being everywhere separated by 
intervals much larger than themselves. 

(4) The face, which is bright metallic green in the middle, but testaceous 
at the sides and below the antennae, is clothed with very short silvery pubes- 
cence, conspicuous in some lights, but in others quite invisible, and not 
concealing the sculpture of the integument. This is very small and shallow 
(sub-coriaceous) and contrasts strongly with the much coarser rugose punctu- 
ration of the vertex. (In roseum S the face is deep-blue, the few hairs on its sur- 
face are fairly long but quite inconspicuous, not appearing silvery (so far as I 
can see) in any aspect, and the integument is punctured very much in the same 
style as that of the vertex.) 

(5) The wings are perfectly clear. (In roseum they are distinctly infuscated.) 

3. Chrysis Juscipen7iis, Brulle. — 1 $ , Amara (M), 28th October. 

4. Chrysis palliditarsis. Spin. — 3 J' d" , 4 $ 5 , " on Acacia,''' Amara (M). 

10th June. 
2 $ 5 , Amara, 13th-I7th June. 

5. Chrysis blanchardi, Luc. — 1 ^ , Amara (M), 6th September. 

6. Chrysis macuUcor?iis, HI — 3 SS' Amara (M), 10th June "on Acacia,'' 

14th June, 18th August. 

7. Chrysis exig2ia, Moes.— I ^, Amara (M), April. 

5 $ 2 , Amara, 10th and 13th June " on Acacia.^' 

8. Chrysis ignita, L.— 2 5 $ , Talysh (P), 18th July. 

9. Chrysis scutellaris,F. — 1 5 , Amara (M), " on Sunflower" 12th September. 

10. [Chrysis cyanopyga, Dahlb.— 1 5 , Beit-Na'ama (M), lOth April 1919. — 

Captain Evans.] 
The last 8 species (3 to 10) all belong to the Section " Tetrachrysis.'" 

11. [Chrysis (Hexachrysis) stilboides, S'pin.- — 1 specimen taken "at or near 

• Amara," 18th August 1918. 
I omitted to take note of the 
sex. — Captain Evans.] 

12. Chrysis huxtoni, n. sp. — 1 $ , Amara (M), 10th June. 

This must also, no doubt, be reckoned as a Hexachrysis, though four of its 
so-called " teeth " only are really tooth-like, The outermost pair are lateral, 
situate one at each end of the series of fovese. The intermediate pair are apical. 



ACULEATE HYMENOPTERA FROM MESOPOTAMIA. 203 

these are sharp and spine-h'ke. The innermost pair are merely obtuse undu- 
lations of the margin (See figure 11). By its coloration it belongs to the Sectioa 
known as Viridis. 




Fig. 11. Apex of abdomen in Chrysis huxtoni S . 

Body above almost entirely bright metalhc green, but with a more fiery 
(reddish-golden) tinge at the sides of the mesonotum, and with the tegulse deep 
dark blue. Venter partly concolorous with the dorsum, partly blue, indigo, violet, 
etc. (the colours blending where they meet, and as in many other species with a 
pair of large rounded spots (black with violet reflections) at the base of its 2nd 
segment. Antennae fuscous, densely clothed with minute, white sub-erect 
hairs : joints 1, 2, and a part of joint 3, green. Legs green, with yellowish (non- 
metaUic) knees and tarsi. Wings clouded in the middle, but quite clear at base 
and apex. Face and genas (between eyes and mandibles), clothed with silvery 
hairs. Pilosity of dorsal surface short and inconspicuous, but the femora and 
tibiaB are fringed with rather long pale hairs. 

Head about as wide as the pronotum. Third antennal joint about as long as 
the second and fourth together. Least length of the cheeks about equal to that 
of the second antennal joint. From near each end of the rather vaguely carinat- 
ed brow which overhangs the facial cavity a very distinct carina runs backward 
into the ocellar area, nearlj^ isolating the anterior ocellus from the others. (Fig. 
12.) 
The apical half of the pronotum is sulcate longitudinally, and its lateral angles 

(=shoulders) subsijinose. The dorsum 
of the abdomen is evidently but 
not strongly carinated longitudinally. 
The head is closely punctured 
(this is not shewn in the Figure) : 
the thorax and abdomen less so, 
and much more coarsely (about as 
in C micans, Dahlb.). On the sides 
of the mesonotum the punctures are 
especially large and sparse. 
Length of body about 7 mm. 
[I have not attempted to shew the puncturation of the head, which would 
have made the 'characters ' I desired to illustrate more difficult to see.] 

13. Stilbum cymiicrum, FoTster. — One specimen of the typical form was 

taken "at or near " Amara by Captain 
Evans. I forgot to take note of the sex. 

14. Parnopes grandior. Pall. ( = Carnea, F.)— 1 ^, Enzeli (P), .30th June. 
Nearly all the Mesopotamian Chrysids mentioned above occur also in R. du 

Buysson's List of Egyptian forms (Mem. Soc. Ent. d'Egypte, Cairo, 1908.) 




Fig. 12. Upper part of head Chrysis 
huxtoni $ Vieived from in Front. 



204 
QUAINT BEASTS AND QUEER HABITS. 

BY 

Major C. H. Stockley. 

Every wandering sportsman has at times come across strange animals or 
observed strange habits or actions of more common species which stand out 
clear-cut amongst the memories of shooting or fishing trips. Sometimes it is 
some particular physical feature of the beast, such as the bright orange teeth 
of the Bamboo Rat {Rhizomys badius) found in Central and Lower Burma ; at 
others it is the general build of the beast whose strangeness makes a first 
encounter memorable. For instance the beast known as the Armoured Pangolin 
presents a weird and formidable appearance, sheathed as it is in overlapping 
scale armour, and its four feet or so of length make it a sufficiently alarming 
apparition when met on the lawn of the mess on a moonlight night after dinner, 
which was the manner of my first encounter with the species. Another beast 
which startled me into immediate reminiscences of " AUce through the Looldng 
Olass," was a Binturong ; a quaint medley of fox, badger and raccoon, which 
ran across my path when travelling up the Salween valley near the Burma- 
Siam frontier. Then I defy anyone who has really read and enjoyed the afore- 
mentioned book, not to be reminded of the illustration of a " sUthy tove " when 
he sees his first specimen of an " aard vark ". The first one I ever saw was 
discovered by the adjutant of my battalion of the lung's African Rifies under- 
mining his tent in the middle of the night when camped in Somaliland. The 
most strenuous efforts of two lusty officers, who attached themselves to his (the 
aard vark's, not the adjutant's) tail, failed to extract him from the hole which 
he had already dug, and which was about three feet in depth. Finally a 
revolver bullet finished him, and he was duly photographed and skinned next 
morning. From the iiproar over his captiire you might have thought that the 
dervishes had rushed the camp. 

Occasionally it is the incongruity of the beast with its surroundings that 
strikes one, as any one will agree who has seen a couple of Himalayan Langur 
monkeys sitting on the snow-laden boughs of a pine. One feels that monkeys 
and Christmas trees have nothing in common, and that animals which one associ- 
ates from childhood with hot weather and cocoanut palms should have retired 
to the plains at the end of the summer in company with the Brass Hats, Grass 
Widows and Simla Wirepullers. 

Talking of monkeys, while on a hillside high above the Chenab river, I once 
spotted a troop of monkeys far below on the opposite bank, amongst whom was 
one the colour of whose coat can only be described as a bright orange. At first 
I thought that something had gone wrong with my eyesight or my field-glasses, 
while my shikari stoutly maintained that no monkey was ever coloured like that, 
therefore it could not be a monkey. To settle the point we descended about a 
thousand feet until we were opposite the troop and only sejDarated from them by 
the width of the river, here about eighty yards. We then sat and watched the 
freak specimen with our glasses for half-an-hour. He seemed in every respect, 
save that of colour, to be an ordinary Hill Macaque, such as swarm in parts of 
the Lower Himalayas ; and his companions seemed to notice nothing queer 
about him. As we rose to go 'I asked my shikari what the people of his village 
would say when he told them that he had seen a monkey of such an outlandish 
■colour. He replied, " They will say, I am a liar." When we got back to his 
village ho proved to be absolutely correct, and on my backing his statement, I 
was obviously looked on as a rather clumsy accomplice. 

It was with the same shikari that I one day lay on a hill-side waiting for a 
serow to come out and feed as soon as the heat of the sun should abate a httle, the 
while I idly directed the telescope on likely places for game. In doing so a goral 



QUAINT BEASTS AND QUEER HABITS. 205 

lying on the opposite side of the valley came into the field. I watched him for a 
bit without any great interest ; for, though a good buck, I liad shot several as 
big, until ho did a thing I have never seen done by any other animal. Some 
fifty yards from him in the shade of an.overhanging rock, lay a bank of snow 
some three feet thick which had melted as far as the rays of the sun could reach 
it and then presented an upright frozen face with an upper edge of almost sohd 
ice, the product of the hard night frosts. The goral rose and walked over to this 
bank of snow ; then, having evidently become uncomfortably warm through 
lying in the sun, ho proceeded to chew off great lumps from its solid edge, swallow- 
ing large quantities and leaving wide gaps in its continuity. This ho continued 
to do for some ten minutes, showing more than a schoolboy's capacity for ices, 
and almost giving me a sympathetic pain in ' Little Mary.' 

The victim of the most wonderful tragedy of wild life that I have ever wit- 
nessed was another wild goat ; an ibex to wit. A herd was traversing a perilous 
face of rock by means of a slight fault across its slippery surface. Amongst the 
herd were several young ones, and, as one of these crossed behind its mother, 
down out of the sky swept two great Lammergeiers, eight and half feet from 
wing-tip to wing-tip, and so boat and buffeted the poor little kid that it finally 
fell half senseless, and was whirled to destruction on the crags below ; its 
murderers sailing down to feast on the carcase. I have seen a good deal of the 
Lammergoier in different countries, and never observed a like incident or 
indeed heard of their killing anything bigger than a new-born lamb. 

As a laughter-provoking nature comedy, it is hard to beat a hungry wolf 
stalking marmots. Ho will spend an hour creeping nearer to a marmot who 
pretends not to seo him. but sits solemnly like a fat little alderman, on top of the 
low mound of earth at the entrance to his burrow, in seeming blissful ignorance 
of peril. Then, just before the wolf arrives within springing distance, the 
marmot whips round, whistles shrilly and dives into his home, while the wolf 
bruises his nose on the doorstep in a wild and futile rush. Then the marmot 
pops up at another exit a few yards away and challenges the wolf with another 
whistle, the result again being a profitless attempt by the wolf to secure the 
fat and tempting meal. More members of the marmot colony now appear on the 
thresholds of their burrows and whistle derisively on every side of the marauder, 
who, after one or two more vain efforts to secure a dinner retires in impotent rage 
from the unequal contest ; usually to lie sulking on the hill-side overlooking the 
colony in the hope of cutting off a member of it who may, later on, venture too 
far from home on a grass-gathering expedition. 

Twice I have watched this comedy through my telescope, till my sides ached 
with laughing, and my Tibetan companions (unable to see the cause of my mirth), 
suspected me of being sxiddenly smitten with madness. On the first occasion 
I rang down the curtain by slaying the would-be slayer ; on the second he was 
warned by a wandering back-eddy of wind and made off in safety. 

Unfortunately for the game, wolves have greatly increased in numbers in 
Ladakh of late years, and the unusually deep snow in the Rupshu district during; 
the winter of 1910-11 gave them an advantage over their quarry which enabled 
them almost to annihilate the Tibetan gazelle in some places, and everywhere 
greatly reduce their numbers and those of the great Tibetan Sheep Ovis ammon. 
For the hard, sharpedged feet of the sheep and gazelle made them sink deeply 
into the snow while the splayed-out pads of the wolves kept them from going, 
far below the surface. The Ovis ammon owing to their greater size and height 
off the ground wei'o not nearly so heavily handicapped as the gazelle by the 
eighteen inches of snow which lay everywhere, and so did not suffer nearly as 
heavily, while the kiang were hardly affected at aU. 

In August 1911, I was travelling up the left bank of the Indus close to wher& 
it first enters Kashmir territory and flows placid and gentle beside wide flats of 
short turf. As I walked about half a mile ahead of my baggage yaks, I spotted 



206 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



a wolf sneaking along a small grassy depression in which three Kiangs or Tibetan 
Wild Asses were feeding. It seemed to me that a solitary wolf would hardly 
tackle as big a beast as a Kiang, but I was hardly prepared for the utter indiffe- 
rence shown by the latter, who scarcely troubled to raise their heads to stare 
at the wolf, as he passed between two of them feeding not ten yards apart. I 
then saw that he was making for a large flock of sheep, which were grazing 
some 250 yards further on, their Tibetan shepherds being squatted round a 
small fire on the river bank as much again beyond them. The wolf having 
arrived within forty yards of the flock seemed to cover the intervening ground 
like a streak of lightning and puUed down a ram with one jerk of his 
powerful jaws, seizing it behind the ears. He then proceeded to tear open the 
stomach of his prey, while the remainder of the flock fled about eighty yards, 
and then turned to stare, a huddle of woolly idiocy. The wolf then left his ram 
and began to trot slowly towards them. When he was within fifty yards they 
turned and began to flee, their enemy cantering behind them until he had 
shepherded them into galloping at top speed. He then spurted suddenly 
in the most amazing manner into the middle of the flock and jjuUed down 
sheep after sheep with such wonderul speed and dexterity that there were 
five lying on the ground within a distance of thirty yards. His method was 
extraordinarily interesting. He came up on the right side of each sheep (there- 
by bearing out the theory that most carnivora are left-handed) and, seizing the 
galloping sheep behind the right ear, jerked its head downwards and inwards 
so that it pitched on its nose, the result being that it was stunned by the com- 
bined effect of the downward jerk and the impact of its own fall almost or quite 
dislocating its neck. At the fifth sheep the wolf stopped and began to tear open 
its stomach, as he had done with the ram he had first jiuUed down. The shep- 
herds then ran up and drove him off. I thought he would probably come back 
to the first ram., and ran to try and get a shot ; but running at 14,000 feet above 
sea-level is difficult work, and I had to sit down about two hundred yards 
from it just as the wolf arrived there. Before I could get my sights on him, he 
saw me, and immediately broke into a lope whose pace was «o deceptive that, 
although I thought I had allowed almost more than enough in front of him,, my 
bullet passed behind his tail, and ho departed at a rate which made shooting with 
any chance of hitting a task beyond my powers. Of the six sheep which he had 
pulled down, the first ram was on its legs again, a piteous sight, its bowels dragg- 
ing tumbled on the ground. Of the final batch of five only the last was dead, the 
other four all getting on their legs and staggering about dazed and giddy. 

It seemed to me that I had seen the Tibetan wolf's usual way of securing a 
stock of meat. For, having stunned several beasts, he would then proceed to 
rip them open, and so prevent their going any further ; then Idll them at his 
leisure and have a supply which would keep an indefinite length of time in the 
cold air of that altitude and in the absence of vultures and other thieves which 
would render such a method unprofitable in other parts of India. I do not say 
that this is necessarily so, but is merely a theory which seems the only possible 
explanation of the wolf's method in this particular case. 

An interesting instance of the adaptation of an animal's breeding habits to 
the local cUmate in districts quite close to one another is shown by the Red 
Jungle Fowl in Burma. In the Lower Salween vaUey you will find the chicks 
hatched out by the fii'st week in April and finding their food under the thick 
carpet of dead leaves ; thus they are well advanced and able to withstand the 
terrific downpour of the monsoon in May, In the dry zone of Burma, however, 
conditions are reversed. There the jungle is not so heavy and the dead leaves 
not so thick ; while the monsoon is reduced to a season of heavy, but helpful 
showers with but rarely a few consecutive hours of rain. These conditions foster 
the birth of a crowded insect life lasting till the dry season returns again. In 
such districts the jungle fowl do not hatch out till the rains are well begun, and 



QUAINT BEASTS AND QUEEli HABITS. 207 



1 have found incomplete clutches in late July. Thus a continuous supply of 
food is easily obtainable by the chicks, and they are able to fend for themselves 
when the season of scarcity returns, and they must scatter over a wider area to 
search for food. 

Another, in fact, I might say " the other " common game bird of the Burma 
jungles is the Silver Pheasant or " Yit " ; for the Chinese Prancolin sticks to the 
more open slopes and bush country of the foot-hills, while peafowl are very 
local. 

Both Jungle Fowl and " Yit " (as the Burmans call the silver pheasant) are 
snared in large numbers by tethering a tame cock bird of the species on top of 
some small mound in the jungle and surrounding him with horse-hair nooses. 
The tame bird then challenges the wild, who comes to do battle and is treacher- 
ously snared. Some of the decoy birds are extraordinarily successful and seem 
to take a delight in enticing their wild brethren to destruction ; such birds are 
greatly valued by the Burmans, and occasionally change hands for sums of money 
up to sixty or seventy rupees apiece. One " Yit " was shown to me in the Papun 
district, which had been the principal agent in the catcliing of twenty-two of its 
species in a fortnight. 

Burmans are wonderfully persevering in the pursuit of small beasts for food ; 
the digging out of a Bamboo Rat or the pursuit of one of the big monitor hzards 
keeping them happily employed for hours. Occasionally you will see a couple 
of Burmans working the mud-flats surrounding a half-dried pond, one of them 
armed with a sjiade the other with a thin iron rod. This last the operator will 
thrust into the mud at intervals, and, on his getting the required "feel " at the 
end of it, his companion will dig there and eventually excavate a muddy lump 
which, on being washed, turns out to be a murrel. These fish are in the habit of 
aestivating in the mud and are excellent eating. 

It always seems to me that we miss a lot of good things by our conservatism 
in the matter of what we eat. Strange fruits and vegetables we are fairly ready 
to try, but it is very hard to induce the average Briton to taste anything novel 
in the way of meat. Yet many unfamiliar animals are most excellent eating. 
Monkey and porcupine I can personally vouch for, and the big monitor lizards are 
closely akin to the Iguana, and probably just as savoury food as that South 
American delicacy. We eagerly devour snipe yet despise many shore birds such 
as the Black Godwit and Curlew, whose mode of life is more cleanly and which 
are just as good on the table. Very few birds can compare with a roast bittern 
in January ; yet, when stationed in Peshawar in the vicinity of which canton- 
ment they are comparatively common, I found very few sportsmen who did not 
pass them by in ignorance of their culinary virtues. One of the best eating birds 
in the East is the bustard of every species, but there is a curious superstition in 
connection with them which I have come across both in India and Somahland. 
At certain seasons of the year the bustard tribe feed largely on the Cantharides 
beetle, and it is said that the man partaking of the flesh of their legs at that 
period, will become impotent. Why the poison should be contained in their 
legs only or whether there are any grounds whatever for the superstition I have 
failed to discover. 

TheHoubara has very curious means of defence which is usually to be 
seen in action when hawking them in Northern India. When the hawk is close 
to them, they drop to the ground and squat. Then on his coming within range 
they eject a sticky fluid (almost like birdhme) all over him, halfbhnding him and 
so glueing his feathers together as to render the hawk incapable of jjroper flight. 
The houbara then rises in the air again and continues on its way rejoicing, while 
the hawker rides up and finds a bedraggled object looking like a badly made 
feather duster, sitting in impotent rage on the ground. The wary experienced 
hawk will draw the houbara's fire by feints, and then the latter's supply of bird- 
lime becomes exhausted and the haAvk goes in and finishes him. 



208 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol.XXVIlI. 

One of the most thoroughly equipped animals for both attack and defence 
that I have come across, was a large black ant, three-quarters of an inch long, 
which was common in Somaliland. This insect was of stout build with very- 
hard black casing, and carried an immense pair of nippers in front, with which 
he could infhct a most- severe bite. In addition he used to emit when irritated 
an appalling odour, by reason of which he is generally known as the " corpse " 
ant. It used to be very amusing to see a couple of British officers earnestly 
engaged in inducing a " corpse " ant to quit their tent by guiding him gently 
with bits of twig so as to avoid the fetid result of annoying him. 

To return to hawks. I sometimes used to ride down a hare on the Arori Plain 
in SomaUland, keeping on him till I killed him by striking him on the head with 
the short handle of a camel whip which I swung by the leather thong, or else he 
squatted so dead-beat that I could jump off my pony and pick him up. Twice 
when I had an exhausted hare in front of me, an eagle swooped down and made 
repeated attempts to deprive me of the fruits of the chase. Once I only succeeded 
in rescuing my dimier by riding over the pirate, actually hitting him with my 
whip as he rose under the pony's nose. 

The Arori Plain was a great place for Secretary Birds, which used to give a 
weird display when killing a snake or lizard ; banging their prey Avith their 
wings, stamping on it violently, and giving one the impression at a distance 
that one was watching an unusually energetic war-dance by a Red Indian Brave. 

The Hammer-head Storks, other queer denizens of the country, were wont to 
build a huge thatched nest of sticks in the top of some moderate sized tree. 
There was one in the toj? of a dead " guda " thorn tree close to one of my shoot- 
ing camps, and watching the owners enter it' was a source of unending interest. 
The nest was at least five feet in diameter and the caves overhung the tunnel-like 
entrance which sloped up towards the centre. To enter this the bird would fly 
clumsily round two or three times until sufficient speed had been obtained ; then, 
approaching the entrance, it would suddenly close its wings and shoot up 
into it, the whole performance looking rather like a wind-blown umbrella suddenly 
collapsing and bolting up a rabbit hole. 

A most impressive flying performance is often given by choughs in Baltistan 
in the spring. A small flock (of a dozen to fifteen as a rule) will circle up into 
the sky with loud ringing cries until they are mere speck against the blue. Then 
one after the other in rapid succession, they close their wings and drop Hke plum- 
mets at a dizzy speed till within a few feet of destruction on the rocks, then spread 
their wings again and sail up to perch happily together on the hill-side. This 
performance is gone through several times during the day, the object apparently 
being to show off their flying powers by as near an approach to destruction 
as possible. 

A very dehcate operation in the flying Une is sometimes to be seen at the south 
end of the Tsokr Chumr lake in Ladakh. Here there are some broken rocky 
cliffs in which the Brahminy Ducks (or Ruddy Sheldrake) breed in large numbers. 
When the young are hatched the parents (or perhaps the female only) have to 
carry the young down to the lake. This they do by tucking them in between 
the neck and shoulder, and it is very interesting to watch an old duck start with 
short wing-strokes and then do a long vol-plane down to the shore, occasionaUy 
cocking her head round to see to the safety of her youngster. These ducks are 
sometimes found far from water and I once walked into a biood of fluffy ducklings 
of this species on the Kiangchu Plain, which is waterless except for a couple of 
small springs. These Brahminy, usually so wary in India, were much more con- 
fiding than the Bar-headed Geese which breed at the south end of the Tso Moriri 
lake. There I vainly tried in August 1911 to obtain a tender gosUng for diimer, 
but found them much too alert. 

There is a Kiangchu, or " wild horse water " here also, but it belies its name 
or I saw no Kiang there, but only a beautiful red fox, which I came on while he 



QUAINT BEASTS AND QUEER HABITS. 209 

was rolling in the sand of a dry watercourse. I was without a gun, so 1 was 
unable to sscuro him for tho British Museum and have never yet been able to 
identify his species. Tho other Kiangchu, forty miles to tlie north-east, lived 
upto its name with a vengeance. There, on the occasion of my first stalk after 
Tibetan Gazelle in 1905, I was unfortunate enough to attract the attention by 
one of those inquisitive nuisances known as Kiang in tho local vernacular and of 
other more expressive names to the sportsmen who have endured their vagaries. 
On this occasion the first individual, having conducted an independent investi- 
gation, then went off and fetched two of his friends to enjoy the sight of an angry 
man trying to hide behind a stone five sizes too small. Others came up and 
brought their pals till finally I had seventeen of them kicking up their heels and 
playing at circus behind mo, so that the gazelle I was stalking gathered that there 
was something a,miss and departed over the horizon. These coffin-headed 
brutes, half horse, half donkey, turn up and show off their beautiful trottmg 
action (their only virtue amongst innumerable vices) in all sorts of out-of-the 
way places, and generally manage to arrive at the very moment best calculated 
to spoil a stalk. I had one or two stalks spoiled by wild asses in Somaliland. 
but they were not nearly so numerous as the Kiang is in Ladakh, of whicli latter 
I once collected twenty-three by the simple expedient of lying on the ground 
and waving my handkerchief, there being but one solitary specimen in sight when 
I began. I am glad to say that I never lost my temper quite so badly as to shoot 
one, as did one sportsman of my acquaintance with a Somali Wild Ass. At that 
time these animals were on the " protected " list and when asked by the autho- 
rities for an explanation of his crime, my friend stated that he had done it in 
self-defence, as the animal had kicked him ! 



27 



210 

" THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA." 

BY 

Claud B. Tioehurst, M.A., M.B.O.U., late Captain, E.A.M.C. 

Assisted by 

P. A. Buxton, M.A., M.B.O.U., late Captain, R.A.M.C. 

and 

Major R. E. Cheesman, M.B.O.U., 5th Bufis. 
{With two j)l%tes.) 

Preface. 

During the late war a number of officers who were more or less 
interested in Ornithology found themselves in Mesopotamia, and thanks 
to the help and stimulus given by the Bombay Natural History So- 
ciety, and espe ciaUy by their Curator, Capt. N. B. Kinnear, consider- 
able collections and observations were made, while Sir Percy Cox, 
the High Commissioner, gave great help in many ways. 

It has been the aim of the Society to get together all the information 
available from the various members of the Force, and the collections 
they made, in order that as comprehensive a paper as possible on the 
Avifauna of Mesopotamia could be written for the use of present and 
future British residents in that country, and the Society has asked me 
to undertake the task of working out the collections and putting to- 
gether this account, which I have had much pleasure m doing, — ably 
assisted by Major Cheesman and Capt. Buxton, without whose help 
this paper could not have been written. 

The chief collections were formed by (1) Maj. Cheesman and Sir 
Percy Cox, (2) Capt. Pitman, (3) Capt. Buxton, whUe Major Ross, Lt.- 
Col. BaOey, Maj. Logan Home, Capt. Aldworth, Capt. Harrison, 
Capt. Armstrong, the writer and others contributed smaller numbers. 
The first two collections have been presented to the Bombay Natural 
History Society. Accompanying these collections were a number of 
observations and field notes, while others contributed also notes of 
varying amount and value. The list of contributors is as follows : — 

Capt. T. P. Aldworth, D.S.O., 3rd Maj. Logan Home. 

W. Kent. 

Capt. J. Armstrong, R.A.M.C, Capt. F. Ludlow. 

Capt. R. Bigne]]. Lt. A. St. G. Macdonald. 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 211 

Lt.-Col. F. M. Bailey, CLE. Lt.-Col. H. A. F. Magrath, 51st 

Sikhs. 
Maj.-Genl. Sir F. Brooking. The late Maj. G. A. Perreau. 

■Capt. Burgess. H. St. J. Philby, Esq., C.I.E., 

Pol. Dept. 
€apt. P. A. Buxton, R.A.M.C. Capt. C. R. Pitman. 

Maj. R. E. Cheesman, 5th Buffs. Capt. G. D. Robinson. 
Maj. J. Chrystal. Maj. E. J. Ross. 

Lt.-Col. F. P. Connor, I.M.S. Lt.-Col. Stevens. 

Maj.-Genl. Sir Percy Cox, G.C.I.E., Capt. H. F. Stoneham, O.B.E., 

K.C.S.I. 1st E. Surrey. 

Lt.-Genl. Sir R. Egerton. 
Maj. Fleming, D.S.O., Trench Mor- Capt. C. B. Ticehurst, R.A.M.C. 

tar Brig. 
Capt. W. Graham, R.A.M.C. Lt.-Col. F. E. Venning. 

Capt. L. Harrison, R.A.M.C. Lt.-Col. F. Wall, C.M.G., I.M.S. 

Capt. Hedgecock, Pol. Dept. Maj. Wernicke. 

Capt. R. W. G. Kingston, I.M.S. Lt.-Col. Sir A. T. Wilson, C.S.L, 

CLE., D.S.O. 
Capt. R. Hobkirk, 1st Manchesters. 

Lt. W. Hyatt. Maj. Wimshurst, 5th Buffs. 

Capt. C. M. Ingoldby, R.A.M.C. Lt.-Col. H. S. Wood, I.M.S. 
Capt. T. R. Livesey, Pat. Lancers. Maj. Watts, 23rd Cavalry. 
Maj. -Gen. H. D. Keary. 

To all these gentlemen the thanks of the Society are due for their 
help and co-operation. 

The area covered by this paper is roughly from Mosul to Fao and 
from the Jebel Hamrin range to the Syrio-Arabian desert, and although 
over this large area there are a considerable number of observations 
and collections from many places, these have naturally followed the 
lines of war's progression, and there are parts where it so happened no 
one of ornithological tastes happened to be, notably on the Euph- 
rates from Nasiriyeh to Hilla and from Feluja to Hit, and again in the 
North on the line Khanikin-Kifri-Kirkuk-Mosul, little was done, while 
Major Cheesman and Capt. Aldworth were the only ones to visit the 
latter city. This paper therefore, is not and cannot be the last word 
on Mesopotamian Ornithology, but is intended to be a ground work 
and book of reference for future workers. Defects and omissioas there 
are bound to be, but it must be remembered that these observations 
and collections were made during war and often under extremely 
trying circumstances. 

In order to make this account as complete as possible for our area, 
I have included or referred to anything which has been written in the 
past on the subject, and a full bibliography (for which I am mdebted 
to the Rev. F. C R. Jourdain) is appended. During the war a few 
notes have appeared in the B. N. H. S. Journal and in the " Field ; " 



212 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATTJRAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vd. XXVIII. 

the latter were chiefly remarkable for the species the authors and no 
one else ever met with and some of them were, to say the least, highly 
improbable. 

The working up of the notes of various observers has been no simple 
task ; many notes were made in the trenches, or at least under active 
service conditions where baggage was reduced to a minimum, and were 
therefore not presented in a manner which lent themselves to easy 
abstraction. Furthermore, as was to be expected, many observers 
saw species which were quite new to them and mistakes in their identi- 
fication were inevitable. Fortunately the collections contained speci- 
mens of the great majority of the birds which are known to occur in 
our area and so in many cases I have been able to correct wrong identi- 
fications ; in other cases however, unless it is extremely probable or 
known that the species recorded does occur, in the absence of specimens 
I have omitted them or referred to them in the text. Names of places 
in the text mean the districts round those places. 

In the letter-press it will be noted here and there that I have drawn 
attention to various points which require further elucidation, and it 
is to be hoped that any one who has the chance will make special 
efforts to throw light on the questions raised ; I shall be at all times 
most willing to give any help or information to, or identify specimens 
for any one who cares to communicate with me, and I propose from 
time to time, as new facts accumulate, to add addenda and corrigenda 
to the Mesopotamian avifauna in the Journal. 

Of each species I have given the English and Latin names and below 
these, as a trinomial, the names of the race or races of that species 
which 1 am satisfied occur in Mesopotamia ; I have also added, as I 
think it may be of use, the original references and type localities to 
all, except to those species of which some, but at present underter- 
mined, race occurs. In some cases {e.g., some Waders and Ducks, etc.) 
for economy of space only the binomial name is given ; either I have 
considered that no good races occur, or else are so remote from Meso- 
potamia that any but the typical race is unlikely to occur. 

As regards the much vexed question of nomenclature it is now fairly 
widely agreed to start from the tenth edition of Linnseus, an ill advised 
procedure which for the time being has put nomenclature into a chaotic 
state ; even the names of our British species, on which perhaps more 
study and discussion has taken place than on those of any other area, 
are not yet finally and indisputably decided on, while in some faunal 
areas hardly any revision has as yet been attempted. 

Therefore it is needless to say that there is no up-to-date list (will 
any list ever be correct according to the present rules of nomenclature 
for more than six months after publication ? !) which for our area we 
can follow. The hunting up of the latest published opinions, scattered 
throughout the ornithological literature of the world, on what various 
names should now be, entails more time than is at my disposal and if 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 213 

accomplished would only produce a list which iu a short time would 
be " out-of-date " again ! However it is to be hoped that the nomen- 
clature here used will at all events be understood by everyone and that . 
after all is the only object of Latin nomenclature. 

In working out the collections, I am greatly indebted to the facil- 
ities given me by the authorities at the British Museum (Natural 
History) and especially to Mr. N. B. Kinnear for the assistance ho has 
given me in. many ways. My thanks are due to Captains P. A. Buxton 
and J. Armstrong for the use of their collections, to Mr. Jourdain foi 
notes on Mesopotamian eggs in his collection and to Miss M. Shopland, 
Miss D. Smith and Mr. F. W. Smalley for kind help in typing the 
manuscript. 

The total number of specimens from all sources available for exami- 
nation is about 2,500 comprising 241 species out of the 330 species 
known to occur. 

C. B. TICEHURST. 

Lowestoft, England, 

March 1st, 1921. 

INTRODUCTION. 

]. Geography. — The Mesopotamian plain, by which we mean that part of 
Mesopotamia which, between Fao in the extreme south and Fatah Gorge (where 
the Jebel Hamrin range crosses the Tigris) north of Baghdad, lies between the 
latter range on the east and the edge of the Syrian desert on the west, is remark- 
able above all things for its uniformity, or as some might put it, its extreme 
monotony. As one passes from Fao up the Shatt-al-Arab, there is seen what at 
first looks Uke a forest of date palms bordering the river banks ; but where here 
and there a peep beyond i?. obtained, one realizes the " forest" is only a belt of 
trees a few yards up to two miles mde beyond which seems limitless mud desert. 
The uniformity of the land is essentially due to geological causes ; the whole 
area is rich alluvial soil and consists of very fine silt brought down through long 
ages from the highlands of Eastern Asia Minor, Armenia and N. W. Persia. Over 
the country this silt has been spread to a depth of hundreds of feet and it foUowa 
therefore that underlying rocks exercise no influence on either the fauna or the 
flora. The surface of this alluvial deposit is practically flat except where it has 
been disturbed by the hand of man. This flatness is so extreme that it must 
be seen to be realized, but we may mention that the altitude of Baghdad is 112 
feet above sea level though its distance from the sea is 360 miles, and Samarra 
420 miles from the coast is but 200 feet in elevation ; were the Kew flagstaff to be 
erected at Fao, the flag would float above the level of the entire Mesopotamian 
plain. On the very rough quarter inch maps, which were in use during the war, 
small mounds were mai'ked and their heights relative to the plain, were it only 
three or four feet, were indicated. 

Through this alluvial plain run the two great rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, 
with their tributaries, e.g., the Karun in the south and the Dyala in the north, 
both loaded with silt at the time of the annual high water in the month of April. 
At this season the water of the rivers tends to overflow the whole country and 
much of it is led away over the surface of the ground for irrigation ; most of the 
silt which it carries is deposited fairly near the rivers, and it therefore happens 
that the land nearest the river is generally very slightly higher than the land 
(further from it. Long ago the waters of the Tigris entered the sea at a place 



214 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



to-day marked by the ruins of the Median Wail between Beled and Saraarra and 
now over 400 miles from the coast. The old estuary of the Euphrates Avould be 
about the same distance while that of the Karun was in the vicinity of Ahwaz. 
As the rivers raised the level of the delta, the sea was gradually forced back. In 
Assyrian times it is supposed to have reached Ur of the Chaldees on the Euphrates 
and to Amara on the Tigris ; since then it has receded another 180 miles to Fao. 
The rivers when in flood, still rise above the level of the whole area and are kept 
more or less in their course by artificial banks. 

In many parts there is fertile soil right up to the river banks on which wheat 
and barley are grown, while the cultivatable area could by a scientific irrigation 
be enormously extended. In places where the cultivation has lapsed for many 
years, the river banks may become covered with an almost impenetrable jungle 
consisting of Acacia {Prosopis stephania) and Liquorice {Olycerrhiza glabra) 
waist high with bushes of Tamarisk (Tamarix), Poplar {Populus euphratica). Tea- 
tree (Lycium europceum) and Bramble {Ruhus. sp.). Similar jungle grows on 
one or two islands, especially that at Kharadah below Baghdad. Close to the 
river where water is abundant date pahns {Phoenix dadylifera) are cultivated 
over large areas ; there are also extensive vegetable gardens near towns which are 
planted with figs, apricots, peaches, apples, pomegranates, mulberries, limes and 
occasionally oranges. 

In many parts of Mesopotamia, if one travels ten miles from the Tigris or 
Euphrates or one of the main effluent irrigation canals, one comes to parts which 
lie below the level of the corn land by a few feet. Such land is often temporary 
marsh and is quite dry and sunbaked by mid-summer. There is no boundary 
between these temporary marshes and the permanent ones, many of which con- 
tain huge areas of water which remains two to three feet deep all the year round, 
and grow crops of rushes and tall reeds ; such marshes are the Hor Hawaize, 
parts of the Hamar Lake and the swamp at Nejef, while these at Suweikieh and 
Akkakuf and many others partake of a more temporary character. 

Certain areas are low-l\dng but have no natural drainage ; some of these patches . 
are only a few acres in extent and are only " low-lying " bj^ a few inches, others: 
are much larger. In either case, flood and rain water accumulates here and 
evaporates, and gradually becomes Salter and salter ; at some seasons they are 
quite white with a saline incrustation. Some of these patches are completely 
devoid of vegetation, in others the succulent bush (Sueda monoica) grows freely. 

Parts of the Mesopotamian plain, which are beyond the present reach of watei' 
and so practically devoid of vegetation in the summer months, may be said to 
consist of bare flat mud desert, and no stones or gravel are found in the plain 
proper. 

About 50 miles above Baghdad the aspect of the country changes somewhat and 
one leaves the plain proper at the Median Wall. At 120 miles from Baghdad, 
the Jebel Hamrin range crosses the Tigris which j)asses through the range at 
Fatah Gorge. Between here and Mosul (our limit in this paper) is an undulating 
plain (700 feet) of gravel and stones covered with grass in the spring, and here 
and there along the river are cKffs 100 feet or so in height, similar to those which 
are also found between Samarra and Tekrit. The ground now rises more quickly 
and alluvium gives place to lime stones, gypsum, gravel and rocks. Lying above 
the highest river level, the land cannot be irrigated ; a certain amount of " daim " 
or rain fed cultivation however, is cariied on in the depressions where drought 
resisting wheat and barley are grown and obtain a small amount of water in 
addition to the actual rainfall from the shelving sides of the small hills. The 
low table land after winter rains is covered for a short period with grasses and 
flowers such as scabius, iris, delphinium and wild holly-hock, and is grazed 
over by the herds and flocks of roving tribes. 

2. Climate. — The average annual rainfall is six inches, which is confined if 
the months of December to April. The shade temperature rises to 120° or more 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 216 

n July, and in January twelve degrees of frost have been registered. On the 
whole, one may say that the climate from November to April is well nigh perfect, 
and from May to September the reverse. The Shumaal or north wind commences 
to blow about the end of May and continues into July ; it is welcomed as modi- 
fying the hot days but causes a certain amount of dust storm. Snow is not 
known in the plains but hail storms occur especially in spring. The tops of the 
Pusht-i-kuh Mountains hold snow till about May and are visible from the Tigris 
from Amara to Kut. 

Tracing the Jebel Hamrin, a sandstone range, to the south-east, we find it 
forms a more or less continuous line of liills to Ahwaz and form as it were foot- 
liills to the great Pusht-i-kuh Mountains and also the eastern boundary of the 
Mesopotaniian plain ; this range runs up to 700-800 feet, while the Pusht-i-kuh 
Mountains, which are outside our area, run up to about 9,000 feet. The latter, 
however, exert a certain amount of influence on our area as not a few of the 
winter visitors tq the plains pass the summer there and in the high table land of 
Persia wliich is cooler and better supplied with vegetation. The Jebel Hamrin 
range depends for its beauty on its colouring and except for a short period in 
spring, it is destitute of vegetation. It is a rugged country of hills and vales and 
includes the oil-fields at Maidan-i-Naptun on the east of the Karun. 

3. Divisions. — Although the Mesopotamian plain is so flat and uniform, it 
may, for purposes of zoo-geography and more particularly for the information 
of residents in the country, be divided into eight sub-divisions with three more 
outside the plains. 

1 . The Seacoast and mud banks at the mouth of the Shat-al-Arah at Fao. 

A certain amount of information about the ornithology of this district was 
supplied by Mr. W. D. Gumming during his residence there in the eighties, but 
very little collecting was done there during the war and no description of the 
place has been given. There are enormous areas of swampy grass and mud banks 
more or less covered by high tide and probably many creeks and islets. In 
winter it is, of course, the happy hunting ground of vast numbers of Waders, 
GuUs, etc., while here the Pelican and Flamingo breed and the Reef Heron is 
resident. Of particular interest is the Khor Abdulla or AbduUa Banks. Arm- 
strong, who while at Fao made enquiries concerning them, states that they are 
a group of rocks situated on the Arabian side of Fao and about 15 miles distant. 
They lie in an old channel of the Shat-al-Arab surrounded at low water by vast 
mud-banks, while between them there is a certain amount of silted mud and 
sand. It must be a big breeding groimd certainly of the Crab Plover, wliile the 
Spoonbill, Pehcan Reef Heron and perhaps other Herons are said to nest there. 
No Englishman has apparently visited them, except the Superintendent, Tele- 
graphs, at Fao from whom this information is derived, t 

2. The edge of the Syrian and Arabian desert which lies on the right bank of the 
Euphrates and Shat-al-Arab. 

This consists of a sandy and gravelly table land gradually rising from 30 to 
2,000 feet in altitude towards the centre of Arabia. This table land is very bare 
excepting in the spring and has very few birds ; on migration, however, a fail' 
number of birds visit such oases as exist as at Shaiba. Here occur as typical 
denizens the Bifasciated Lark (Alosmon), the Finch Lark (Pyrrhulauda) and a 
Desert Lark {Ammomancs). 

3. Permanent marsh and reed areas, and temporary marsh. 

The Hamar Lake, Horr Sanef, Howaiza marsh are formed by the continuous 
overflow of the Euphrates, Tigris and Kerkha rivers into vast depressions just 
above tidal influence in the Kurna district are the most important of these in 
the south, and the Euphrates marshes round Museyib and the Nejef swamps in 
the middle of the plain. In winter, countless mjTiads of wildfowl immigrate here. 

t Sir Percy Cox has visited these Rocks several times and the Society's Collection 
coniaing slcins and eggs from there presented by Sir Percy. A note of these is being sent to Dr. 
Xicehurst : Eds : 



216 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIL 

The most frequently seen are Tufted Duck ; the Grey Lag and White-fronted 
are the common geese, while the Heron tribe is very well represented with Goliath 
Purple, Common, Night and Squacco Herons, Bitterns, Little Bitterns, Egrets, 
Ibis, etc., and Coots, Purple Gallinule, etc., swarm. In summer it would 
seem to be ornithological ly not so interesting. Buxton travelled by canoe twice 
tor two days across the Hor Hawezeh in July, and saw comparatively few birds. 
For two days he passed through gigantic beds of reeds, many of them 18-20 feet 
high, intersected by narrow channels of clear water, six feet deep in places ; 
there were no small birds in the reeds except close to land, where the Moustached 
Sedged Warbler was common, and the larger birds seemed to consist of nothing 
but Purple Coots, Pigmy Cormorants, Goliath Heron and Darters, but doubt- 
less there were a few others such as Marsh Harrier and Purple Heron as in other 
lakes, and there is a certain amount of evidence that a few Grey Lag remain to 
breed, as certainly does the Marbled Duck, while in the Euphrates marshes 
around Museyib, the Avocet, Whiskered Tern and Black-necked Grebe, etc., nest. 
Temporary lakes are frequently formed by the spill of the rivers in flood such 
as at the LTmal Brahm and Aldkarkuf, etc. These are large open sheets of water 
affording a haven in winter for water fowl and waders generally, but under the 
influence of the spring sun, dry up quickly and on the receding mud waste. Com- 
mon and Lesser Terns, Kentish and Little Ringed Plover and White-tailed Lap- 
wing breed in numbers ; the Stilt on the more swampy parts. 

4. Date and Fruit. Gardens. 

These are the haunts of the tree loving species to which in Mesopotamia, 
little alternative exists. Among the resident birds are the Wood Pigeon, 
Persian Crow, Indian Ringed Dove, Babbler and Bulbul, while the Indian 
Roller is restricted to the Shat-al-Arab area. In -wdnter come the song 
Thrush, Persian Robin, Isabellinc Shrike, Phylloscopi, etc., while the tall 
date palms are resorted to for roosting by countless Rooks, Starlings, Black 
Kites and Night Herons. In summer come to breed the Olivaceous Warbler, 
Nightingale, Grey-backed Warbler, Persian Turtle Dove and Yellow-throated 
Sparrow (Gymnorhis), etc., and manj'^ passage migrants halt here. One day every 
bush is full of Phylloscopi, another every pomegranate bush holds Woodchat or 
Red-backed Shrikes or the bean fields are full of Great Reed Warblers. 

5. The. Corn Lands. 

In winter, this is the haunt of Rooks, Jackdaws, Stock and Rock doves 
which feed on the newly sewn corn ; the Crested Lark is ubiquitous and resi- 
dent ; Sky, Wood and Short-toed Larks, House and Spanish Sparrows are to 
be seen in flocks in winter while the Pallid Harrier and Kestrel particularly 
affect this type of country. As the corn grows high, various migrants may here 
be found such as the Sedge Warbler, Lesser White-throat, etc. During ii-rigation 
in winter and early spring, numbers of Wagtails and Meadow, Water and Red- 
throated Pipits haunt the wettest parts. 

In the summer, after harvest, the Large Pin-tailed Sandgrouse in immense 
numbers, and the Spotted Sand Grouse in small numbers breed in and round the 
corn lands. 

6. The Rivers and low Scrub Jungle along the banks. 

In winter, the White Wagtail, Green Plover, Green and Red Shanks and Com - 
mon Sandpiper are among the familiar v/inter \dsitors, while the Common, 
Pied and White -breasted I^ngfishers, Red- Wattled Lapwing are resident and 
breed. In winter too, many Gulls {L. cachinnans and ridibundus) may be 
seen far up the river inland, as well as Gull-billed, Little and Caspian Terns, 
while among the duoks, the Smew and Golden-eye seem to show a predelic- 
tion for the rivers themselves. 

In the scrub and scrub jungles which only exist in the ■vicinity of rivers and 
canals, the Black Partridge or Francolin is a characteristic bird, as also are Mene- 
tries Warbler, Streaked Wren Warbler, and here and there (as a summer visitor) 
the Grey Hypocolius and Scrub Sparrow, while in winter, these last are joined 



THE BIBDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 217 

at roost by hordes of Spaiiish Sparrow. Here, too, in winter may bo seen Blue 
Throats, Robin.^, Black Redstarts, etc., and the few Finches which occur, such as 
\ he Goldfinch, Cliaffincli, Eastern Linnet and rarer still the Red-fronted Finch 
{Metaponia) and Crimson-winged Bullfinch (Rhodospiza). 

7. Uncultivated land beijond the irrigated area. 

The dwellers in this desolate region arc few; MacQueen's Bustard breeds there 
while the Norfolk Plover and Cream-coloured Courser have been seen in the bree- 
d.ng season in pairs, and almost certainly breed. Here, too, may be found the 
Pratincole in colonies, while the Blue-cheeked Bee-eater makes its burrows into 
the flat surface, choosing places with a sandy subsoil. In winter a few Eagles 
Long-legged Buzzards, odd Isabelline and other Wheatears and occasionally the 
Desert Warbler are almost the sole occupants to be seen on a long day's journey, 

8. Towns and Buildings. 

The House Sparrow must take premier place and is a resident everywhere. 
The White Stork nests on the houses and mosques in Baghdad and northwards. 
The Barn Owl is a local resident, while the Kestrel and probably also the Lesses 
Kestrel utilize suitable buildings. The Eastern Swift (C murinus) breeds in 
most of the lai-ger towns. The Swallows are summer visitors and breed in most 
of the houses, while their nests built on the tent poles were an annual feature of 
the canvas camps. The Rock Dove inhabits the towns and ruins, such as at 
Ctesiphon, in numbers, and enjoys an immunity from persecution from the Maho- 
medans by living in the sacred mosques ; ihe flocks of unmixed blue are one 
of the beauties of Baghdad and it is hoped it will be long before the nondescript 
breeds of the fancier appear and convert tliem into the mongrel pigeon communi- 
ties usually seen. 

This concludes the subdivisions of the great alluvial plain ; above this and 
always above the highest level of the rivers we have :— 

\. Undidating table land. — Here on the rolling plains of gravel and grass such 
as between Fatah Gorge and Mosul, the Calandra and Short-toed Larks which 
spread out in winter to lower parts, retire to nest ; in suitable spots the Desert 
Lark (Ammomanes) is resident. In the cliiis where the river has cut its way 
through the hills of conglomerate rocks, BonelU's Eagle, Long-Legged Buzaard, 
Egyptian Vulture and Raven breed. The See-See (Ammoperdix) is not uncom- 
mon on the rougher ground, and is, of course, resident. 

Here, too, is one of the breeding places of the Brahminy Duck. On the vast 
grassy plains, the Great Bustard is to be met vpith round Kirkuk and Mosul and 
was not uncommon when these places were first occupied. 

Correspondingly similar places are to be found at Shahroban on the Diala, at 
Ahwaz on the Karun, and somewhere above Feluja on the Euphrates. 

2. Foothills of the mountains 900 — 1,500 feet from Mosul to Ahwaz — 
Cheesman and Buxton were about the only observers who \'isited these rugged 
hills and they found very few species there but as might be expected a few species 
occur there which are not found elsewhere, the Red-rumped Swallow and Rock 
Nuthatch were apparently resident as also is the Chukar in suitable places, while 
Hume's Chat was also obtained here. The Pusht-i-kuh Mountains ai"e outside 
our area ; they include the Zagros referred to by Zarudny. 

P. A. B. 

R. E. C. 

4. Migration — A feature of the avifauna of Mesopotamia is the small number 
of resident species in contrast to a long list of migrants and winter visitors. In 
fact one might mention places where there is but one resident— the crested lark. 
During the spring and autumn migrations, even these desolate spots are thronged 
with bird life undertaking the great pilgrimage, either staying a while to rest 
or feed, or merely passing over. The small oasis, such as Shaiba, on the edge of 
28 



218 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY. Vol. XXVIIL 



tho Syrian and Arabian deserts, provide more favourable opportunity for bird 
migration study than would a much frequented island in mid-ocean, to wliich 
the oasis in a reverse sense corresponds. The few tall tamarisk or palm trees can 
be seen for long distances across the thirsty sand-waste and promise shade and a 
refresher at the wells. Here taking advantage of the scantiest vegetation or 
shelter, the most unexpected species in such a region were encountered, as land- 
rails, moorhen and the nightingale ; next day these had departed, their place 
being taken by wagtails, flycatchers, cuckoo, blackcap and white-thoat, and 
so in even changing procession until the last one had passed and the small planta- 
tion settles down to its normal aspect— the home of a pair or two of crested 
larks. 

Mesopotamia lies in one of the great migration routes of the Palsearctic birds 
(a geographical division of the bird kingdom to wliich the English birds also 
belong). Tliis division roughly comprises Europe and N. Asia. The Southern 
boundary lino ])asses along the Persian coast and at Fao strikes across the Syrian 
desert to the Guft of Akaba. Most of Arabia at all events, is in the Ethiopian 
or African region.* 

Palmen suggested several routes by wliich most Palaearctic birds travel to and 
from their summer quarters. It is only necessary to give one he^e, but as a 
matter of interest we will include route A which " lea\ing the Siberian shores of 
the Polar Sea passes down the west coast of Norway to the North Sea and the 
British Isles " thence through France and Spain to Africa, in some 
oases far south in Africa. The route affecting this j^aper is route D, 
Starting from the extreme north of Siberia it ascends tho river Ob and branches 
out near Tobolsk, one track diverging to the Volga, descends that river and so 
passes to the sea of Azov, the Black Sea and thence by the Bosphorus and Aegean 
to Egypt ; another track makes for the Casjiian by way of the Ural river and so 
leads to the Persian Gulf. The latter branch is that which passed twice a year 
over the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force, mostly following the line of the 
three large rivers, Tigris, Euphrates and Karun, though doubtless many 
birds also make their way through the valley and passes of the mountains of 
Kurdistan and Luristan. 

During the war, our stay in any one locality was always brief, our own migra- 
tions were frequent and time was occujned in other directions and so our know- 
ledge of migration is too scanty to do more than roughly indicate what possibly 
happens. However our observations at the oasis of Sliaiba led us to beheve that 
these birds which leave Mesopotamia for the winter pass on into Arabia and most 
of them presumably cross the Red Sea to find winter quarters in Africa. The 
centre of Arabia is unfortunately terra incognita ornithologicall3^ The normal 
autunm migration at Sliaiba was mo^nng in a south to south-west direction and 
if these courses Avere held they must either go straight across Arabia or possibly 
strike the Persian Gulf somewhere near Koweit and perhaps coast along before 
striking across tliis continent. An exception to this general direction was noticed 
at Shaiba in the case of the yellow wagtails, flocks of which were seen on several 
consecutive days flying low over the desert in a North-easterly direction which 
would bring them to the Shat-al-Arab near Busra. The only explanations of this 

* Where one should draw the boundary of the Palfearctic and Ethiopian regions 
cannot be determined as yet, until the fauna of Central Arabia is known and that of 
the Arbian shore of the Persian Gulf. Palestine, in spite of its few Ethiopian forms 
must certainly bo considered Palaearctic and so must Sinai ; Hedjaz and Yemen on 
the other hand partake of an Ethiopian character. Mr. H. St. J. Philby, C.I.E., who 
has recently visited the Washm Province of Central Arabia informs me that be met 
with a grey Partridge there, probably FrancoUmis pondicerianus, an exceedingly 
interesting fact, as hitherto it was only known from Mascat in the Arabian continent. 
Mr. Philby knows the Black Partridge and See-See well and is quite certain his birds 
were not these. — C.B.T. 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 219 

would seem to bo that having " made " the oasis of Shaiba and found nothing 
but hniitlcss bare desei-t beyond, thoy had decided to make the river again and 
coast on up the Gulf and ciosa inland elsewhere. 

Besides the general north to south, south to north migrations there must be, 
we think, with some species, an east and west migration and vice versa, by which 
such species as the Blackheaded Bunting and Rosy Pastor reach their breeding 
grounds but details of this wo know little of. There are, of course, too many 
local migrations as with the Pintailed Sand Grouse, which probably are influenced 
by food supply, and those of the Gullsand Terns moving to their breeding 
grounds. 

It should not be inferred, of course, that the majority of birds make the com- 
plete journey from the far north through Mesopotamia to Africa ; comparatively 
few attempt this, and our migrants may be roughly grouped into the following 
divisions : — 

A. There are some which breed in the far north and in winter come no 
further south than the Caspian ; as example of this is the Redwing. 

B. Others nesting north of Persia come further south and winter in Meso- 
potamia such as many of the ducks and waders, some of the Pipits, the 
Short-eared Owl, Siberian Chiffchaff, and Dark-backed Herring Gull. 

C. Others nesting north of Persia are passage migrants through Mesopo- 
tamia and winter in Africa such as many of the Cuckoos, Swallows, 
Warblers, Wagtails. 

D. Another gi-ouji nesting in Persia merely descend to the Mcsopotamian 
plains to winter, among them are the Imperial Sand Grouse, Wheatears 
of several species, Persian Robins, Sharpc's Crow, Black Kite, Griffon, 
Vulture, etc. 

E. Another group are summer visitors to Mesopotamia and go in some 
eases hardly north of this, and winter in Africa, such as the Blue-cheeked 
Bee-eater. 

R. E. C. 

5. Character of the Avifauna — This is undoubtedly Palajarctic, the 
majority of the breeding species belonging to Palsearctic genera, such as 
Mdon, Hypolais, Sylvia, Passer, Pica, Acrocej)halus, Melanocori/pha, etc., 
but a few Indian species have spread west along the Persian Gulf as far as 
Mesopotamia, such as Coracias henrjhalensis, Pycnonotus hucotis, Prinia 
lepida, Porphyrio poliocephalus, Gymnorhis flavicollis, Sarcogrammus indicus, 
Gallimda c. parvifrons. In winter and on the migrations, Mesopotamia is the 
meeting ground of East and West ; thus we may find Phylloscopus collybiki,, 
tristiS; and trochilus all frequenting the same bushes; Calandrella minor minor 
and m. Jieinei associating in the same flock ; Phoenicurus phoenicurus and ph. 
mesoleuca ; P. ochruros with phoenicuroides ; Saxicola r. rubicola with maura ; 
Turdus merula syriacus with intermedins ; wliile Streptopelia turlur arenicola 
comes to breed, S. t. turtur is a passage migrant through the country. So too 
one finds different races passing through to reach their different breeding grounds 
in the north, such as Motacilla J. thunbergi in the far north, campestris and dom- 
hrowskyi to further south of this and so on. Here too in Mesopotamia probably 
is the meeting ground, roughly speaking, of the breeding areas of some closely 
allied races, as of the Blue Rock Thrush, See-See, Little Owl, Swallow, etc., but 
details of this cannot yet be worked out. 

On the other hand Africa supplies a few birds such as Th. asthiopicus, Plotus 
rufus, Ceryle rudis while Phyrrhidauda frontalis, Dromas ardeola, Alcemon alau- 
dipes, Podiceps capensis and Pterocles lichtensteini arc Indo-African species. 

Of widely distributed species it will be found generally that it is an eastern 
race which visits Mesopotamia in winter and on passage, and besides receiving 
migrants from Persia and the far north many must come from far more eastwards 



220 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

such as Alaiula dulcivox, Anthus s. blakistoni, Calandrella m. heinei, Caprimutgus 
e. zanidnyi, Falcoce. pallidus, etc., while there is no definite evidence of any 
coming from the far north-west. 

As one might expect from the character of the country some genera and fami- 
lies are well represented while others are not, thus the Gulls, Terns and Waders 
are to the fore, as also are the desert birds, wliile Shrikes, Larks and Wheatears 
can claim at least eight forms each ; Woodpeckers, Creepers, Tree Nut-hatches 
are as to be expected quite absent and of the Tits one species is found in 
one corner only and another (Anthoscopus) is a rare visitor. It is somewhat 
curious considering the abundant food supjjly during the war that Vultures 
should be so scarce ; only two species occur with any regularity and then not 
commonly. 

Part Ox Mesopotamia has, of course, only emerged from the sea within historical 
times as already explained, but it is somewhat remarkable that so few forms 
have segregated out into recognizable geographical races more or less pecuhar 
to the country and it shews what a long period of colonization is necessary some- 
times for differentiation to take place, thus the Prinia, Pica, Sarcogrammus 
Porphyrio, Alcemon, Crateropiis caudatus, Coracias benghalensis and probably the 
Cisticola are in no way differentiated from the Indo-Baluchi forms, while the 
Ammomanes, Passer domesticus and Passer moabiticus are in no way separable 
from the Palestine forms. Of European forms we have Sterna minuta, Hirundo 
rustica, Riparia riparia, Mgialitis curonica and alexandrinus and Hypolais, 
elceica but most of these are of wide distiibution and great migrants. So far as 
we know, the only species which have segregated out into recognisable races are 
Ammoperdix griseogularis, FrancoUnus vidgaris, Corvus capellanus, Alectoris 
grceca and Pycnonotus leucotis, but the last two are not entirely confined to Meso- 
potamia, while the only species entirely peculiar to the country are Acrocephalus 
babylonicus and Crateropiis altirostris. 

Altogether one may say that Mesopotamia has an avifauna of peculiar interest, 
and that in spite of the opinion of some, in few places does the study of geogra- 
phical races tend to throw so great a light on the components of an avifauna as 
here. Is it of no interest to know whence the migrants come and from what 
direction these plains have received their now resident species? 

Two districts call for sjiecial comment ; Urfa in the far north-west and the 
Karun district in the south-east. 1 have included all sjjecies noted at Urfa by 
Weigold for comparison, though it is beyond the area jiroper dealt with in this 
paper, and it is of interest as shewing apparently the western limit of some 
species on passage, such as the Wood and Bonelli's Warblers, the Collared 
Flycatcher, etc. and, taking the determinations of his racial forms to be correct, 
the western hmit of some races which in our area are represented by more 
eastern races ; as these are fully noted in the letter -press they need not be 
detailed here. 

As regards the Karun district we have only the bare statements of Zarudny 
concerning the status of the various species found there ; these I have alluded to 
where necessary, but it is to be noted that in many cases the status he gives does 
not agree with those given by our observers in lower Mesopotamia, in that he 
frequently records a species as a winter visitor of which we have no records in 
winter at all. Future investigation is necessary to shew whether some of the 
these, which otherwise are not known to winter north of Africa do find the Karun 
district tempting enough to stay their passage further south or not. Several 
other species are included on the strength of Zarudny's records alone, not having 
been so far met with elsewhere ; I do not of course vouch for Zarudny's state- 
ments. 

It may perhaps be of some interest to give a Ust shewing the approximate 
status of the species in each order ; our present knowledge does not admit of an 
exact Ust and of course some species might be placed in more than one category. 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 



221 



I have placed each species in what appears to be the predominant category 
and only one race where more than one occurs is included. 



1 


Res. 


W. Vis. 


Sum. 

Vis. 


Pass 

Mig. 


Strag. 


St. 
incog. 


Passeres 


24 


43 


9 


40 


3 


14 


Piciform . , 


4 




3 


6 


1 


4 


Strigiform . . 


4 


2 




•• 




I 


Accipitriforra 


5 


15 


1 


3 


2 


5 


Palecanif orm 


2 


1 








2 


An seres 


3 


17 




1 


2 




Phoenicopteriform. . 


1 












Ardeiform . . 


6 


3 






1 


7 


Gruiform . . 


' 


2 








.. 


Charadriforra 


10 


28 


2 


2 


2 


7 


Lariform 


6 


6 


2 






2 


Podicipiform 


2 


1 










Ralliform . . 


3 


3 




2 




.. 


Columbiform 


3 


1 


1 




1 


.. 


Pterocleiiform 


2 


1 








1 


Galliform . . 


3 






1 








78 


123 


18 


55 


12 


43 



0. B. T. 

I. Raven. Corvus corax. 

Covvus corax laurencei, Hume ( Lahore to Yarkhand, p. 335, 1873^ 
— Punjab). 

The Raven is at the most a local migrant in Mesopotamia. It is fairly 
common and nests in the Jebel Hamrin range from Ahwaz in the south to at 
least Baiji, and probably further, in the north ; it also breeds on the river 
cliff's of the Adhaim and the Tigris from Samarra to Baiji. Logan Hume 
noted it building at Tekrit at the end of January and Aldvvorth found nests 
of seven and three eggs in the first week of March at the same place ;. 
Cheesman saw young being fed in the nest on April 18th at Baiji. 

In winter the Raven wanders out into the plains but is only found 
apparently at such places where the hills are no great distance away. 



222 JOUMNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVIII 



Thus there are no records from the Euphrates and none from the Tigris 
•south of Ali Gharbi, at which place the hills are only some 15 miles distant. 
Here and at Sheik Saad it is fairly common in winter frequenting in pairs 
the old battle fields, at Kut it is scarce and from Kut to some way north 
of Baghdad it appears to be absent, this stretch of the river being 60 miles 
or more from the hills. 

Four specimens examined: $, Sheik Saad, 22-12-16 ; Baiji, 18-4-19 
<P.Z.C. and R.E.C.). J $ , Ali Gharbi, 14-11-17 (P.A.B.). 

The Mesopotamian birds agree well with the Indian ones, wings 
427-440 mm. ; bill 71-80, greatest height 27-29'5 mm. 

In worn plumage they become very brown and might be mistaken for 
C. ruficollis. 

Weigold records this race also from Urfa and Zarudny from the Karun 
district. 

[The only record of C. ruficollis, the Brown-necked Raven, is that of a 
skin in the B. M. labelled Mesopotamia from either Loftus or the Euphrates 
Expedition. Mr. Kinnear, who kindly hunted up this skin and examined 
it for me, says that it is a very worn specimen of laurencei. Statements 
received concerning the occurrence of this species require verification and 
until specimens are forthcoming I include it in square brackets.] 

3. Hooded Crow. Corvus cornix. "Ghrabi. " 

1. Corvus cornix sharpii, Gates (Favina Brit. India Birds, 1, 
p. 20, 1889— Siberia). 

2. Corvus cornix capellanus, Sclater (P.Z.S., Lond., 1876, p. 694, 
tab. LXVI — Head of Persian Gulf). 

(1) Sharpe's Crow is a winter visitor to the Mesopotamian plains from 
the Persian highlands ; its time of arrival and departure were not reported 
on and, as by some observers this bird was mixed up with the resident bird 
it is somewhat difficult to elucidate its distribvition. It has been noted at 
Shush and on the Karun and Kerkha rivers in March by Woosnam and 
is recorded as a winter visitor in this area by Zarudny and at Basra by 
Tomlinson ; but most observers agree it is a rarer bird everywhere than 
■ capellanus particularly so in the lower parts of the plain ; thvis Buxton met 
with it but seldom at Amara and it was apparently not common at 
Nasariyeh. Round Baghdad however it is plentiful and is reported from 
the Euphrates as far north as Ramadi, but on the Tigris there are no records 
north of Baghdad except from near Shahroban. Weigold records that a 
crow nests at Urfa, near the Syrian boundary, which, he says, is somewhat 
dark for sharpii but paler than cornix. This crow joins up with the flocks 
of the resident bird in winter. 

(2) I am inclined to regard the resident crow of the Mesopotamian plains 
as a subspecies of ttie Hooded Crow and not as a separate species as it 
clearly replaces sharpii as the breeding crow of the plains, whereas the 
latter is also clearly the breeding bird of the Persian highlands. 

The Mesopotamian Crow is resident throughout the year and its distribution 
would appear to be practically that of the date palm. 

It is found from Fao up the Karun river to Ahwaz, Dizful, Shuster, Bund-i-kir 
and down towards Bushire ; but Woosnam noted that as soon as the plains were 
left behind its place was taken by sharpii. 

Passing up the Tigris it is common wherever there are palms to Baghdad 
and up the Euphrates to Museyib, beyond which town it seems to be scarce as 
Pitman only knew of one pair at Feluja. North of Baghdad on the Tigris it is 
said to be common in the gardens on the Diala river and near Sindia and it is 
not uncommon as far north as Samarra and Tekrit, beyond -s^hich there are no 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 223 

records. Wcigold does not include it for Urfa, nor Meinerzhagen and Sassi for 
Mosul. 

This Crow is an early breeder ; Gumming says it breeds at Fao from February 
15th to March 31st and Tomlinson found eggs on March 4th, and Aldworth several 
nests in the Nasariyeh district in the first week of March. The top of a tall date 
palm would apptar to be the almost universal site, but Logan Home noted a 
nest at Amara in a low willow tree about 15 feet from the ground. The full 
number of eggs is 4 to 5. A nest examined by Buxton was a very untidy affair 
built of camel thorn and lined with sheeps wool and old paper. Mr. Jourdain 
informs me that the average of 43 eggs in his collection is 44* 05x29- 22 mm., 
and maximum 49 • 5 x 29 • 2 and 48 x 31 • 3 ; minimum 42 • 1 >«• 28 • 6 and 4M x 27 • 6 
mm. ; there is considerable variation in size and some would pass for Raven's eggs 
while others are no larger than Rook's. 

Their habits would seem to be much like those of Crows elsewhere, and they 
are very fond of marshes and the vicinity of human habitation, doubtless for 
what they can pick up ; Pitman notes that they are inveterate egg thieves, and 
will drive Rooks off any morsel they covet ; in absence of any better perch they 
will alight on tall reeds to which they cling like ungainly huge Reed warblers ! 
Their note struck me as being harsher than that of the European Hooded Crow, 
and they have another deeper and gruffer note which I do not remember in the 
latter bird. 

In worn plumage the mantle of the Crow is a creamy white and the newly 
moulted feathers are very pale grey. 

(1) , Amara, 30-1-18 ; Baghdad, 13-12-18 (P. Z. C. and R. E. C). 

(2) Five specimens examined : Akkarkuf, 2-8-17; 25-7-17 (P. A. B.) ; $, 
Basra, 12-5-17; $, Mohommerah, 29-3-17. ($, Amara, 21-1-18. (P.Z.C. and 
B.E.C.) 

This has the same wing formula as comix 2nd primary between 6th and 7th, 
the 1st between 9th and 10th. Scapulatuf<, I may note, has quite a different 
wing to the comix group, a much shorter 6th primary so that the 2nd is between 
the 5th and 6th and 1st equals the 8th. 

Besides being noticeably paler than sharpii, capellanus has a larger bill and 
stouter feet. 

3 Rook. Corvus frugilegus. 

Corvus frugilegus, L. (Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 105, 1758— Sweden). 

The Rook is an exceeding common winter visitor to the plains of Mesopotamia 
arriving with great regularity during the third week of October and continu- 
ing to arrive till the middle of November. 

Its distribution is much influenced by the presence or absence of trees and 
cultivation, but it may be said that in suitable places it occurs from Mosul on 
the Tigris, and Ramadi on the Euphrates in the north, to Fao and the Karun 
district in the south. 

The huge flights to and from their roosting quarters, evening and morning, at 
some places such as Basra, Amara, and Kazimain must have struck the least 
ornithologically observant. 

In some gardens they roost in such masses that their droppings constitute an 
annual top dressing much appreciated by the more intelUgent land-owners. 
Flying in to roost, at a fair height as a rule, a strong wind adversely affects them, 
and Buxton noted that under such conditions they start to come in much earlier 
and finish later, while they fly close above the ground. 

Though a tew depart as early, as mid Febi-uary the main migration does not 
begin till mid March and continues on through that month till the end of April, 
by which time all have gone. The direction is mostly north in spring and south 
or south-east in autumn. 

Whether any Rooks breed regularly in Mesopotamia is doubtful, but Aldworth 
in 1919 found an isolated colony at Mosul. 



224. JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HJST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



Nine specimens examined : Amara, 10-12-17, 30-1-18, 17-2-18, 29-11-17, 13-1-18 
(P. A. B.) ; $, Bagdad, 24-12-18 (two) ; $, Sheik Saad, 22-3-17, (P. Z. C. and 
R. E. C.) ; Samarra, 28-2-18 (C. R. P.). 

I have compared these with a series of European birds and a series of Eastern 
ones (India, Turkestan, etc.), the so-called tschusii of Hartert, and I must confess 
that I can see no constant diflference between any of them and I am again led 
to the conchision as before (see Ibis, 1916, p. 41) that the differences are not 
constant enough to warrant the separation of tschtisii. 

4. Jackdaw. Corvus monedula. 

Corpus monedula collaris, Drummond (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. XVIII, 
p. 11, 1846 — Macedonia). 

There is not much on record concerning the Jackdaw in Mesopotamia. 

According to Logan Home it is resident and breeds in the high clitis in fair 
numbers below Tekrit, where he saw them building at the end of February and 
evidently nesting early in May. Ludlovv noted them entering holes in cliffs at 
Khan Bagdadi in April, and they breed at Hit. Cheesman saw them at Tekrit 
on April 19th feeding on young locusts, but does not mention anything as 
regards nesting. 

Meinertzhagen records large flocks at Mosul in winter. Elsewhere a few are 
occasionally met with amongst rooks in winter as at Amara, Kut, and Baghdad. 
Buxton found it to be common in November on the Jebel Hamrin near Shahro- 
ban. South of Amara there are no records but it nests in the Zagros Mountains 
and Persian highlands. Weigold met ^vith it twice in April in the Urfa district. 

One specimen examined : Shah Roban, 22-11-18 (P. A. B.). 

The wliite neck band is very variable and in birds of one year old it is only 
indicated as a spot on each side of the neck, little more than is found in some 
specimens of the typical race. 

5. Magpie. Pica pica. "Aq Aq" 

Pica pica hactriana, Bp. (Consp. Av. 1, p. 383, 1850 — East Persia). 

The distribution of the Magpie in Mesopotamia is rather curious ; starting at 
Hilla on the Euphrates it is common and resident wherever there are suitable 
gardens and date groves, as far north at all events as Ana, where they are numer- 
ous ; round Baghdad it occurs but sparingly, and below the city on the Tigris 
it is absent ; on the Diala river it is found at Bakuba, Shihioban and Kizil 
Robat. 

The Samarra -Tekrit area is unsuited to it but it is found again at Mosul. 
Wherever it occurs it probably breeds ; Pitman records it breeding at Feluja on 
March l.Jth and young in the nest were found there on April 28th ; at Musejab it 
was one of the commonest garden birds, many young ones being seen in June. 

Three specimens examined :Hilla, 16-3-19 (two) (P. Z. C. and R. E. C); Museyib, 
12-7-17 (C. R. P.). 

These have a very distinct white rump band and the black on the primaries 
very restricted, the only specimen with a perfect wing, a male, measured 210 mm. 
These birds exactly match specimens from Shiraz and are undoubtedly bactriana. 
Neumann records the typical race from Ras-el-ain near the Syrian boundary, 
whence I have seen no specimens. 

(Capt. Burke says the Chough inhabits the chflfs in Kurdistan and is eaten by 
the Kurds as food ! It might wander down to the foot hills in our area in winter.) 

6. Starling. Sturnus vulgaris. "Beiji. " 

(1) Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris, L. (Syst. Nat. Ed. X., p. 167, 1758 — 
Sweden). 

(2) Sturnus vulgaris caucusicus, Lorenz. (Beitr. Orn. Faun. Caucas., 
p. 9, 1887— Kislowodsk). 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 225- 



(3) Stumus vulgaris nobilior, Hume (Stray Feathers, 1879, p. 175— 
Kandahar). 

(4) Sturnus vulgaris subsp. ? 

(5) Sturnus vulgaris poltaratsk/jl, Finsioh. (P. Z. S., London, 1878, 
p. 713— L. Marka-Kul. Altai). 

The Starling is an exceedingly abundant winter visitor to the plains arriving 
pretty regularly in the last days of October (earliest record 16t.h), and continuing 
to arrive throughout most of November. Thus Pitman noted floclcs going S. 
and S. E. on most mornings up to the 24th of the month in the Adhaim-Samarra 
area, and Cheesman saw flocks passing over Sheik Saad on November 9th . Many 
move ofE again by the end of February, and in the first part of March they are 
quite scarce ; there are several records of small flocks moving north during the 
early part of this month and the latest date of any seen is the 23rd. 

They are of course most abundant where food supply is plentiful, such as round 
camps, mule lines, transport dumps, etc., and they have their regular feeding and. 
roosting places, the morning and evening flight between the two places being one 
of the noticeable ornithological features at Basra and elsewhere. Prodigious 
flocks are to be seen at times ; Evans records a flock exceeding 10,000 birds 
collecting at dusk near Amara. Hobkirk informs me that the Starling is as else- 
where a good imitator and he has heard it copj'ing the note of the Pintailed 
Sand-grouse exactl}'. 

Many Starlings found their way into the pot during the seige of Kut and else- 
where during the war, and Cheesman relates an amusing story thereon. At 
Sheik Saad on one occasion when cartridges were at a premium, a shot " into the 
brown " brought down a dozen which were secretly handed to the cook. The 
word was given out to the Mess that a Quail pie was provided for dinner with loud 
acclamation ; unfortunately however on serving, the heads and bills were found 
protruding and the provider hastily changed his diagnosis to Snijoe pudding, 
hoping all would be well ! all partook of the dish without demur, save the 0. C, 
who said he had never eaten Woodpeckers yet and he was not going to begin now \l 

Thirty-five specimens examined : 

(1) Amara, 15-2-18, 3-4-18, 7-11-1 (two), 15-2-18 (three), 4-12-17, 
27-1-18 (P. A. B.); Basra, 19-12-18 (Armstrong); Samarra. 4-12-17, 
21-12-17 (three); Kut, 4-1-17, 25-11-16 (C. R. P.) ; Sheik Saad, 
13-12-16, 3-3-17 (P. Z. C. ) and R. E. C.) ; Suleimania, 12-11-19 (Ross); 
Shustar, 3-2-18 (F. M. B.) ; Basra, 21-11-17 (five) (C. B. T,). 

(2) Amara, 26-2-18 (P. A. B.) ; Amara, 15-2-18, 4-2-18 (P. Z. C. and R. 
E. C.) ; S. Saad, 18-12-17 (Robinson). 

(3) Shaik Saad, 23-12-17, 20-12-17 (Robinson) ; Kut n. d. (Keary). 

(4) c? Amara, 26-2-18 (P. A. B.); Shustar, 3-2-18 (F. M. B.). 

(1) It is evident from the above numbers that vulgaris is far the commonest 
Starling of Mesopotamia. An east-Russian form has been described — sophice of 
Bianchi {^jitkoivi, Buturlin) differing from the typical race by having more 
purplish colour on crown and throat and it is this form which has been recorded 
in winter in the Talysh, Palestine, Egypt, etc. (Hartert Novit. Zool. 25, p. 
329) and which might be expected to occur in Mesopotamia. I have examined 
a very large number of these eastern Starlings and a great many Starhngs from 
western Europe, and in my opinion the differences are too trivial and far too 
inconstant to wari'ant the separation of sophice. A great many Enghsh Starlings 
have purple heads and not green ones, and several bi-eeding Swedish birds 
(topo-types of vulgaris vulgaris) have purple heads, while two birds from 
Moscow and Voronesh, which should have purple heads, have green ones T 
I believe that the older and more worn the typical race becomes, the greener 
is the head. I can find no constant difference between the two. This 
*' race " sophice extends as far east as Shiraz in winter. 

29 



226 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



(2) caucasicus is of course a very recognizable race with the red purple wing- 
coverts and gi'een head, throat, mantle, and undertail coverts, when quite 
typical ; however as with other races it is a little variable and I have examined 
two from the type locality (breeding) wliich had the throat purpUsh and one 
with purphsh violet under -tail coverts. The crown however is invariably dark 
green. 

(3) These three skins are quite inseparable from typical nobiUor from Kan- 
dahar, differing from cmicasicus in having the head, throat, and undertail 
coverts purple. 

(4) These two birds are very puzzling and agree with no race of which I have 
been able to see descriptions of specimens of. There are two other skins, 
which evidently belong to the same race, collected by Mr. Hotson near Shiraz. 
These four specimens differ from caucasicus in having a bright, vivid green gloss 
on the wing-coverts, mixed with violet-blue, instead of a purple red gloss ; 
also the upper parts from mantle to rump have a varying amount of purple 
sheen mixed with the green, so much so that an adult male from near Shiraz 
has the whole of the upper part bright purple and -no green gloss at all. All 
four skins are winter specimens. As the ])reeding quarters of this bird are not 
known and some races have been described by the Russians, the descriptions of 
which I have not been able to see, I shall not compete with them in maldng 
another new race ! Dr. Hartert who kindly examined these skins for me says 
they are " only caucasicus in their usual garb," though he admits one has far 
more purple on the back than usual. With this I must, I fear, disagree. I 
have examined about a score of typical caucasicus and all have the plum-red 
wing-coverts, utterly different to those in these birds ; had there been one bird 
alone which differed from typical caucasici0, one might have put it down as an 
aberration, but with four skins all shewing the same differentiating characters 
one cannot help supposing that they belong to some other race. 

(5) One obtained by Cheesman from a flock at Bagdad on November 21st, 
1920, clearly belongs to this race. Perhaps not uncommon. 

This does not exhaust the races of Starling which have been recorded from 
Mesopotamia ! Meinerzhagen (Ibis 1914, p. 389) saio purpurascens in abund- 
ance ! It may of course occur, but none of our thirty-five skins are referable 
to tbis race, and one cannot tell it in the field ; such " records " are better left 
unpubhshed. Neumann (J. F. O., 1915, p. 121) described a new race from 
Northern Mesopotamia which he calls oppenlieimi, and remarks that it does not 
fit in with any race according to Buturlin's key ! He says it breeds in Meso- 
potamia as Dr. Pietschmann obtained on May 23rd at Mosul a grey, scarcely 
fledged, young one. Now Neumann's type came from Tel-Halaf (Ras-el-Ain) 
(between Mosul and the Syrian boundary) in January and he has seen a 
similar bird from Mosul, also in January (recorded by Sassi as noUlior), but 
how he arrives at the conclusion that his new race breeds there is beyond my 
comprehension, especially as the only breeding birds he has seen from tliis area, 
and which he describes, do not at all fit in with his diagnosis of oppenheimi ! 
What exactly oppenheimi is, it is impossible to say without seeing the type and, 
until a series of breeding birds can be seen from Mosul to ascertain whether a 
distinct race does breed there, it is best, I think, not to recognize Neumann's 
race. From his description it is very close to purpurascens which breeds in Asia 
Minor and Armenia. Hartert states (Nov. Zool. 25, p. 332) that he has seen a 
Starling from south Mesopotamia which agreed with Neuman's description. 

7. Rosy Pastor. Pastor roseus. 

Pastor roseus (L.) (Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 170 — Lappland). 
The migrations of the Rosy Pastor would seem to avoid for the most part the 
Mesopotamian plain. Pitman saw several at Feluja on May 2nd and obtained 
one, and on May 7th saw several more which departed in N. W. direction. On 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 227 



May 21st Cheesman saw a party at Kizil-Robat and more at Kasr-i-Sherin 
just over the frontier, they were flying N. E. Gumming records it from Fao 
in the brown juvenile dress. At Urfa Weigold found it common in the vine- 
yards in May. It is apparently a rare bird in S. Palestine and Egypt and its 
migrations must be largely east and west. 

8. Golden Oriole. Oriolus oriolus. 

Oriolus oriolus oriolus (L.) (Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 107, 175S — Sweden). 

Tlie Golden Oriole is a bird of passage in small numbers ; arriving rather late 
in spring, its passage appeai-s to cover the last week in April and the first part of 
May. Pitman saw it at Feluja on April 27th — 29th and Cheesman found 
males in song at Khazimain on 29th ; Buxton met with it at Amara on the 30th 
and again on May 7th. It was noted at Nasiriyah in May and Cheesman found 
it at Khanikin on the 21st. Logan Home records that he saw a female at Daui 
on June 2nd. We have no evidence of it breeding. 

At Urfa it would seem to arrive earUer. as often is the case with other mi- 
grants, and it is also commonci. there; Weigold records that the males arrived on 
Aim] ISth and the females on the 29th. Cumming recorded it as a passage; 
migrant at Fao in May and June and again in September. 

In autumn there are few records : Kut, August 9th ; Amara, 2nd week in 
September (Buxton) ; Ramadi, September (Brooking) ; Basra, September 4th 
<L. Home) ; Fao, September 10th (Cumming) ; while there are skins in the B. M. 
from Mesopotamia on August 20th and September 1st. 

d', Two sldns examined : Feluja, 27-4-17 (C. R. P.) ; $, Amara, 11-5-18 
(P. A. B.). 

Q. Goldfinch. Carduelis carduelis. 

(1) Carduelis carduelis niedichi (J. J. Ornith, 1907, j). 623 — Eregli) (Taurus 

(2) Carduelis carduelis loudoni (Morn. Monats., 1906 — -Lenkoran y). 
Goldfinches appear to be rather local and scarce in winter, possibly they are 

erratic visitants. Cheesman noted it at Qalet Saleh on November 25th, 1917, 
and on December 20th the same year Buxton found some flocks inhabiting 
gardens at Amara where they remained till the middle of February. Ross met 
with a large flock on thistles at Suleimania on December 19th, 1919, and Bailey 
at Shustar on February 2nd. Weigold obtained two birds at Urfa in April but 
apparently they were not breeding there ; one he tliinks is not distinguishable 
from the European bird and the other is paler and he places it as niedichi. 
Meinerzhagen records a flock at Baghdad on January 2nd. 

(1) Nine skins: examined S,t Shustar, 3-2-18 (F. M. B.); c^ , Qalet Saleh, 
25-11-17, 6, Amara, 12-2-18 (P. Z. C. and R. E. C); S, Amara, 27-12-17, S'^, 
1.3-1-18, J 13-1-18, d, 19-12-17 (P. A. B.) ; Suleimania, 19-12-19 (Ross). 

(2) d , Amara, 23-11-17, (P. A. B.). 

It is quite evident that two races are represented hei-e and that none of the 
skins are referable to the typical race ; the nine skins above are all too pale on 
the mantle for this latter race and the cheeks are sullied white ; the colour of the 
mantle alone, a grey brown, separates them at a glance and they are rather 
smaller. They correspond well with niedichi, six topotypes of which I have 
examined from Eregli, in colouration and in size. The Eregli birds measure 
75*5 — 82 in Aving and the Mesopotamian ones 76-81-5 mm. Drs. Buxton and 
Hartei-t, who also looked at these birds considered them to be Zarudny's harmsi (a 
name he substituted for minor and brevirostris which were preoccupied) but 
neither they nor myself have seen topo-types of liarmsi (Lac Krasnoye near 
Baku). However as these birds agree well with niedichi and this is the older 
name they must stand as this and probably it will be found that harmsi is a 
synonym. There is a specimen of this race niedichi (Woosnam coll.) in the 
B. M. from S. coast of the Caspian in March which Witherby (Ibis. 1910. p. 510) 
records as minor. 



228 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

The single bird (Amara, 23-12-17) stands out from the rest at once and evidently 
belongs to a different race. It is browner, not so grey above, and more exten- 
sively and purer brown, not grey brown, on the flanks, and this colour reaches 
the undertail covei-ts. Dr. Buxton tells me it matches well a series of loudoni 
in the Tring Museum from Lenkoran ; these are more like the typical race, but 
have the crown crimson I'ed, not so flaming vermilUon and the spots on the side 
of the breast dull broAvn not red brown, and are of the same size — that is larger 
than niedichi. 

Lastly there is a bird in the B. M. obtained by Woosman on the Diz R. on 
March 11th. Witherby (Ibis, 1907, p. 100) referring to this specimen thought it 
was perhaps nearest the typical race, or might be volgensis of Buturhn of which 
he had seen no specimens. I have examined this bird and could come to no 
decisive opinion about it ; it certainly is not either niedicki or loudoni and it is 
rather large and richly coloured for the typical race. It matches fairly well a 
bird from Samarkund which is major, except that the upper part of the rump 
is greyer, but I notice that the pureness of white rump in major varies some- 
what, however it is darker on the mantle than most major, are ; in absence of 
any further similar specimens and of any topo-types of volgensis (Ibis, 1906, 
p. 424, Ssuram to the Urals) one cannot come to any determination, but I may 
remark that this bird seems to agree with Buturlin's description, and Zarudny 
records this race in winter from the Karun district. 

The distribution of the various races of Goldfinches in this corner of Asia require 
much more study and further sj)ecimens are needed before we can come to any 
satisfactory conclusion about them. Zarudny says loudoni is the breeding bird 
of Shustar and Kasvin and Buxton found it common at Resht in winter and I 
have seen winter specimens from Shiraz. The breeding bird of the Persian 
plateau is apparently harmsi, which probably is the same as niedicki. 

10. Siskin. Carduelis spinus. 

Carduelis spinus (L) (Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 181, 1758 — Sweden). 
One obtained by Ross at Suleimaniaon .January 7th, 1920, is the sole record* 

11. Linnet. Acanthis cannabina. 

Acanthis cannahina fringillirostris, Bp. and Schleg. (Mon. Lox. p. 45, 
1850— Cashmere). 

E\'idently the Linnet is a scarce winter visitor ; Buxton met with a flock of 
twelve at Amara on February 11th and obtained specimens. Meinerzhagen 
recorded a flock of Linnets at Nineveh, and Ross got one at Suleimania from a 
large flock feeding on tliistles and reeds on January 29th ; Bailey obtained two 
early in January at Shustai', where Woosnam had previously met Avith it (March 
21st) ; Witherby thought Woosman's bird was rather dark for this race. Zarudny 
says that fringillirostris is a winter visitor and passage migrant and that the 
typical race is rare in the Karnn district. I have seen none that could be as- 
cribed to the typical race, all our skins are ty\)ical jringilUrostris. 

Four skins examined : Amara. 11-2-18 (P. A. B.) ; Shustar 1-2-18 (F. M. B.) 
Suleimania, 19-1-20 (Ross). 

12. Red-fronted Serin. Serinus pusiilus, 

Serinus pusillus (Pal].) (Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. ii, p. 28, 1811 — Caucasus 
and Caspian). 
Apparently a scarce, perhaps erratic winter visitor. Buxton met with a flock 
in a garden at Amara on Febmary 7th. 1918, and obtained four specimens. It 
breeds in the Caucasus, North Persia, etc. 

13. Trumpeter Bullfinch. Buchanetes githaginea. 

Buclianetes githaginea crassirostris, BIyth. (J. A. S. B. XVI, p» 
476, 1847— Afghanistan). 



THt: BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 229 



Tomlinson found this Bullfinch breeding at. Ahwaz on a barren hillside on March 
25th ; the nest sheltered by a projecting piece of rock contained 4 fresh eggs, 
Zarudny records it in winter and as nesting in the Karun District in small num- 
bers. No specimens examined but I accept Zarudny's determination of the race. 
Jourdain informs me that these eggs resemble those of other races of this species 
and average IS* 7 x 14-2 mm. 

14. Rose Finch. Rhodospiza obsoleta. 

Rhodospiza obsoleta (Liclit.) (Eversm. Reise, Anhang., p. 132, 1823 
— Bokhara). 
Buxton obtained one at Amara in a p-jmegi-anate bush on December 16th, 1917, 
it was extremely tame ; he found the remains of another on December 31st. 
Weigold met with it once at Urfa on April 18th. Tomlinson obtained a nest of 
5 eggs on barren hills near Ahwaz on March 2i'»th, 1913 ; 3 of these eggs ai'e in 
Jourdain's collection and he tells me they exactly agree with eggs from Quetta. 
No birds were obtained and I consider the evidence inconclusive as certainly in 
Quetta this bird does not breed on bari'en hills, but in vines and rose bushes in 
gardens. 

15. Chaffinch. Fringilla cselebs. 

Friiujilla ccelehs coglehs, h. (Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 179, 175S — Sweden). 

The ChaflBnch is probably a weather migi-ant in winter to the Mesopotaniian 
plains, and does not come till forced by the hardness of the weather elsewhere. 
Buxton first noticed it at Amara after a three days cold snap on December 15th 
and they remained fairly common till March 6th. Pitman records small flocks at 
Samarra in January and Febniary. Tt is recorded from Baghdad, Suleimania, 
Tekrit, Sushtar, from November to January and at Hit on March 8th ; Buxton 
found it common at Khanikin on November 23rd. Sassi and Meinerzhagen 
record it at Mosul in January and Zarudny as winter visitor to the Karun 
district. 

Fourteen skins exa7iiined:^, Amara, 7-3-18,9, 11-1-18 (P. A. B.); $ '^ , 
Sushtar— 14-1-18 (F. M. B.) ; 6 9 $, Samarra, 29-1-18, 9 , Baghdad, .30-12-17 
(C.R.P.); 9 Amara, 2-1-18 (P.Z.C. and R. E.G.). 2 9 , Suleimania 14-11-19. 
(Ross). 

T cannot separate these from west European birds. Chaffinches vary much 
in colour of the breast, the tint in the males being very variable and that in the 
females probably becoming pinker -with age, and this obtains in these Mesopota- 
niian birds as well as in European ones. I can pass no opinion on Menzbier and 
Sushkin's salonilcoi from Krim and W. Caucasus. (Orn. I\Ionat., 1913, p. 192.) 

16. Brambling. Fringilla montifringilla. 

Fringilla montifringilla, L. (Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 179, 1758 — Sweden 
Recorded by Sassi from Mosul in November and February, and by Zarudny 
in mnter in small numbers in the Karua district. 

17. Rock Sparrow. Petronia petronia. 

(1) Petronia petronia exigua (Hellm) (Orn, Jahrb., 1902, p. 128 — 
Rostov on the Don). 

(2) Petronia petronia intenriedia, Hart. (Nov. Zool., 1901, p. 324 — 
Gilgit.) 

None of our observers met with this species for certain. Sassi records exigua 
from Mosul on January 24th. 

Weigold saw some race at Biredjik where it breeds. 

Zarudny and Harms say that intermedia is not rare at Salmi in the Karun dis- 
trict in winter ; it breeds in the oak wood district of Central Persia (Woosnam). 
IMeinerzhagen records a Rock Sparrow from the hills near ]Mosul in January and 
Ivingdon Ward sajs he saw a i)air at Samarra. 



230 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXV 111. 



1 8. Desert Rock Sparrow. Carpospiza brachydactyla. 

C'arpospiza brachydactyla (Bp.) (Consp. A v. i, p. 513, 1850 — 
Konfuda in W. Arabia). 

C'heesman found this peculiar sparrow migrating in flocks on April 18th at 
Fatah Gorge passing up the line of the Jebel Hamrin range going N. N. W. 

He savs the fhght reminded liim of that of a Hawfinch and the note is that of 
a Bunting ; a large migration was in progress that day, other species moving in 
the same direction were Spanish Sparrows, Ortolans and Wagtails. 

The crops of specimens obtained contained seeds ; the organs were advanced. 
Later he found it breeding at a fair height on the Kermanshah road in Persian 
Liiristan and the song is a long drawn out note like that of Buntings. The legs. 
and feet in the male are horn colour, in the female pale flesh. 

Zarudnj' records it as a winter visitor and passage migrant in the Karun araa ; 
it must I think breed not far from Fao as there is in tlie British JMuseum one got 
by Cumming in 1893 in juvenile dress. This plumage resembles the summer 
adult (worn) dress but it is a trifle more sandy, and much more sandy than the 
winter plumage. 

Three specimens examined : (^ 9» Fatah Gorge, 18-4-19 ;$, Tekrit, 19-4-19' 
(P. Z. C. and R. E. C). Tliese agree well with Arabian specimens. 

19. Yellow=throated Sparrow. Gymnorhis flavicollis. 

Gymnorliis flavicollis iransfuga, Hart. (Vog. Pal. F.), p. 145 — Bahu- 
Kelat, Balucliistan). 

This is one of the Indian species which extends its range to Mesopotamia. It 
is a summer visitor to the date j)alm areas from Fao to Baghdad arriving in 
April, breeding in the latter part of May or even eaiUer and leaving again in 
August and September. Beyond Baghdad there are no records of it ; here 
Cheesman found several in song on April 27th and the organs of a male were 
well advanced, thoy were evidently breeding in the tall date palms. Tomhnson 
records that it breeds in holes of date palms at heights varying from 8 to 20 
feet at Basra ; the nest is a typical span-ows, untidily built of dead grass and 
lined with feathers and contains not more than 4 eggs. Cumming however at 
Fao notes as many as five or six eggs in the clutch, and says the eggs are typical 
sparrows eggs but vary much in colour and notes three distinct types, one of 
which is erythristic — a pinldsh white ground mottled with pale reddish brown 
spots. Jourdain informs me the eggs in his collection are at once recognizable 
from those of the House Sparrow by their smaller size, and the average size of 
ten eggs is 18-8 x 13 '8 m.m. 

Cheesman records that one shot had the gizzard full of beetles. 

Five skins examined :^, Fao, 6-5-18 (Armstrong)'; Khazimain, 27-4-19 ; Basra 
18-4-17 (P. Z. C. and R. E. C); 2 Basra, 1918 (Hobkirk). 

These correspond perfectly with topo-types from Balucliistan which are paler 
than the tj'pical race from the Central Provinces of India. 

20. House Sparrow. Passer domesticus. "Asfur. " 

Passer domesticus biblicus, Hart. (Vog. Pal. F., p. 149 — Sueme, Pales- 
tine ?). 
A very common resident throughout Mesopotamia whei-ever there are habi- 
tations, and even following the camps out into the desert. In places where 
food is abundant such as supply depots, mule lines, etc., it occurs in huge flocks. 
They breed early, as Cheesman noted them feeding young with caterpillars 
on April 19th, and nests may be found at the end of June ; so that as in other races 
this form has two or more broods. A variety of nesting sites are chosen ; 
Pitman found at Kut and Adhaim many nests in scrub jungle, some in quite 
small bushes, and Zarudny records finding 29 nests in one small bush in the 
Karun district ; trees of course are utilized, especially poplar and palm buildings 



JouRN. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



PLATE I. 




rhoto. Capt. W. Ed/jar Evans, 'JiK/i Uct.,\V.n:. 

A. — Greek at Makina, near Busra, Mesopotamia. 
Habitat of Halcyon smyrncnsis, Yellow-throated Sparrow, Indian Roller, &c. 




PJioto. Capt. ir. Edijar Erans, Noi:, JiUs. 

B. — From Table ]\It. Jebel Hamrin, N.E. of Baghdad. Rock Nuthatch, &c., ground. 
Kaveus, Griffon Vultures, See-see, Aminovianes , &c. , seen on these hills. 



Birds op IMesopotamia. 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 2ar 



and ruins of all sorts, holes in banks, and even tlie nest hole of Ccrijle rwli.f 
Avas appropriated i4i one case reported by Evans, the deserted Kingfishers 
bt'ing found behind tlie Sparrows. 

The question arises what race or races of House Sparrow inhabit our area. 
From 8. W. Persia and the head of the Culf indiciif^ has been rep?atedly stated to 
occur (Zarudny, Harms, Wither by, etc.). Now I have examined a very large 
series from the Mesopotamian plain,- — from Basra in the south to the Adhaim 
ijT the north, and these match typical biblicus in every way and certainly are 
not indicus, as they are too large and have grey, not white cheeks. In S. W. 
Persia I have seen biblicus from Shustar, Dizful and even up to Kermanshah. 
The south coast of the Caspian is inhabited by sparrows which I cannot separate 
from the typical form. Indicus, wliich is a small bird (wing usually 76-78 mm. 
in males) and has white cheeks, T have not seen west of Gwader on the Mekran 
coast ; at Bampur, Karman, Shiraz, Bushire (in winter), Afghanistan and pro- 
bably Beluchistan there lives a white-cheeked sparrow which has always been 
called indicus, but for this it is much too big ; it is parkini of Whistler, a bird of 
considerable range and whose type locahty is Srinagar. Cashmere (vide Bull. 
B. 0. C. ccUii, p. 13, 1920). Weigold says that specimens from Urfa are not 
distinguishable from the typical form and Kolibay thinks the same. 1 have 
seen none from this district so cannot pass any opinion. Sassi records 
indicus fi'om Mosul, probably an error. 

23 skins examined : $, Kazimain, 9-2-19, 6-5-19; $, 7-4-19; Amara, 14-3-18 
(two); ^, Basra, 19-4-17; 9, Shustar, 13-1-18 ; 9 . Sheik Saad, 25-11-lG ; 9, 
Zoar. 4-2-19 (two) (P. Z. C. and R. E.G.) ; 2 ^ 9, Samarra, 6-3-18 ; $, Adhaim, 
20-10-17 (two) ; $, 7-10-17 ; 9, Bait-al-Khalifa, 21-12-17 (two) (C. Pv. P.) ; 9, 
Shustar, 13-1-18 ; 39, Basra, 21-11-17 ; 9, 17-3-18 (C. B. T.). Wing $, 79— 
S3"5 mm., bill from base 14. 9 77-5-82mm. 

2 1. Scrub Sparrow. Passer moabiticus. 

Passer moabiticus moabilicus, Trist. (P. Z. S. Lond, 1864, p. 169^ 
Dead Sea). 
Tills handsome little Sparrow is a local resident in suitable localities, wandering 
away from its breeding haunts further afield in winter. Buxton met with a 
small flock at Amara on December 9th in deep scrub of Prosopis, Rubus, 
Tamarix, Liquorice, etc., and he saw another fiock in the same place mixed with 
doinesticus on the 16th. Pitman found several large flocks 10 miles N. of Kut near 
the Tigris in scnib and Sueda bushes on March 3rd and met with, them again in 
the same area in scrub round floods on April 7th and 10th. He noticed them 
srarching the leaves of the Sueda bushes for insects. Cheesman met with it 
mixed with flocks of hispaniolensis near Amara on January 13th. He has 
already given an account (Bull. B.O.C. CCXLVI, p. 39) of the nesting of this bird 
which J reproduce : — 

" On May 1st, 1919, this colony was nesting in thick scrub jungle near 
Baghdad. The jungle was several miles in extent on the banks of the 
Tigris. . . . The nests were always built in the stout stems of the 
Euphrates Poplar or trees of dwarf Tamai-isk 5 feet to 8 feet from the ground. 
There were perhaps 100 nests scattered over 6 miles. Generally the nests were 
200 yards apart. The main structure is of sticks and resembles a small 
Magpie's nest. The large size of the stick selected is remarkable when the 
smallness of the bird is considered. The eggs are placed on a thick pad of 
down from I'ushes and thistles, a few fibres and small feathers. The roo^ 
is covered in, and the entrance is a small hole which winds down out of 
sight from the top in a spiral." 

"One nest contained one half-fledged j^oung and one egg, another 5 eggs, 
2 fresh and 2 near hatcliing, another 6 eggs all fresh, another 3 eggs all 
fresh. One nest, an old one, was being renovated by a pair of birds, Tho 



•232 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXV. III. 

clutches are usually composed of a majority of dark eggs, with one or two 
totally different, being white with a few brown spots or blotches." 
Zarudny, who first discovered this Sparrow in Mesopotamia, found it in great 
numbers in the lower reaches of the Karun between Ahwaz and Nasrie at the 
end of January and beginning of February in jungle of Tamarisk, Lyciuin and 
Poplar. Here he found old nests. He also met with it at Shellgati on the Gagar 
R. in thick fruit gardens and at Kulichan on March 24th found it breeding in 
Tamarisk. From specimens he obtained on this expedition he separated this 
Sparrow &smesopotamiciis, being intermediate in colour between moabiticus from 
the Dead Sea and the very distinct Seistan form yatii and he says it is larger than 
moabiticus. 

He gives the measurements of mesopotamicus — 
d , wing 62-66 • 3, tail 52 • 3,-56.5 m m. 
? „ 59-3-63-6 „ 49-a— 53-6mm. 
Of typical moabiticus he only had tivo specimens for comparison ! 
I have examined the following skins from Mesopotamia : — 

J, nr. Baghdad, 30-4-19, W. 64-5, T. 59-5, B. 10 (P. Z. C. and R. E.G.). 
J, Amara, 16-12-17, W. 66-5, T. 50-5, B. 10-5 (P.A.B.) 
d , Amara, 9-12-17, W. 63, T. 48-5, B. 9- 75 (P. A. B.). 
9, Amara, 16-12-17, W. 62-5, T. 51, B. 10 (P. A. B.). 
9, nr. Baghdad, 30-4-19, W. 62-5, T. 49-5 B. 10 (P. Z. C. and R. E. C. 
Of typical moabiticus from the Dead Sea I have examined 1 1 males and 9 females. 
These males measure W. 61 — 64*5 m.m., T. 47-5— 62 m.m. and the females W. 
59-62, T. 47 • 5-51 . Between the Mesopotamian and Dead Sea birds I cannot 
see the sUghtest difference in colour and, as above, there is j^ractically no differ- 
ence in size. I can only regard mesopotamicus, Zar., as a synonym of mx)abiticus, 
Trist. 

22. Spanish Sparrow. Passer hispaniolensis. 

Passer hispaniolensis transcaspicus, Tschusi (Orn. Jahrb., 1903, p. 10,— 
Jelotan in Transcaspia), 

A winter visitor in great numbers, -widely but rather patchily distributed. 
There are no records of it before December 7th when Buxton noted that many 
arrived at Amara and spent the 'udnter. They became commoner still in 
February and then gradually disappeared, the last being seen in the first week 
in April. He noted that they did not consort with House Sparrows and used 
to roost all the winter in dense Poplar scrub and Lycium bushes in the desert, 
even a couple of miles from the river. Pitman found it common in the Kut 
area in February and says it may have been there earlier, and he noted it 
-wherever suitable scrub existed between Kut and Baghdad ; he met with it 
again at Feluja on April 17th during the spring migration of Wagtails, etc., 
wliile Cheesman saw large and frequent flocks on April ISth at Fatah Gorge 
passing up the line of the Jebel Hamrin together -with Wagtails, Ortolans and 
Carpospiza in a very large migration rush. Gumming noted it at Fao -with 
House Sparrows during the winter and early spring. 

Zarudny in 1911 includes it in his Karun list as common in -winter and nesting 
in small numbers. Writing in 1913 on the Sparrows of Persia (J. F. 0., 1913) he 
says it is common at Wais, Mohommera and Karun River, also at Ahwaz and 
Shustar, from January to March and adds there is no evidence of its breeding ! 
He further remarks that birds corresponding to palestinoi, Tschusi, are to be found 
in Persia, Transcaspia, Bokhara and Turkestan. I do not know this latter race 
but some transcaspicus are quite difficult enough to tell from typical hispamio- 
iensis including some Palestine and Mesopotamian specimens and single birds 
might equally well be of the latter form ; on the whole however I refer them to 
transcaspicus. 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 233 

25 specimens examined : ,^ Shastar, 13-1-18, 18-1-18 (F. M. B.); 3 r; , Amara, 
29-1-18 : 9, Zoar, 4-2-18 ; Fatah, 18-4-19 (P. Z. C. and R. E. ('.)• 

(^ 9, Feluja, 17-4-17; 9, Kut, 19-2-17, 3 c? , 19-2-17 (C. R. P.): 6 cJ, Amara, 
27-1-18, c?, 21-1-18, 11-3-18, 25-1-18, 13-3-18, 28-2-18, 30-3-18 (F.A.B.). 

Wing of S , 77-84 mm. The young birds of the year have broader edges to tlie 
upper parts and are very pale and tliese and fresh moulted birds are the most 
easily distinguishable, woi-n birds are most difficult to separate. The males of 
the year have on the whole the shorter wing. 

23. Tree Sparrow. Passer montanus. 

^lagrath is quite certain that he saw Tree Sparrows amongst flocks of Spanish 
Sparrows at Felahiyeh on February 10th, 1917. There are no other records for 
Mesopotamia, but as it is not an unlikely bird to occur (it occurs in many parts of 
N. Persia) in winter and Magrath knows the species well I include it. 

24. Corn Bunting. Emberiza calandra. 

Emberiza calandra calandra, L. (Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 176 — Sweden). 

The Com Bunting is more or less resident in the Mesopotamian plain, appa- 
rently such migrations as it performs being only local and so in some places, sucli 
as Kut, it appears in the winter months only. It is widelj?- distributed in winter, 
frequenting scrub, arable land and corn fields. To places where it is a winter 
visitor it leaves by about mid April and so a certain amount of migration may be 
noticed in districts where it is in winter not common, from the end of March 
onwards. 

The only breeding record comes from Shaura about 40 miles south of Mosul 
where Aldworth obtained a nest of six eggs and the parent bird on March 
24th. 

It probably breeds elsewhere, as at Amara, where Buxton obtained a male 
with advanced organs on April 7th. Cheesman noted a pair in song and the male 
displaying at Sheik Saad as early as December 20th. 

Weigold says this species was not common in the Urfa disti-ict and became 
rarer eastwards ; he records it from Serudj on the Euphrates. Zarudny records 
it as wintering in the Karun district, where Woosnam also found it at Shush and 
Shuster in March. 

Nine slcins examined: 9 , Shustar, 3-2-18 (two) (F.M. B.); 9, Kut, 12-2-17; 
S, Feluja, 30-3-17; (C. R. P.); 9, Sheik Saad, 24-3-17; 20-12-16 (P. Z. C. 
and R. E. C); 6, Zorr, 18-3-18; J, Amara, 7-4-18; o ? 11-2-18. (P.A.B.). 

I cannot separate these birds from the typical race either by size or colour ; 
at least two Eastern races have been described, minor of Radde from Tifhs, butur- 
lini of Johansen from Kastekin W. Siberia {crede, Hartert) and another buturlivi 
of Zarudny from Turkestan ! I have examined a good many Turkestan birds 
and cannot separate winter or March birds thence from European ones. Eastern 
birds generally wear quicker than western ones and so birds, like Corn Buntings, 
appear greyer above and whiter below earlier in the year than do western 
examples ; but these latter in a- few weeks will also become as grey and white as 
the eastern ones. Also the a)nount of brownness or greyness above and the 
yellowness or whiteness below varies a good deal individually. 

25. Yellow Bunting. Emberiza citrinella. 

This Bunting is apparently quite a straggler to Mesopotamia. Hobkirk is 
quite certain he saw one at Basra on April 10th and from his description it 
would seem that this was so. Sassi obtained two from Mosul on January 23rd 
and Weigold saw one near Urfa on April 8th ; both suppose that their birds belong 
to the eastern race eryihrogenys which race Zarudny also gives as wintering in the 
Karun district. As I have seen no specimens from our area T leave out the 
trinomial name. 
30 



L'34 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIil. 

[Meinerzliagen states (Ibis, 1914, p. 390) that he saw Emberiza leucocephala 
near Baghdad ; as there are no other records of this bird I include the record in 
square brackets.] 

26. Black=headed Bunting. Emberiza melanocephala. 

Emberiza melanocephala, (Hist. pi. 42 1769, — Carnioia). Scop. (Annus 1. Nat,. 

To most of our district this species is, where it occurs at all, a passage migi'ant 
and all the records refer to the spring. Pitman says a few arrived at Feluja on 
April 17th and inhabited some locust-infested fields together \vath Ortolans and 
Wagtails until the 21st, when they disappeared. Cheesman noted odd ones at 
Fatah Gorge on April 18th and Tomhnson records a large flock at Shustar on the 
19th. Cummiug found it at Bushire on the 14th, while Cheesman reports it from. 
Shush on May 1st. It would appear from the absence of other records that this 
sjiecies comes from the south-east and migrates along the hne of the Jebel 
Hamrin. 

In the ITrfa district according to Weigold the males appeared on April 28th. 
It evidently breeds at Mosul, and perhaps elsewhere in northern Mesopotamia. 
as Sassi says he received 11 eggs from there, but gives no further particulars. 

Three skins examined : S Feluja, 17, 21 and 22, iv, 17 (C. R. P.). 

27. Red^headed Bunting. Emberiza icterica. 

Emberiza icterica, (Add. ad. Pall. Zoogr. Russo, Asiat. ii, Eversm. p. 
10, 1841 — Caspian) {=luteoIa auct). 

The only record of this species is that of a single young bird obtained at Fao 
by Gumming. 

28. Grey-headed Bunting. Emberiza cinerea 

Emberiza cinerea semenowi, Zar. (Orn. Jahrb. xv, 1904, p. ] 17 — 
Arabistan). 
This somewhat rare Bunting is recorded by Zarudny as a passage migrant in 
the Karun district. Cumming obtained it at Bushire on March 27th. As it 
nests in large numbers in Arabistan (Zarudny) and occurs in Syria it should be 
met with more commonly in Mesopotamia. Possibly it has been overlooked. 
The grey head and rump, and yellow throat should suffice to distinguish 
from other species. 

29. Ortolan Bunting. Emberiza hortulana. 

Emberiza hortulana, L. (Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 177, 1758 — Sweden). 

This also is a passage migrant mthin our area and most records refer to the 
spring, Cheesman noted large and frequent flocks passing up the line of the 
Jebel Hamrin at Fatah Gorge on April 18th, halting for a few moments on a bush 
by a pooi to drink before dashing off N.N. W. again. Pitman records it in great 
numbers from April 15th to 20th feeding on young locusts and roosting in tall 
poplars. After the latter date only a few were seen and the last on May 8th. 
He also met with it in the Kut area from April 7th to 10th. Magrath saw a 
]3assing flock at Basra on Apiil 22nd, and Cheesman came across small parties on 
the Baghdad-Tekrit railway feeding on the desert where it had been burnt by 
grass fires. Zatrudny records it as a passage migrant in his area also, and 
Weigold says they first arrived at Urfa on April lOtli and continued passing to 
the end of the month. The only autumn record relates to the oasis of Shaiba 
where Cheesman found a pair at a well on September 27th. 

Five sldns examined: $, Basra, 18-4-17 ; J , Tekrit,17-4-19 ; Shaiba, 27-9-16. 
(P.Z. C. and R. E. C); J $, Faluja 17-4-17 (C. R. P.) ; cJ ? , wing.. 89-93 mm. 

These Mesopotamian birds difl'er in no way from European ones, nor do those 
I have seen from Persia, whence the so-called shah was described ; a few Eastern 
birds are a millimeter or so longer than European ones, sex for sex, but the differ- 
ence is not sufficienth- marked to warrant separation. 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 235 

30. Qrey=necked Bunting:. Emberiza buchanani. 

Ernherka huchanani, jJlylb (J. A. 8. B, xiii, p. 957 — Indian Peninsula). 
Recorded only by Zarudny who says it is a passage migrant in the Karnn 
district. It nests in smali nuiubers in the Zagros Mountains. 

31. Rustic Bunting. Emberiza rustica. 

Emberiza rustica. Pall. (Reise, Reichs. iii, p. G98, 1776— Daruria). 
Recorded by Zarudnj' as a winter visitor to his district. 

32. House Buntins,. Emberiza striolata. 

Emberiza striolaia siriohda (Ijicbt.) (Vcrz. Doubl. Zooi. Mus., Berlin, 
p. 24, 1823— Ambukol in Nubia). 
Zarudny records this Bunting also in winter in the Karuti District and thinks 
it may nest there — prcsumaoly in the low hills. 

33. Reed Bunting. Emberiza schoeniclus. 

Emberiza schcenidu.<i pallidior, Hart. (Vog. Pal. F., p. 197 — Aiderii 
in Turkestan). 

The Reed Bunting appears to be unconinion, or very local as a winter visitor. 
Pitman states that he found a large flock near Kut frequenting some scrub of 
Sueda bushes by the Tigiis in January, they were very noisy and shy ; otherwise 
he only met with a single bird at Samarra on December 18tli. Cheesman got a 
specimen at Sheik Saad on December 6th, the bird's head was so covered with 
ticks that it could hardly fly ; Magrath records it at Basra where I saw a singe 
bird in reed beds on November 20th. Zarudny records this race as a \\ inter 
visitor to the Karun, as also the t.ynical form.. 

Four specimens examined: Sheik Saad, 6-12-10; Amara, 2-2-18 (P. Z. C. 
and R. E. C.) ; Samarra, 13-12-17 ; Kut, 13-1-17 (C. R. P.) 

These all belong to the pale eastern race. 

34. Black-crcwned Fincti Lark. Pyrrtiulauda frontalis. 

This Finch Lark was met with near the oasis of Shaiba on August 12th bv 
Buxton and Cheesman. Logan Hume informs me he saw it in the same district 
(Rumailah) in June in pairs. It is evidently resident on this edge of the Syrio- 
Aral)ian desert and is not recorded from anywhere else in Mesopotamia. 

Two skins were obtained, both males, v/ings 85 and 86-5 nun. and not quite 
frJly grown. These two birds do not match any race of frontalis which I have 
seen and although I think that the birds, inhal)iting Shaiba will prove to be a new 
race yet I at present hesitate to separate them on only two specimens, as 
there is in all races a certain amount of individual variation. 

This Finch Lark has a very wide distribution, various races ranging from 
N. E. Africa through Arabia to Baluchistan east to Sind and Punjab. 

The following races have been recognized : — • 

(1) P. /. /roHtaZJ.s, Bp. (Consp. Avium, 1850, p. 512 — Xubia), Our birds 

differ considerably from tliis in having a more finch like, stumpier, 
higher bill ; a black nuchal spot ; gre3^er rump and upper tail 
coverts and longer wing. 

(2) P. f. inela.nauchen .Cab. (Mus. Hein. i, 1851, p. 124 — Abyssinan coast, 

Somahland, etc.). 

(3) P.J. syncipilalis, Blyth (Ibis, 1867, p. 185— S. Arabia). Rather near this 

race but Arabian examples I have seen measure in wing 79-82 mm. 

(4) P. f. affinis, Blyth (Ibis, 1867, p. 185, Type Madras (in error ! ) I designate 

Karachi in Sind) Differs from Sind birds in the upper parts being 
more isabelline washed with grey and with no obsolete dark centres, 
•while the black of the crown and under parts is more intense ; the 
wing is as long or longer. I have however been unable to see any- 
Indian specimens in exactly the same plumage as these Shaiba birds. 



236 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIf. 



The exact determination of this race is of considerable interest and further 
specimens are greatly desired. Between Shaiba and Persian Boluchistan there 
arc no records of any Finch Lark. 

35- Calandra Lark. Melanocorypha calandra. "Usawah." 

(1) 3Ielanocori/2)ha calandra calandra (L.) (Syst. Nat. Ed. xii, p. 288, 
176G — Pyrenees). 

(2) Melanocorypha calandra j^sammochroa, Hart. (Vog. Pal. F., p. 210 — 
Dur-Badom, Persia). 

This is evidently a local bird and much commoner above Baghdad on the 
Hollands than below on the plains. Logan Home says it arrived at Tekrit in 
December in large flocks and paired ofT at the end of February ; he records that 
eggs were taken in this district — on March 29th a clutch of five, and another 
of four at the end of May ; at the nest the birds were very tame ; one was secured 
for' identification. Cheesman found it plentiful on the hills and plateau at 
Kalat Sherghat earlj' in December, and at Samarra Pitman saw large flocks and 
obtained several examples ; here he found them in immense flocks from mid- 
November, when he amved, till mid -March when he left, though a good many 
moved away during Februar3\ They were very noisy and frequented mule 
lined, camps, litter roads, etc., and proved excellent eating ! In the Adhaim 
area from September to mid-November and at Feluja from March to April he 
however never met with it. At Urfa Weigold found this Lark quite common 
in large flocks on passage in mid-April, but he obtained no specimens. Sassi, 
who examined four skins from Mosul, considered them to belong to the typical 
Tace, not to the eastern. 

From Baghdad southwards there are few records ; Buxton met with a single 
bird at Kumait on February 28th and Cheesman found a few small parties at 
Twin Canals on December 1st. Entering the hill country again Witherby 
recorded it from Ahwaz on February 26th and Bailey obtained it at Shustar 
on February 1st. Zarudny lists it as a winter visitor (Karun District). 

Eleven skins examined : c? ?, Shustar, 1-2-lS (F. M. B.); 4 J , Samarra, 
14-12-17; 2 2,4-12-17, 31-12-17 (C. R. P.); J , Shergat, 12-188,'$ , Twin Canals, 
J -12-16 (P. Z. C. and Pv. E. C.) ; one, Knmait, 28-2-18 (P. A. B.). 

In determining these birds I have examined a very large series of Calandra 
Larks. Compared with European and with eastern skins (Persia, Turkestan, 
etc.), they correspond best with the latter (psammochroa), in being paler and 
yellower, ^especially on the rump and mantle, than the western race ; one must 
be very careful in comparing these larks to compare birds in a similar state 
of wear ; it is true that psammochroa is on the whole a yellower bird than calandra 
but as time goes on (April-May) it also gets very grey, rather a paler grey than 
the western birds. Some birds partly worn (about December) in both races are 
difficult to tell and odd ones of our Mesopotamian birds might equally belong to 
either race. From Pitman's observations it seems probable that some Calandra 
Larks are winter visitors and it is possible that these belong to the typical race 
which Sassi too recorded from Mosul. 

Birds which I have examined from Palestine (Sharon, Meroni, Bashan and 
Ludd (10 skins) are quite different to the Mesopotamian birds in being much 
more rufous brown, and in fresh feathers are very red brown, with red brown 
flanks ; these I take to be Meinerzhagen's hebraica (Bull. B. O. C. XLI, p. 21) ; 
one bird too from Cyprus and one from Syria match them exactly, other Cyprus 
birds being calandra : on the other hand psammochroa is evidently also found 
in Palestine whence I have seen two examples (Jaffa, March 3rd, and Judfea, 
February 1st). From Anatolia and Erzeroum I have seen the typical western 
form. Meinerzhagen (1. c.) seems to think that his hebraica has a shorter wing 
than psamviochroo. ; he gives for males 127 — 131 mm. as against 130 — 135 mm. 
in psammochroa. With this I cannot agree as those which I have examined of 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 237 



hebraica run up to 137 mm. Nor can I find any difference in wing measurements' 
between calandra and psammochroa ; in tlie two sexes the wings range from 118. 
—142 (22 from Europe) and 120—138 mm. (Persia, Turkestan, etc.). Bills are 
very variable apart from sex in all these races, some are large, some small ; 
some high and stout ; some long and thinner, and I can state with some 
confidence there is no difference in wing length in the three races. 

36. Bimaculated Lark. Melanocorypha bimaculata. 

31elanocon/pha bbnacitlala bimaculata Blenetr.) (Cat. Rais., p. 37, 
1837— Talysh). 
The only record of this species is from Cheesman who on April 19th found 
several pairs e\-idently breeding in well clothed desert country along the Samarra- 
Tekrit railway, and obtained a specimen which belongs to the typical form. It 
has been recorded from Shustar on March 21st and is entered as a winter visitor 
by Zarudny to the Karun area. As both species of tliis large Lark breed in Meso- 
potamia, I must warn oologists, though it should not be necessary, to obtain the 
bird with any eggs tliey take. 

37. Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla. 

(1) Calandrella bmchjdaclyla bracliydactijla (Leisler). (Ann. d. Wetter. 

Ges. iii, p. 357, 1814— MontpelUer, S. France). 

(2) Calandrella brachydadyla longiji^nnis (Eversm). (Bull. Soc. Imp. 

d. Nat. MoskoAv, xxi, p. 219, 1848 — Dzungharia, E. Turkestan). 

(1) No observers distinguished between this species and the Lesser 
Short-toed Lark in the field and so it is impossible to do more than state that 
Pitman met with a few, wliich had just arrived, on October 16th and 17th at 
Samarra and obtained two specimens belonging to this race. Weigold got 
several specimens in the Urfa district where he says it was very common 
between April 18th and May 2nd. 

The status I'equires further investigation. 

(2) Gumming obtained a typical specimen of this race at Fao on September 
25th, 1880. It is in the British Museum where I have examined it. 

38. Lesser Short=toed Lark. Calandrella minor. 

(1) Calandrella minor heinei. (Horn.) (J. F. O., 1873, p. 197 — Volga). 

(2) Calandrella minor minor (Cab.) (Mus. Hein. I, p. 12.3, 1851 — N. E. 

Africa). 

(1) Pitman's notes apparently mostly refer to this race of which he obtained 
a large series. He says they arrived in large flocks about the middle of 
October and from the 26th onwards thousands were passing to the south in 
the Samarra district. They were exceedingly plentiful in this district from 
mid-November till the middle of February when they began to disappear and 
by theend of the month most had gone. A few were noted on March 15th — 19th 
in the Baghdad area and the last recorded was on the 23rd at Feluja. During 
the winter at Samarra they frequented a bare plain where there had been giass, 
etc., in flocks of thousands and were distinguished by their noisy chirping and 
dipping flight. 

Buxton says this race was not common round Amara itself but he found it 
common in small flocks out in the desert among Sueda bushes in winter. It 
is probably common in suitable j)la.ccs throughout the country. I obtained 
one from a large flock of mostly minor minor at Basra on November in a short 
grass field and Cheesman obtained several sj^ecimens on the Tigiris in the Shiek 
Saad — Azizieh district. 

19 specimens examined : Samarra district, 26-10 to 21-12-17 (11 skins) 
Feluja, 23-3-17 (2 skins) (C. R. P.); Amara, 16-12-17 (P. A. B.) ; $ Azizieh, 
3-1-19 (2 skins); Sheik Saad, 1-11-16 j Twin Canals, 1-12-16 (P. Z. C. and. 



238 JOUBNAL, BOMBAY XATUBAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



R. E. C); $ Basra, 21-11-17. (C. B. T.) Wings measure, $^ 90-103. This 
race is grey»r and less red-brown tlian m. minor. 

(2) The" status of this race is obscure. Cheesman obtained one from a flock 
at Kasimain in the desert on March 5t]i and one of Pitman's Samarra birds on 
Kovember 4th on which daj' he got also Jieinei, 1 refer to this race ; probably 
they flock together in winter as I obtained twelve specimens out of a huge flock 
at Basra on November 21st and from the same flock one typical hpAnei. Gum- 
ming obtained two at Fao on August 26th and September 25th, 1886. 

Zarudny j-ecords minor and jiersica from the Karun district in winter and on 
passage ;' no specnnens of ours a:e referable to persica. $ 92 — 95-5; 9 
87 -.5— 91 mm. 

Some soft of Short-toed Lark, whether oi the minor or hrachjdactjjla group is 
not known, breeds, according to Cheesman, on the undulating uplands above 
Tekrit. 

39. Desert Lark. Ammomanes deserti. 

Ammonmnes deserti fratercidus, Trist. (P. Z. S. Lond., 1SG4, p. 434 — • 
Palestine). (I restrict this to " Wilderness of Judaea ".) 

The Desert Lark occurs in at least four areas in Mesopotamia but whether all 
belong to the same species or race is not known. It is fairly common in the 
Tekrit-Adhaim area frequenting bare plain or rocky ground and is evidently 
resident and breeds there, as L. Home found them in pairs on the Tekrit uplands 
in ]\Iay and found several nests, and Pitman and Cheesman met with it in this 
district in winter in pairs or small parties. Tt probably occurs in the foot hills 
up to the Kurdistan boundary. Pitman notes that it can aiwaN^s be distin- 
gin'shed in the field by its querulous piping note. 

A Desert Lark occurs on the western side of the Euphrates in the Museyib 
•district north of the Kerbela canal, where Pitman saw a few in June. Logan 
Home recoi-ds it from the desert west of the Euphrates at Rumailah on June 5th, 
where it was evidently breeding. Zarudny says j'rnterculus is resident in the 
Karun foot hills. All our specimens come from the Tekrit-Adhaim area and all 
belong to the Palestine form fraterculus, but it does not at all follow that the 
birds from the Syrio- Arabian desert (west of the Euphrates) also belong to this 
foi-m ; they may even belong to a race of the other species phcenir,ura, and 
therefore specimens from tliis desert are highly desirable. 

Buxton too informs me that one he obtained at Kasr-i-Sherin just over the 
Persian frontier on the Kermanshah road does not belong to the form fralercidvs 
nor to any race of which there are specimens in British or Tring Museum. 
Further specimens from this neighbourhood also are desiderata. The Desert 
Lai'ks are peculiarly local birds in their racial forms and though one may have 
one race of wide distribution, abutting on its area may be another race whose 
distribution is very local, and therefore the determination of this Lark in Meso- 
potamia cannot be fully made out imtil specimens are forthcoming from every 
district in which it occurs. 

Xine specimens examined : Bait-al-Khalifa, 19-12-17 (two) ; Shat-al-Adhaim, 
2-10-17 (two) ; (C. R. P). ^9, Samarra,' 30-1 1-18 ; g, Tekrit, 17-4-19. (P. Z. C. 
and R. E. C). 

These are in no way distinguishable from specimens from the Dead Sea and 
Wilderness of Judaea. 

40. Crested Lark. Qalerida cristata. 

Galerida cristata magna, Hume (Ibis, 1871, p. 407 — Yarkand). 
This may be said to be the commonest and most generally distributed bird in 
IMesopotamia., frequenting almost every kind of ground, though naturally scarcer 
in quite bare desei-t and thick scrub ; even the oases have their pair of Crested 
Larks, about the only resident birds they can boast. It is resident throughout 
the whole district, but its numl)ers a;re augmented in winter by immigrants from 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 239 



elsewhere (as noted by Buxton and Pitman), flocks being seen in February when 
most of the resident birds have paired off ; Gumming, who noted the same thing 
at Fao, states that these winter visitors come in August and leave in April. 

The breeding season commences at the end of March ; the earliest nest con- 
tained three eggs on the 30th. Pitman, who found 39 nests, says many have nests 
and some are sitting by the middle of April and he notes young hatched on May 
29th ; so that it seems certain that at least two broods are hatched out. The 
usual clutch is four or five and Logan Home several times found six in a nest. 
The nest, rather untidy and scanty, consists of dry bents, dirty straw, etc., and 
is placed in any convenient hollow such as a hoof mack, under a tuft of grass, 
or on bare ground concealed by grass, clods of earth, or bushes. 

As in other races, this bird is a mimic of other birds. Pitman noted that it 
often perches on walls, low bushes, telegraph wires, etc.. and does good by feeding 
on the maggots of flies. Many of them are subject to attacks by ticks and are 
much affected by heat, and then they seek the shade of tents and water courses 
in lieu of trees. 

Thirty-five skins examined : From every month except May, June and Sep- 
tember and from throughout our area from Samarra in the north to Basra anfl 
Shustar in the south ; 20 males, 8 females, 7 unsexed. 

Wings of males 107^113 mm., of females 98-5 — 104 mm. Bills (exposed) both 
sexes 17 — 18*5 mm., 19 — 22-5 mm. from base. 

These Crested Larks are so near magna that I hesitate to separate them and 
with this Dr. Hartert agrees. If anything they run rather smaller than the 
majority of magna but there is a big overlap. Wings of magna (Afghanistan, 
Beluchistan, etc.) which I have measured j-un 105— 117 (once 120 mm.) and it will 
be seen that some of our Mesopotamian birds are smaller than this and none 
reach the extremely large measurements some magna shew. In coloration fresh 
moulted birds are quite like fresh moulted magna, but when a little worn most of 
our birds seem a trifle browner, less sandy yellow on the upperparts and the larger 
markings of these parts make them appear somewhat darker. One must allow 
for a certain amount of individual variation and certainly a good many of our 
birds could not be picked out from a series of magna. I have compared oui 
series with the topo-types of hrachyura, iwanowi and suhtaurica and they certainly 
do not belong to any of these races. In Oin. Monats, 20, Kolibay separated 
as weigoldi the Crested Lark from TJrfa (on one pair and two of doubtful sex). 

I have seen no specimens from this place but from the description they appear 
to be the same birds as ours. If any one considers the above characters as suffici- 
ently distinctive then our Crested Lark mnst stand as weigoldi, but I am in- 
clined to treat this name as a synonymn of magna. 

41. Sky Lark. Alauda arvensis, 

(1) Alauda arvensis dulcivox. Brooks (Stray Feathers, i, p. 484, 1873 — 
Alpine region of N. India). 

(2) Alauda arvensis cantarclla, B]i. (Icon. F. Ital. L^ccelli, Introd. p. 5 
18.32—41 Italy). 

The Sky Lark is a common winter \dsitor to the Mesopotamian plains frequent- 
ing desert, plough and green crops, preferring open country to gardens. It arrives 
at the end of October and Pitman on the Adhaim river noted flocks flying 
south till November 7th. It is recorded from most suitable localities as far 
south as Amara and it is probably pure chance that there are no records 
from Basra district, as it occurs at Ahwaz and Busliire. Cheesman says 
that the Sky Lark is a serious pest in some districts, as at Sheik Saad, where 
large flocks cleared ofF acres of beet root and cabbage seedlings ; no method 
of prevention was found to be efficacious, both guns and two men per acre to 
scare the birds off proving useless ; he noted however that seedlings with more 
than four leaves are practically immune. The only plan which seems to offer 



240 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVIII. 

any solution would be to sow the seeds a little earlier so that all the plants have 
more than foui' leaves before the Sky Larks arrive, though whether this is possible 
or not I leave to the agriculturists. Logan Home noted that in the Tekrit area 
they often associated Avith Calandra Larks. 

The Sky Larks leaves again in March, many have gone by mid. March and all 
have departed b}' the end of the third week. 

Thirty skins examined November to March, but many of them were in poor 
condition and the determination of the races in some has been very difficult or 
impossible. There is no doubt however that the majority belong to the grey 
eastern form dalcivox, and that this is the commonest of the two races. Eight 
birds I refer to the South-East European race cunfarella Avhich is rather darker. 
Zarudny records both races for the Karun district in winter and Neumann 
records A. arborea cinerea (a mis-print for A. aroensis cinerea from Ras-el- 
Ain. 15 specimens of dulcivor measure : — Wing 105 — 120 mm. 

Of recent j-earsthe name cinerea (or cinerascens) of Ehmcke has been used for 
this grey Eastern Sky Lai'k which is the breeding bird of West Siberia, Turkestan, 
etc., and quite incorrectly as I believe. Brooks (S. F. i, p. 484) described a Sky 
Lark, clearly of the arvensis group, from the Alpine region of North India as 
(hilcivo.r. His deso'iption agrees well with the Siberian bird and he did not 
say nor is there any proof that his dulcivox was breeding in the Himalayas*. 
Most of the older records of Sky Larks breeding in this region were muddled 
up with fjidqula and so far as I have been able to ascertain no arvensis breeds 
in the alpine regions of North India except perhaps locally in Cashmere, and 
these seem to me to be in no way different from the Sibei'ian breeding Vdrds, 
hence cinerascens must give place to the much older name of didcivox for this 
rac". 

42. Wood-Lark. Lullula arborea. 

? Lullula arborea ^pallida, Zar. (Orn. Monat., 1902, p. 54 — (Mountains 
of Transcaspia.) 

This species was perhaps overlooked by most observers as there are only 
records from Amara, where Cheesman and Buxton found it plentiful in small 
parties on the river banks from November to February 10th, 1918. I have no 
other records from Mesopotamia. Zarudny includes it as a breeding species in 
the Zagros and Kliorasan districts. 

Four specimens examined ; these are pale above, especially on the rump than 
the typical race from western Europe and the underparts not so yellow below, 
in fact barely tinged with yelloAV. Similarly pale winter birds are to be found 
in Palestine, the Taurus and Syria. Woodlarks are exceedingly difficult birds 
to determine races of as each month's wear makes such a great difference in the 
])lumage, but these four skins are distinctly paler than West European ones at 
th<" same time of the year and it is probable that an Eastern race should be re- 
cognized and so I place them under Zarudny's name 'pallida tentatively, as I have 
not seen any birds from Transcaspia. 

43. Bifasciated Lark. Alaemon alaudipes. 

Alcemon alaudipes pallida; Blyth (J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 130, 1847 — Ullah 
Bvmd in Sind. 
So far as records go this lark is only found on the desert on the west side of the 
Euphrates and Shat-nl-Ai-ab ; Cheesman, who travelled extensively throughout 
the countrj', failed to meet with it elsewhere. Cheesman and Buxton met with 
it fairly commonly at Shaiba in June (breeding) and in August ; Logan Home at 
Rumailah on June 5th saw half grown young ; Cheesman saw it near Nasariyeh, 
and Harrison at Bamadi in October. Pitman came across it twice, wert 

* He clearly considered (Ibis, 1892, p. 61) that the Punjab arvensis, the " big grey Skylark " 
whicli comes to the plains in winter, was dulcivox. 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 241 



of IMuseyib, June 12th and a fow miles west of Baghdad on May 2Sth, the only 
trans-Euphrates record. Gumming got it at Fao and Woosnara records it from 
the coastal plain of N. VV. Bushire. It is probably resident where it occurs, and a 
true dem"zen of bare desert. Buxton notes that at iShai ba the desert is very slightly 
covered with pebbles, otherwise it resembles the desert in other parts of the plain. 
It is rather remarkable that its range should be so restricted, but in Sind I have 
found it a very local bird, so possibly it may yet be proved to inhabit other parts 
of the plain, indeed Zarudnv records it from his " Mesopotamian region " which 
in this paper I have referred to as Ka,run district. Cheesman says he was often 
deceived by i\\^. note of this bird which is like the whistle of a school-boy. 

Eight specimens examined : 6 Shaiba, 1-6-lS, 9 , 5-9-Ifi, d,n-9-lrj (P. Z. C- 
and R. E.^C.) ; 6 Shaiba, 12-8-18, 22-8-18, $ , 12-8-18 (P. A. B.); 2 Fao in B. M- 

The worn breeding birds are very grey above ; August birds in moult, with- 
body feathers almost perfect, vary much in colour : a male, shot on the same 
day as a female in similar state of plumage, is much more washed with grey on 
the upperparts than the latter, in which sandy isabelline predominates ; so that 
evidently one must be very guarded in depending on colouration in determining 
the races of these birds, and not only does individual variation have to be con- 
sidered but the effect of wear, as in time the grey wash and the isabelKne tone 
both get worn off leaving a pronounced grey colour. These birds match a series 
from Karachi very well. Wings <3 132-138, bill (exposed) S 26-28, from base 
32-33, 2 24-25, from base 30*5 mm. These are smaller measurements than 
Hartert gives (Vog. Pal. F., p. 251), but I find Karachi birds measure almost 
precisely the same. 

44. Shore Lark. Eremophila alpestris. 

EremojiilvM alpestris hilopha, Temm. (Fl. Col., 244, 1823 — Akaba in Arabia) 
Pitman was the only observer who came across the Shore Lark in Mesopotamia ; 
he first noted a flock of six on December 12th, feeding on the parade ground at 
Samarra away from the Sky and Short-toed Larks. He saw others at the same 
place in .January and also a flock of 20 or 30 out in the desert near the camp, 
while on Februarv 9th, a large flock was met wdth at Daur. 

Five specimensexamined : J d $ , Samarra, 30-12-17, J $ , 12-12-17 (C. R. P.). 
I cannot separate these from specimens from Algiers, Tunisia, Morocco and the 
Dead Sea. Wear often makes the upperparts a more orange-rust colour and 
less vinaceous pink. 

45. Water Pipit. Anthus spinoletta. 

(1) Anthus spinoletta blahistoni, Swinh. (P. Z, S., 1833 p. O'J — R. 
Yangtze, China). 

(2) Avdhus spinoletta coutellii, Savig. (Desc. de Egypte, XXXIII, p. 

360, 1828— Egypt). 

There are remarkably few field notes about the Water Pipit, wluch is a fairly 
common winter visitor. A fair number winter in Mesopotamia but more are to 
be met with at the times of spring and autumn migrations, coming from and 
going to places further south. Buxton noted it as common in flooded places 
on the grass farm at Amara m November and December, and 1 found it common 
though exceedingly wild in similar situations at Basra in November. The 
spring passage appears to take place during the last week in March. 

Sassi records coutellii from Mosul in January and Zarudny both races in the 
Karun district as winter visitors and passage migrants. 

Thirteen specimens examined : blakistoni- d" , Amara, 7-11-17, 10-12-17, 26-2-18, 
9,7-11-17; f? $, Baghdad, 22-.3-18; S, Kurna, 17-3-18; Aligharbi,— 3-3-18 
(P. A. B.); 6 , Sheik Saad, 25-3-17 (P. Z. C. and R. E. C.) coutellii. Sheik Saad, 
23-3-17, J 22-3-17 (P. Z. C. and R. E. C.) : intermediate d , Twin Canals, 2-12-16 
(P. Z. C. and R. E. C.) ; Hawi Plain, 13-12-17 (C. R. R.). 

31 



S42 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 



The majority are blahisioni, so apparently this race is the commoner. I have 
examined a large series of both races from topo-type localities and it is by no 
means easy to separate out individual birds ; the most typical coutellii with the 
warmer brown upperparts, especially the rump, come from Egypt and Persia : 
probably the breeding area of this race is small compared with that of blahistom, 
-which has an enormous breeding range in Central Asia and is a very wide migrant. 
So that it is not to be wondered at that numerically coutelli gets swamped by its 
paler ally in its winter quarters. Of the thirteen specimens I regard nine as 
hlakistoni, two as coutellii and two ai"e somewhat intermediate between the two. 

I find no difference in size in these two races ; a topo-type series of hlakistoni 
measure 84-93 mm. (often 92-93). of coute.llii 82-94 mm. 

46. Meadow Pipit. Anthus pratensis. 

Anthus pratensis, L. (Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 166, 1758 — Sweden). 

The various Pipits were so mixed up by so manj' observers that their status is 
a matter for further investigation. The Meadow Pipit would appear not to be 
very common, neither Buxton nor Cheesman met with it, nor did Gumming at 
Fao. Pitman obtained four skins at Samarra between December 14th and March 
8th and I found it not uncommon in small flocks frequenting damp places in 
fields at Basra on November 20th and March 19th and obtained specimens on 
each day. 

Zarudny records A. pratensis enigmaiicus as a winter visitor and passage mig- 
rant in the Karun district. I do not know this bird, which Zarudny described 
from Tashkent in Turkestan ; the Mesopotamian birds agree well with European 
ones, and I suspect enigmaiicus is really ccrvinus, which Zarudny omits from 
his Mesopotamian list. 

47. Tree Pipit. Anthus trivialis. 

Anthus trivialis trivialis, L. (Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 16, 1758 — Sweden). 
Gumming records this Pipit at Fao on spring and probably autumn passage. 
Pitman found it fairly common at Nahr Umar on March 26th, 1917, and obtained 
specimens there and at Feluja on March 29th the next year ; Cheesman obtained 
one at Basra on April 18th, Buxton records it from Amara on September 28th. 
Zarudny records it as a passage migrant in the Karun district and Weigold notes 
it on passage on April 10th as not rare in the oasis and gardens at Urfa, where 
there were still some on April 27th ; they were in flocks and the sexual organs 
were not developed. It breeds on the south coast of the Black Sea (Woosnam). 

48. Red-throated Pipit. Anthus cervinus. 

Anthus cervinus, Pall. (Zoog. Rosso-Asiat. i., p. 311, 1827 — Siberia). 

One obtained by Cheesman at Sheik Saad on April 3rd and two shot by 

Titman at Feluja on April 16th, where he found it plentiful from 14th — 17th., 

are our only records. TomUnson records that he obtained one at Shustar on 

April 19th, and one at Basra on November 21st. 

49. Tawny Pipit. Anthus campestris. , 

Anthus campestris campestris, L. (Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 166, 1758 — 
Sweden). 
The Tawny Pipit is a common winter visitor to the plains. UnUke most of 
the other Pipits it affects dry places and is to be met with in scrub, and desert 
where a httle scrub is to be found ; it is found singly' or at the most in pairs. It 
occurs from Fao and Shustar in the south northwards everywhere in suitable 
locahties and Weigold records it from Urfa. The dates of arrival were not 
noted but there are specimens obtained as late as April 5th and Weigold met 
with it as late as the 23rd. According to Woosnam it probably breeds at Lake 
Van in Armenia. 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 243 

Six specimens examined : $ , Amara, 16-1-18; rf , Legait, 2-3-18 (P. Z. C. and 
R. E. C); 9 , Fehija, 29-3-18; Nahr Umar, 5-4-18 (C. R. R) ; 6, Amara, 
23-12-17—16-12-17 (P. A. B.). 

All belong to the tj'pical race. 

50. Richard's Pipit. Anthus richardi. 

Anfhus richardi richardi, Vieill. (Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. XXVT, p. 491, 
1818— France). 
Recoi'ded by Zarudny as a -winter visitor to the Karun district. 

51. Plain Pipit. Anthus sordidus. 

Anthus sordidus decaptus, Meinerz. (Bull. B.O.C. CCLIII, p. 23, 1920— 
Rud-i-Taman, E. Persia). 

Apparently a winter visitor in quite small numbers, as there is only one 
specimen — obtained by Buxton at Amara on February 11th ; he met with three 
or ioxiY in a ploughed field and remarks he had not seen it before. No one else 
records it but some may have mistaken it for the Tawny Pipit to which it bears 
some resemblance in general appearance and habits. Zarudny records it from 
the Karun district in winter. 

Hartert (Vog. Pal. F., p. 269) separated the Palestine race of this Pipit as 
A. leucophri/s captus. It is now generally recognized that it must stand as a race 
of the N. E. African bird, A. sordidus. Hartert gave the distribution of captus as 
Palestine, Persia, Afghanistan, Beluchistan and Sind. Meinerzhagen who 
recently got a good series of these birds in Palestine has pointed out however that 
the Palestine birds are smaller than those from further east and gives the wing 
measurement of the Palestine birds as 90-95mm. and in the eastern race, which 
he calls decaptus, the wing measures 95-106 mm. Buxton's bird, a female, has a 
wing of 97 and so clearly belongs to the eastern form. 

52. Grey Wagtail. Motacilla cinerea (=:boarula auct.). 

Motacilla cinerea cinerea, Tunst. (Ornit. Britain, p. 2, 1771 — Gt. Britain). 

A winter visitor in small numbers, the first arriving at the end of August, and 
it is widely distributed in suitable places throughout our area. Most depart by 
the end of March and the latest date is April 1 1th ; before they leave they assume 
full breeding dress. Weigold got three skins at Urfa in April and records that 
they are intermediate between cinerea and melanope and possibly an inter- 
mediate form occurs on the boundary between these two races, as the tails of 
his specimens, somewhat abraided, are shorter (93-95 mm.) than in any cinerea. 
He does not know if the Grey Wagtail breeds at Urfa. 

Five skins examined: c? Kurna, 20-3-18, T. 100 (P. A. B.) ; d, Sheik Saad, 
22-3-17, d T. 98, 2-4-17, T. 98-5; dShaiba, 13-9-16, T. 100 (P. Z. C. and R. 
E. C.) ; Samarra, 13-12-17, T. 97 (C. R. P.). 

None of these differ in any way from and all have as long tails as British ones, 

53. Black=headed Wagtail. Motacilla feldegg (melano- 

cephala auct). "Zit-ziata." 

Motacilla feldegg feldegg, IVIichah. (Isis, 1830, p. 812 — S. Dalmatia). 

This Wagtail is an exceedingly abundant passage migrant throughout the 
country ; the earUest date is March 13th and fair numbers may be seen through- 
out the rest of the month. Cheesman saw flocks of Wagtails, many being of this 
species going north at Sheik Saad in the third week of March, the males pre- 
ceding the females. Huge flocks pass through in April but most have gone on 
by the third week. It probably breeds not far off as Pitman saw it at the Eu- 
phrates Barrage on July 8th, 1917, and many at Baghdad on the 18th. 

Buxton also found a few in lice-fields by the Hawazieh swamp on July 12th 
and one obtained was an adult male in very worn dress and just beginning to 
moult. 



244 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIL 



Magrath too found it on the Saweikieh marsh in short grass in mid-July while 
Logan Home records three or four seen and one shot (unfortunately the skia 
was lost) at Abu Aran, 40 miles from Busra, on June 26th. So it is quite wdthin 
the bounds of i^ossibiUty that it even breeds in the plains. Zarudny says it 
breeds in the Zagros and winters on the Karun ; we have no winter records. 

During their passage they affect any damp ground, particularly crops such as 
wheat, grass, rice, etc., and associate with other Wagtails. Curiously enough 
there are no specimens or records in autumn but the latter may be included under 
Jlava. 

Nine specimens examined : c? $ Amara, 24-3-18 ; c? .Kurna, 17-3-18 ; cT .Hawi- 
zieh, 12-7-18 (P. A. B.) ; d , Sheik Saad, 27-3-17, 20-3-17, $25-3-17 (P. Z. C. 
and R. E. C); ^Feluja, 21-3-27 (C. R. P.). 

Wings 82-85. Tail 70-76 m.m. 

The white cliin and moustachal streak in melanogrisens are rather inconstant 
characters and some feldegg shew them ; melaTwgrisetis usually has a shorter 
wing and tail ; thus within the range of both forms one may meet with single 
birds which are indeterminable and one or two of the above could not be picked 
out from a series of melanogriseus, possibly both races do occur, but a larger 
series are required to determine this. 

I think it is perhaps better to treat the Black-headed Wagtails as a separate 
species and not as a race of the Blue-headed. 

54. Blue-headed Wagtail. /Vlotacilla flava. 

(1) Motacilla flava domhrowshii (Tschusi) (Orn. Jahrb, xiv, 161, 1903 — • 
Roumania). 

(2) Motacilla flava thunbergi, Billb. (Synop. Faun. Scand., 1, 2, Aves, 
1828, p. 50 — Lappland (borealis aiict). 

(3) Motacilla flava campestris, Pall. (Russ. Reichs, iii, p. 696, 1776 — -E. 
Russia). 

(4) Motacilla flava flava, L. (Syst. Nat. Ed., x, p. 185, 1758— S. Sweden). 

(5) Motacilla flava leucocephala ?, Przew. (Zap. Imp. Akad. Nauk. St. 
Petersb. ,Lv., p. 85, 1887 — Dzungaria (Altai). 

The records are not always separable into the different races unless born out 
by specimens. The commonest form would seem to be dombrowskii and all' 
races are passage migrants. 

(1) This race appears on passage about the same time as feldegg and mixes 
freely with it. Cheesman found it common at Sheik Saad in the last week of 
March and obtained specimens. Pitman got four at Feluja during a big rush of 
mixed Yellow Wagtails on April 15th to 18th. Yellow Wagtails of sorts were 
jiassing along the line of the JebelHamrin range at Fatah Gorge on April 18th. 
On the return passage Yellow Wagtails were noted in the first week of August 
and became commoner in the second and third weeks. 

Many pass in September ; Cheesman noted the gardens at Sheik Saad full of 
them on the 14th, and on 16th at Shaiba, flocks were travelhng north low over 
the desert against the wind, these had probably made a turn in their migration 
to gain the river and avoid the desert. 

Pitman saw flocks passing near Baghdad going S. E. on September 9th and 
again at Adhaim on 24th. Buxton noted many passing through Kut during 
the first week in September and many at Amara during the third week and 
up to October 3rd ; after this there are odd records up to the 10th. Other forms 
are doubtless included in the above autumn notes. 

About 15 skins of this race examined: c? , Baghdad, 18-9-17, 19-9-17; c? , 
Amara, 14-9-18, 9-9-18. (P. A. B.) ; d , Sheik Saad, 27-3-17; (two) 31-3-17, (two) 
(P. Z. C. and R. E. C.) ; J 9, Feluja, 17-4-17, d 16-4-17, and several other 
females on same date as males. 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 245 



The males in spring are very distinctive ; the white chin is fairly constant, 
Avhite moustache rather variable, superciiiuni broad and distinct (noticeable 
in the field), sometimes tinged with yellow ; ear-coverts ai-e very dark blackish- 
slatc mixed with wliite. The females wliich I have presumed to be of the race 
have a clear supercilium white or huffish white ; dark brown lores, ear-coverts 
and head. The adult male in autumn is not imlike the spring bird, but the 
head not so pure a dark grey, ear coverts dark brown mixed with a little white 
and the yellow breast has a gorget of dark spots, as in many other forms. 

(2) Records of this race cannot be picked out. Probably it is fairly common at 
the same times of passage as the other Wagtails. 

Buxton obtained two males at the Hamar Lake on May 18th from a party 
and Pitman got one at Feluja on April 14th, one obtained by Buxton at Baghdad 
on October 3rd I am inchned to think belongs to this race ; it is a male with brown 
head and ear coverts, a white throat and hardly a trace of any supercihum. 

(3) All that can be said of this race is that it is a fairly common passage 
migrant along with the other forms. Cheesman obtained one at Sheik Saad on 
March 27th when many Wagtails were on passage and two at Amara on April 
19th and 20th where, ^^^th Buxton, he found them abundant in young wheat. 
Venning obtained one at Sheik Saad on April 11th. All these are adult males 
quite easily recognized of course by the large amount of yellow on the head. 
Two obtained by Buxton at Amara on September 9th I attribute to this race, 
the chin and supercihum are yellow and the head brown tinged with yellow. 

(4) Apparently the tyjiical form is rare ; I can only attribute to this race one 
obtained by Cheesman at Sheik Saad on April 3rd, yet this is the only form of 
Blue -headed Wagtail mentioned by Zarudny ! 

(.5) I only include this to draw attention again to this remarkable form (if a 
good race it be and not a partial albinism). Pitman says that at Feluja on 
April 16th among the thousands of Yellow Wagtails present he saw two birds 
which corresponded exactlj^to the description of this bird, that is, a Blue-headed 
Wagtail in which white, or nearly white, replaces the blue of the head and ear- 
coverts. Unfortunately he did not obtain it. This race is so rare that one can- 
not help being suspicious that it is only a partial albinism of a commoner race. 

55. White Wagtail. Motacilla alba. 

(1) Motacilla alba alba,!.. (Syst. Nat. Ed., x., p. 185, 1758— Sweden). 

(2) Motacilla alba duhhumnsis, Sykes (P. Z. S., London, 1832, p. 91 — 
Deccan of India). 

(3) Motacila alba persica, Blanf. (E. Persia, ii, p. 232 — Niriz, east 
of Shiraz). 

White Wagtails are abundant winter visitors to the whole of our area. The 
first arrive in the first days of October but it is not until the latter half of the 
month that they become numerous, and then in suitable localities settle down 
singly or in quite small j:)arties for the winter. Probably also it is a bird of 
passage as Pitman at Kut noted an increase early in IMarch ; by the end of this 
month they have become quite scarce again but a few nray be found well on into 
April and according to Gumming at Fao occasionally early in May. This species 
was a constant attendant at the trenches, attracted by the hosts of flies and 
was but little perturbed by gun fire. 

Races of course were not distinguished in the field but I think it can be safely 
said that the Euro]3ean race is the commonest ; Witherby referred most S. 
W. Persian birds to alba as does Sassi 6 skins from Mosul. 

Eleven skins examined i^Alba, d , Amara, 12-12-17 ; Baghdad, 6-10-17 ; 9. 
Azizieh, 17-11-18 (P. A. B.) ; Shustar, 8-2-18; (F. M. B.) Sheik Saad, 26-3-17, 
2 ,4-4-17, d", 10-2-17. (P. Z.C. and R. E. C). /Jid-hitnensis— Amara,, 11-2-18; 
9. Baghdad 31-3-18, (P. A. B.) Sheikh Saad, 18-12-16 (P. Z. C.) and R. E. 
C.) ; Shustar n. d. (F. M. B.). 



246 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vcl. XXV III 



These specimens of dulhuTiensis have rather paler upperparts and much 
broader margins of white on the coverts and tertials than alba has. Other races 
were reported by various observers at different places, but in the absence of speci- 
mens I must, omit personata altogether and the same remark ajjplies to luc/nbris. 
which Meinerzhagen (Ibis, 1914, p.390) said he found to be common — a bird most 
unlikely to occur. However persica certainly occurs at Ahwaz ; Woosnam got 
one thei'e on February 27th and Zarudny records it as a winter visitor. 

56. Large Rock Nuthatch. Sitta neumayer. 

Sitta neumaiier dresseri, Zar. and Bat. (Orn. Monats, 1906, p. 132 — • 
Mountains of S. W. Persia). 

Buxton found Rock Nuthatches common in the gorge of the Diala river, where 
it cuts through the Jebel Hamrin, on November 22nd and Cheesman obtained 
this race at Kasir SherJn on May 22nd just over the Persian frontier in this 
district. Probably it occurs in suitable places all along the Jebel Hamrin as 
Baily obtained it at Shustar on February 7th. Cheesman found them in pairs 
on overhanging rocks near the riveis and says their call is like that of the English 
Nuthatch only louder. 

Zarudny says it is resident in the Karun district, in the hilly parts only of 
course. 

One skin examined : Shustar, 7-2-18 (F. M. B.). Wing 90, Bill from base 28T>mm. 

57. Small Rock Nuthatch. Sitta rupicola. 

Sitta rupkolo tschitschenni, Zar. (Orn. Jahi-b., 1904, p. 218 — Ispahan). 
This species, which in some parts at all events lives alongside the Large 
Nuthatch, is recorded by Zarudny as a resident in small numbers in the Karun 
district. We have no certain records of it. For a full account of Persian Rock 
Nuthatches, see Bull. B. O. C. ccli, pp. 135-9, where Buxton points out the very 
interesting fact that in N. W. Persia there are two kinds differing much in size 
but not in colour and in S. W. Persia these are replaced by two very pale sub- 
species also differing from each other in size but not in colour. 

58. Great Tit. Parus major. 

Parus major Uavfordi, Prazak (Orn. Jahrb. v., p. 240, 1894— Teheran 
in Persia). 

The Great Tit only occurs so far as we know at present in the Khusistan part 
which for zoological piirposes I have included in MesojDotamia. Cheesman met 
with a family pai'ty at Shush in willow jungle by the Kerkha river where it evi- 
dently breeds. Woosnam also obtained it at Dizful and Shush in March. 
Zarudny gives it as a winter bird in this area. 

Zarudny and Loudon (Orn. Monat., xiii, 1905, p. 108) separated the Great Tit 
of S. W. Persia (type locality Zagros Mts.) as zagrossiensis and gave a number 
of characters by which it differed from the typical race, P. major, of Sweden. 
I must here point out and protest against what is a not uncommon practice 
amongst some continental (and even some British) ornithologists and that is 
comparing some supposed new race, 7iot with its nearest ally, but with something 
totall}' different. Now all Great Tits from the Persian plateau south to Khu- 
zistan differ very markedly from Swedish birds and it is fairly obvious that, if 
birds from the Zagros are thought to be different to the former, it is with the 
Teheran blanfordi that they should be comitared, and not with the Swedish 
birds. 

Now I have compared 15 birds from Shush, Dizful, Shiraz, with a dozen or 
more from Teheran, Kasvin, Kermanshah, and I cannot see the shghtest differ- 
ence between the two series. The differences which Zarudny and Loudon 
give between zagrossiensis and major, when applied to the former and blanfordi 
I find either hold good in both or are inconstant in both. I consider that 
zagrossiensis is a pure synonym of blanfordi. 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 247 

Great Tits from the South Caspian forest I consider to be inseparable from the 
typical form, an opinion I believe Buxton independently has come to. 

SQ. Penduline Tit. Anthoscopus pendulinus. 

Anthoscopus pendulinus persimilis, Hart. (Novit, Zool., xxv., p. 308, 
1918— Eregli, Asia Minor). 

The Penduline Tit appears to be a rai'e winter visitor to Mesopotamia. Buxton 
met with a family party in a ziziphus tree in a garden at Amara on October 
25tli and another party at Ali Gharbi on poplar scrub on November 17th^ 
Venning obtained one at Busra on April 21st. 

Three specimens examined. This Tit appears to take 15 months to become 
adult, that is to say, to became adult at the second autumn moult, unless it has 
a spring moult, of which I have seen no evidence in a good many examined. 
Two of the above specimens are in the first winter dress without the distinctive 
adult markings ; the Basra bird is adult, but nearly all the feather on tne head 
have shpped ! so that the determination of the race is a difficult matter. They 
certainly do not belong to the typical race as they are too small and pale. They 
also are not jiirartensis. They agi-ee very well with Hartert's persimilis, 
specimens of which from Kaisarieh and Lake Urmia I have compared them 
with, in size of wing, paleness, and, as far as I could make out in the single 
adult, in their having the chestnut line above the black forehead very narrow. 
Zarudny has not made matters any easier by recording the typical form and 
P. caspius as winter visitors to the Karun district and afterwards (Mess. Orn., 
1913) describing a new race, menzbieri, from the same district ! According to 
him menzbieri has a ivider frontal chestnut band than the typical race which 
persimilis certainly has not. There appears to be no proof that any Anthos- 
copus breeds in the Karun district. 

60. Lesser Qrey Shrike. Lanius minor, 

Lanius minor, Gm. (vSyst. Nat. I., p. 308, 1788 — Italy). 

This is a passage migrant in small numbers from Urfa in the north to Fao in 
the south where Gumming noted it as passing in March to May and again in 
September ; most appear to pass through in the last half of April. It comes back 
again earlj^ during the third week of August, and the passage lasts until the third 
week in September. Possibly some breed in Mesopotamia as Sassi records 
one from Pechabour near Mosial on June 1st. Zarudny says it nests in small 
numbers in the Zagros. 

Specimens examined : 9 Sheik Saad, 14-4-17 ; Tekrit, 17-4-19. (P. Z. C. 
and R. E. C.) ; c? , Amara, 14-9-18 (P. A. B.) ; S Basra, 20-8-19 (L. Home). 

6 1. Great Qrey Shrike. Lanius excubitor. 

(1) Lanius excubitor pallidirostris, Cass. (Proc. Acad. Philad. v., p. 244, 
1852 — E. AiYica,).=^Assimilis auct.) 

(2) Lanius excubitor aucheri, Bp. (Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1853, p. 294 — 
Persia)=(/aZ?a.r auct). 

The status of the Great Grey Shrikes of Mesopotamia is rather obscure ; 
records refer to Grey Shrikes without discrinunation of races of course, and some 
may even refer to the Lesser Grey Shrike, so that I must go almost entirely on 
skins. Of fourteen specimens examined three are aucheri and the rest palli- 
dirostris ; all were obtained in winter. 

The Great Grey Shrike is probably a winter visitor, a few strriving in September, 
most of them early in October. Cheesman obtained pallidirostris at Shaiba 
on September 11th and Gumming got one at Fao also in September (erroneously 
recorded by Sharpe as fallax). All the others were got between October and 
February though Grey Shrikes are noted up to March 8th. They are widely 
distributed, singly and sparsely, inhabiting gardens but more especially, thiu 
scrub on the desert, or even quite bare desert. Of the 3 examples of aucheri 



•248 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

two were obtained in October and the third bears no date. It seems certain 
that some kind of Grey Shrike nests in the Mesopotamian plain. Pitman 
records it between Baghdad and Musejib from July 14th onwards frequenting 
telegraph wires near some gardens, and Logan Home says he fomid an unfinished 
nest at Samara, whilst Livesay took Grey Shrikes' eggs. I must here remark 
that it is perfectly useless taking the eggs of any Grey Shrike without obtaining 
the bird, and it may even be misleading. 

Zarudny records aucheri, pallidirostris, and assimilis (which he considers 
to be distinct from the latter) as winter visitors to the Karun district and pMi- 
•dirostris as a resident on the Zagros. 

(1) Kumait, 27-2-18, 13-11-17, ,^Amara, 16-12-17 (P. A. B.) ; Shaiba, 11-9-16 
(P. Z. C. and R. E. C.) ; Shat-al-Adhaim, 3-10-17, 8-11-17; Baghdad, 31-12-17 
(C. R. P.). 

(2) Baghdad ; 10-10-17 (P. A. B.) ; Shat-al-Adhaim, 3-10-17 (C. R. P.). 
Aticheri have a distinct but narrow frontal line of black, grey on the sides of 

the breast and a large wing spot and usually no pink tinge on the breast ; in 
pallidirostris the pink tinge on the breast is well marked as a rule unless faded, 
no frontal black, smaller or no wing spot, usually j^aler upperparts and a more 
■distinct supercilium ; the yormg birds in winter have the grey of the back over- 
laid with a pale sandy colour and appear to lack the dark crescent markings 
most other races shew. 

62. Woodchat Shrike. Lanius senator. 

TMnius senator niloticus, Bp. (Rev, Zool., 1853, p. 439 — White Nile). 
This is a much earlier passage migrant in spring than the Masked Shrike 
and occurs in smaller numbers. Buxton first saw a few males at Amara on 
March 13th and after that date there are numerous records throughout the plains 
up to April 27th. The first autumn record comes from the oasis of Shaiba 
on August 9th and the passage lasts up to the middle of September, again no 
great numbers being recorded. Tomlinson in remarking that the species is not 
uncommon in spring says it also probably breeds u]i the Karun liver as he saw it 
there early in June. Zarudny does not record it as nesting there, but says a 
few winter there ! Here again, as so often, our records do not at 
all tally with Zarudny's. Woosnam got one on the Shuteit River on March 
8th. The status of this and other Shrikes in the breeding season requires 
further investigation. Zarudny says it breeds commonly in the Zagros. 

Ten specimens examined : Amara, 18-4-19 (L. Hoome) ; Amara, 13-3-18 ; S > 
Basra, 19-8-19 ; 9, Kurna, 17-3-18 (P. A. B.) (^.Baghdad ; 19-3-18 (Harrison) ; 
d, Shaiba, 8-9-16 ; d- Sheik Saad, .5-4-17 (P. Z. C. and R. E. C), 2. Feluja, 
27-4-17 (C. R. P.);$, Basra, 17-3-18 (C. B. T.). 

All are typical niloticus with much white at the base of the tail ; only in one 
does the white not extend beyond the coverts. 

63. Masked Shrike. Lanius nubicus. 

Lanius nubicus, Licht. (Verz. Doubl., p. 47, 1823 — Nubia). 
This species is a common spring and autumn migrant ; first few noted on 
April 17th at Tekrit and Urfa ; at Feluja and Amara a sudden and marked 
influx took place on the 23rd and for a fortnight it was quite common. It occurs 
throughout the region south to Fao. The return passage takes place at the end 
of August and lasts tiU the third week in September. Pitman noted that this 
Shrike was shy and retiring making all use of thick foliage for concealment, not 
a usual habit in Shrikes, and not universal with this species. Possibly a few 
pairs remain to breed in the plains as Buxton records it in the first two weeks of 
June at Amara and on June 17th saw a bird carrying food or nest material. 
Ward {Field, Jan. 18th, 1919) records it as common at Samara breeding in the 
scrub. Zarudny says it breeds commonly in the Zagros. 



JouRN. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



PLATE II. 




Photo Capt. W. Edgar Ernvs, IIUS. 

A. — Close to Amara, on Tigris. 
" Borrowpits '' where earth for brick making, &c., is dug ; old and new kilns in distance. 
Some of the faces where the Bee-eaters and Pied Kiug-f:shers nested in 1918 are seen to 
right and in distance. Average height 6 to 7 feet. All the surrounding land is a mass of 

the borrow-pits. 




Photi Capt. C. R. Pitmitn. 

E — Broken country on Tigris down stream of Samarra where the Ruddy Sheldrake is 
found breeding in holes in the ground, mounds and cliffs during April and May. 



Birds of MESopoTAiriA. 



THE BIRDS OF MESOPOTAMIA. 249 

Eleven skins examined : d , Basra, 19-4-17, ; J , Shoik Saail, 81-4-18 (P. Z. C. 
and VL. E. C.) ; 9 , Araaia 28-4-18, 1-5-18 ; 6 , Bajrhdad, lP-9-17 (P.A. B.) ; Bapic, 
6-5 19 (L. Homo) ; Feluia 9- 23-4-17 (two), 27-4-17 (C. K. P.) ; 6 Sheik Saad, 
p, 2-5-17 (Robinsioii) ; Baghdad, 7-9-17 (Ingoklby). 

64. Red-backed Shrike. Lanius collurio. 

Lanius collurio, L. (Syst. Nat. Ed., x., p. 94, 1758 — Sweden). 

The Red-backed Shrike is also a passage migrant in large numbers. The 
first few males arrive in the last days of March and small numbers are to be 
met with throughout April, but it is not until towards the end of the month 
and the early part of May that they pass through in any quantity, when they 
become very common and are widely distributed. The return passage begins 
in the last days of August and they quickly become common and soon pass on, 
our latest date being September 24th, though Gumming at Fao recorded it up 
to mid-November. Weigold found it common on sprnig passage at Urfa and 
remarks that of his numerous specimens some are typical c. collurio, some typical 
c. kohylini and four are intermediate. This lattei race was named by ButurUn 
(Ibis, 1906, p. 416— Kutais in S. Caucasus) as Zarudny's name fuscatus for the 
eastern race was preoccupied, but I must point out that Zarudny in employing 
this name used Emieoctonus as the generic name, and that if this genus is used 
for the Red-backed Shrike, as it is by some, Zarudny's name must be upheld ; if 
however Lanius is preferred then Buturlin's name should stand. On ]3oints 
like this, and they are always aiising, there can never be any uniformity 
of nomenclature or finality, unless every one agrees on the limitations uf 
genera ! 

This supposed eastern race is said to differ in the rather paler and restricted 
amount of the chestnut colour of the mantle. As Weigold remarks one often 
cannot measure this as it is quite indefinite where the colour begins and ends, 
a.nd as he says some are intermediate. The truth is kohylini is a thoroughly 
bad race ! 

I have examined six siDring males from Kutais, Caucasus and North Persia 
and about eight spring males from Mesopotamia (which one may suppose should 
also belong to this race), together with a large series of European males and I 
find that the shade of the chestnut colour and its width vary very much both in 
eastern and Euroj^ean examples ; it so happens that in the Kutais birds it is 
broad ! and in the Caucasian bird very dark ! I cannot see any distinguishing- 
character between birds from the east and west ; the bills too vary very much 
in size throughout the range of the species. 

Seventeen specimens examined o 9) Amara, 7-5-18, ; S c?, Baghdad, 31-8-17, 
J, 24-9-17 9, Amara, 6-5-18, 16-4-19 (P. A. B.) : 9 9,rao, 10-5-18 (Armstrong) ; 
S .Feluja, 24-4-17, S , 21-4-17, 9> 23-4-17 (C. R. P.) ; Basra, 6-5-19 (L. Home) ; 
Teki-it, 17-4-19, J , Sheik Saad, 10-9-17 (P. Z. C. and R. E. C.) ; J,Sulimania ; 
2-9-17 (Ross). 

65. Red-tailed Shrike. Lanius cristatus. 

(1) Lanius cristatus isabellinus, H. and E. (Symb. Phys. fol. e. Anm., 
1828 — Gonfode in Arabia). 

(2) Lanius cristatus jihoenicuroides, Schal. (J. F. O., 1875, p. 148 — 
Tschimkent). 

The two races were naturally not identified in the field and records are scanty ; 
judging from specimens obtained isabellinus is a common winter visitor aniving 
during the last ten days of September, though one or the other form occurs 
at the beginning of the month. It frequents thorny scrub or gai-dens singly, 
or two or thi-ee in near proximity ; it leaves again somewhat late in the spring 
{the latest specimen is April 29th), completing its body moult in February 
and March before departure. 
32 



250 JOUBNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol XXVIII. 

All the specimens (six) of phoenicuroldes were obtained during the spring 
and autumn ; Pitman noted that Red-tailed Shrikes were abundant in the 
Adhaim area in the first ten daj^s of October and after that only a few were 
seen ; three specimens he obtained about that time were phoenicuroides and as 
no specimens were got between October 12th and early April, during which 
period 8 specimens of isabellinus were obtained, it is extremely suggestive that 
the former is only a bird of passage — as I know to be the case elsewhere. Since 
all Red-tailed Shrikes were found commoner in spring and autumn, isabellinus 
may too be in part a passage migrant, phoenicuroides was obtained at Fao 
as late as May 25th ; it nests in the Zagros according to Zarudny. From a 
specimen of isabellinus I took a parasitic worm from under the skin behind the 
eye, a situation I have often found similar parasites in colhirio. Dr. Manson 
Bahr informs me this is a filaria and the intermediate host is the feather louse. 

Zarudny goes to far extremes in the recognition of racial forms and in some 
cases at all events his " races " are nothing but individual variations ; this 
" oversplitting " and lack of proper conception of what a racial form is brings 
this important part of ornithology into disrepute (there are still some who 
" do not believe" in the existence of the most obvious subspecies), and moreover 
gives an infinite amount of unproductive and needless toil to those who later 
work in the same field ; work which in some cases is impossible as his specimens 
are ungetable in Tashkent and many of his descriptions are written in Rus- 
sian ! His treatment of the Red-tailed Shrikes is a case in point. These 
Shrikes throughout their range divide into five fairly well marked races, two of 
which only concern us — phoenicuroides and isabellinus (both of which vary some- 
what individually). These two Zarudny makes into full species : — isabellinus 
with two races, speculigera and salina ; and phoenicuroides also with two races 
caniceps and varia — all six forms to be found in Persia and all except varia and 
salina inhabiting the Karun district in winter ! 

(1) Eighteen specimens examined: cJ , Amara, 25-10-17, 25-4-18, 26-10-18, 
1-12-17, 5-1-18 ;d', Baghdad, 21-9-17; L. Akkarkus, 12-10-17; Ezra's Tomb. 
23-2-18 (two) (P. A. B.); Abed, 9-2-18 (F. M. B.)' Kamisiveh, 7-1-17 (Aldworth) 
Feluja. 24-4-17, 29-4-17 (C. R. P.); 6 9, Basra, 21-ll-i7 (C. B. T.); 9, Sheik 
Saad, 31-3-17 ;c?, Kut, 1-10-18 (P. Z. C. and R. E. C); Gurmat Ali, 26-9-20. 

(2) Five examined : d'^Fao, 25-5-18 (Armstrong); J, Sheik Saad, 4-4-19 (P. 
Z.C. and R. E. C.) ; Adhaim, 2-10-17, 12-10-17, 27-9-17 (C. R. P.). 

One isabellinus, 25-10-17, has much juvenile plumage still present. It 
rather resembles juvenile of collurio, but the tail is longer and there is no white 
on the outer web of the outer tail feathers and it :s paler grey on the back. 

( To be continued. ) 



FURTHER LIZARDS AND SNAKES FROM 
PERSIA AND MESOPOTAMIA. 






mm 



>^5 



a b c 

Chin Shields of Phyllodactylus elisoe, Werner. 

This figure was omitted from Vol. XX VIII No. 1 of the 
Journal and should be included with Miss Procter's paper on 
' Further Lizards and Snakes from Persia and Mesopotamia to face 
page 251.' 



251 



FURTHER LIZARDS AND SNAKES FROM PERSIA AND 
MESOPOTAMIA, 

BY 

Joan B. Procter, F.Z.S. 

Since the publication of Mr. Boulenger's lists of the Snakes and Lizards 
collected by the Expeditionary Forces in Mesopotamia^ further material has been 
received from Capt. H. E. Shortt, I.M.S., and Capt, W. E. Evans, R. A, M, C. ; 
Mr. Kinnear has therefore asked me to write the following addendum, in which 
species marked with an asterisk were not recorded by Mr. Boulenger. 

Besides snakes and lizards, which are the subject of this paper, the follow- 
ing were included in the collections : — Clemmi/s caspica (Capt. Evans), Bufo 
viridis (Capt. Evans) and Hyla arbor ea var. saviqni (Capt. Shortt and Capt. 

Evans). 

LACERTITIA. 

Geckonid.e. 

L Alsophijlax tuberculata,* Blanf. 

Jebel Hamriti, N. E. of Baghdad (Capt. Evans). 
One specimen, well marked with alternate, curved transverse bands of light, 
and dark grey; lower surfaces speckled with grey. 

Habitat ; Mesopotamia, Southern Persia, Baluchistan, Sind, 

2. Phyllodactiilus elisoe,* Werner, 

Kuretu", Persian frontier (Capt. Shortt). 
Three specimens of this rare gecko. They show considerable variation in 
the proportions and arrangements of the mental and chin-shields. In the case of 
the first specimen the mental is moderate, followed by two pairs of chin -shields, 
the first pair in contact in the middle for a distance equalling half 
their length, as in the type-specimens; in the second the first pair of chin-shields 
are only in contact for about one-quarter of their- length, the mental shield being 
larger in proportion ; in the third specimen the mental is enormous, followed by 
a single pair of large triangular chin-shields, which are not in contact with each 
other. 

This amount of variation is very unusual , were it not for the intermediate 
form one might consider the third specimen to be a distinct species. The first 
specimen is almost white; the other two are thickly speckled with very dark 
brown. 

Habitat : Mesopotamia. Capt. Shortt tells me that he caught these geckos 
in natural caves formed by overhanging rocks. The types are from the ruins 
of Nineveh. 

3. Hemidactylus persicus,* Anders. 

Baghdad (Capt. Shortt), Amara-on-Tigris (Capt. Evans), 
Three specimens 
Habitat i Mesopotamia, Persia, Sind. A new Record for Mesopotamia. 

4. Hemidactylus flaviviridis* Ruppi. 

One specimen from Amara (Capt. Evans). 
Habitat 3 Arabia, Persia, Baluchistan, India and Malay Peninsula. 

^ Joum., Bombay Nat. Hist. See, xxvii. No. 2, pp. 347-353 (1920), 
'^ Also spelled Quritu or Quraitu. 



252 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NAT URAL HLST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

Agamid.e. 

5. Agama persica, Blanf. 

Two specimens from Amara (Capt. Evans), 
Note by Capt. Evans : — 

" This lizard had the power of producing the jaurple-blue colour under its face 
and neck, and along its sides ; or of losing the colour entirely, except a faint rusty 
tinge on the sides only. The change could be accomplished in a minute or two. 
I had it alive for some time." 
Habitat ; Mesopotamia, Persia. 

6. Agama nupta, De Fil. 

One specimen from Jebel Hamrin (Capt. Evans). 

One specimen from Kuretu, (Capt. Shortt). 

Var./M.sca,* Blanf. 

One specimen, ^ from Kangavar (Capt. Shortt). 

This specimen must be regarded as var. Jusca on account of the great develop- 
ment of the spines on the head and neck, and the indistinctness of the nuchal fold. 
Its colouration is different from the true fusca, being dark grey, mottled with black 
on the neck and shoulders ; throat black instead of yellow ; enlarged dorsal 
scales greenish gi'ey. 

Habitat : Mesopotamia, Persia, Baluchistan. 

7. Vromastiv loricatus,* Blanf. 

One specimen from Ruz, N. E. of Baghdad (Capt. Evans). 
Habitat : Mesopotamia, Persia. 

A new recoid for Mesopotamia. 

Lacertid^. 

8. Acanthodactylus scutellatus, Anders. 

One specimen from Jebel Hamrin (Capt. Evans), 

Habitat : Senegambia, North Africa, Somaliland, Sinaitic Peninsula, Syria. 
Mesopotamia. 

9. Ophiops elegans, Men. 

Var. ehrenbergii, Wiegm. 
Four specimens, from Kuretu, (Capt. Shortt), 

Five specimens from Jebel Hamrin, Kizil Robat, and Abu Sidra on Tigris 
(Capt. Evans). 

Habitat : Constantinople and Tripoli to N. W. India. 

10. Eremias velor,* Pall. 

Var. persicu, Blanf. 

One specimen from Kuretu (Capt. Shortt) 

Habitat i Mesopotamia, Persia. 

SCINCID-E. 

11. Mabuia vittata, Oliv. 

One specimen from Amara (Capt. Evans). 
Habitat : Algeria to Mesopotamia. 

12. Mabuia septemtceniata, Reuss. 

One specimen from Kuretu (Capt. Shortt). 

T^''0 from Amara (Capt. Evans). 

Habitat i Erythrea to Tjanscaspia and Sind. 



LIZARDS AND SNAKES FROM MESOPOTAMIA., ETC. 2.53 

13. Ablepharus brandtii, Strauch. 

Five specimens from Amara, and three from near Kizil Robat, N. E. of Baghdadi 
(Capt. Evans). 

Habitat : Tunisia to Transcaspia and Baluchistan. 

OPHIDIA. 

COLUBRIN-«. 

14. Zamenis ventrimaculatus, Gray. 
One 3^oung, Baghdad (Capt. Shortt). 
Two young from Amara (Capt. Evans). 

One from Amara has the pnefrontals fused into a single shield. 
Habitat ; From the Euphrates to Kashmir and N. W. India. 

15. Zamenis ravergieri,* Men. 

One specimen from Kerind, Persia (Capt. Shortt). 

This individual is jet black above, dark grey below, uniform. 

Capt. Shortt says of it : — "Taken sunning itself in midwinter when the 
ground was covered with snow. I have seen the same snake also taken at Fatha 
Gorge on the Tigris." 

Habitat : Transcaucasia, Mesopotamia, Persian Transcaspia, Turkestan, 
Afganistan. 

16. Contia collaris, Men. 

One specimen from Tak-I-C^irreh, N. W. Persia (Capt. Evans). 
Habitat 3 Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Persia. 

17. Contia persica* Anders. 

Two specimens from Ki/il Robat and Jebel Hami in hills, N. E. of Baghdad 
(Capt. Evans). 

This rare little snake has not been recorded from Mesopotamia before. 
Habitat : Mesopotamia, Persia. 



254 

KEVIEWS. 
SMALL GAME SHOOTING AROUND OOTACAMUND. 

BY 

" Rolling Stone." 
( The Ootacamund and Nilgiri Press, 8 as., postage extra.) 

A nineteen page pamphlet giving some tips intended to assist the devotee of 
the scatter gun who is a stranger to Ooty, in finding his quarry. 

The subject is but lightly touched upon as is to be expected from the limited 
size of the work. The general ad^^lce given appears to be sound if not very ex- 
haustive. Quail are not mentioned though hardly uncommon. The pigeon 
referred to on page 17 is obviously the Nilgiri woodpigeon {Alsocomus elphin- 
stonii) though we are not told so. Personally, I consider this woodpigeon to be 
an infinitely finer game bird than the jungle fowl, spur fowl. etc. It offers far 
prettier shots and calls for the highest quality of marksmanship. This is more 
particularly true if the bird be walked up through the sholas, though even as a 
driven bird it gives good sport. Finally it should not be put in a pie but served 
on toast ! Though one cannot help regretting that this little work was not con- 
siderably expanded, it is well worth the price to those for whom it was Avritten. 
The author mentions under the heading " Conveyances " that " a pony can be 
hired in the bazaar " but very wisely adds " it is scarcely worthwhile hiring". 
The complete sportsman setting out from Ooty on a bazaar tat would be a 
refreshing novelty ! 



THE WATER FOWL OF INDIA AND ASIA. 

BY 

Frank Finn, B.A. (Oxon), F.Z.S. 

(Third Edition, published by Thacker Spink & Co.) 

A previous edition of this excellent little book has accompanied me on many 
duck shooting expeditions and Christmas Camps ; where, if not already known 
to my companions or hosts, it has always been very favorably commented upon. 

It has never been my good fortune to test the description of one of the rarer 
ducks ; but we have got as many as ten species in a day and have always 
found the descriptions and illustrations an easy guide to any species of. which 
there is a doubt. 

The third edition is serviceably and artistically bound and can be easily 
carried, where the larger and more expensive books would only be a nuisance. 
The book does not pretend to give a comprehensive description of the various 
water fowls, but as a shooting camp companion it will be much appreciated. 



EDITORIAL. 

Since the last editorial was published at the end of July' — and it was written 
several days before it appeared in print — ^a good deal has happened which is 
of interest to members. 

First perhaps is the fact that a statement made in that editorial has turned 
out to be absolutely incorrect and the editors rejoice at their fallibility ! We 
wrote last July " We cannot look to Government for financial help (for the 
Mammal Survey) though it is work for the good of India we are doing .... Per- 
haps it may be possible when the Finance member has not to budget for a 
deficit of eighteen crores, but if we wait for that happy day we shall never 
be able to finish the Mammal Survey in time for the New Volume (Mammals — 
Fauna of British India Series, New Edition) ". 

Well, the happy day for the Finance Member has not arrived but the Society 
has been granted a donation of Rs. 22,500 for the year 1921-22 for the services 
of the Mammal Survey and a similar sum will be budgeted — and we trust voted — 
for 1922-23. We believe that two factors weighed heavily in the scale in our 
favour. One was the fact that out of a total sum of Rs. 1,07,000 subscribed 
since 1911 to the funds of the Survey only Rs. 37,500 had been subscribed by 
various CTOvernments in India and that out of this small proportion only Rs.7,500 
had been provided by the Government of India. Speaking in connection with quite 
a different matter the President of our Society (His Excellency Sir George Lloyd) 
stated " Government will help those who help themselves " and a Society which 
could help itself as ours had done evidently deserved help as it is good to encourage 
private effort to do what otherwise Government would have to do. How rare 
it is for private enterprise to undertake such, work and to relieve Government 
of the task was pointed out by Mr. Oldfield Thomas, and his remarks were we 
believe the second factor which weighed with the Financial Committee of the 
Legislative Assembly and with the members. When appljdng for the grant the 
Honorary Secretary quoted Mr. Oldfield Thomas' remarks which were as 
follows : — 

" The work already carried out by the Bombay Natural History Society 
is unique, in that it is the sole instance on record of such a Survey having been 
carried out by a private Society with very little help by Government. The 
only other systematic Survey of the Mammals of a country is that made of 
the Mammalia of the United States. This was made at the sole cost of Govern- 
ment." 

The grant from Government does not do away entirely with the necessity of 
further help from members and we are glad it does not as the need of the Survey 
has enabled some of our old members to show that though they may be some 
considerable distance from India they are still as keenly interested in the Society 
as in their young days. His Excellency the High Commissioner for Mesopotamia, 
Sir Percy Cox, who has done so much for the Society in Mesopotamia and the 
Coasts and Islands of the Persian Gulf, offered to contribute Rs. 1,000 a year 
for three years to the Funds of the Survey in the hope and belief that others 
would follow his example. His trust was not beUed. Two Life Members at 
home and one out here have already guaranteed similar sums and after 
pubhcation of this Journal we confidently look for many more. 

The grant for the Prince of Wales Museum has at last been sanctioned by the 
Local Government and though not yet paid Rs. 40,000 wiU in due coui-se find its 
way to our Treasui-er and enable him to satisfy partially—and we are afraid very 
partially — the importunate demands of the Curator. The grant for the Museum 
would however have reached us too late to enable us to arrange, in time for the 
Prince's visit, the portion of the Museum wing placed at our disposal by the 
Museum Authoiities. Fortunately the Prince of Wales' Reception Fund made 



256 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIl. 



us a grant of Rs. 2,000 and the Museum Trustees advanced Rs. 3,000 and with 
these sums our staff set energetioally to work to arrange in new surroundings the 
old and interesting trophies of the Society. We are certain that the collections 
will interest the Prince but we wish we had with us that Prince of Museum story- 
tellers, H. M. Phipson, who could make every exhibit tell a story, and a good 
one at that. However the pains our Curators are taking and the interest many 
of our members have shown in the work will, we are confident, result in the 
prince's enjoying his visit to the Natural History Society's Museum.* 

In connection with His Royal Highness' tour we are pleased to record that 
INIr. B. C. Ellison, our Curator, has been selected to accompany His Royal High- 
ness on his visits to Mysore, Bhopal and Nepal Terai in the capacity of Natura- 
list. We hope to receive the permission of His Royal Highness to publish 
an illustrated account of these shoots in our Journal. 

Coming back to the subject of the Mammal Survey, we regret to report the 
illness Avhicli has, we trust but temporarily, incapacitated Mr. Wells and which 
at one time endangered his life. Mr. Wells' labours in Assam and its Borderland 
resulted not only in the collection for the Society of a valuable series of mammals 
but also in the collection by him of the Malaria jjarasite in his system. After a 
spell of some weeks in Hospital in Calcutta Mr. Wells considered himself fit 
enough to proceed to the Chilka Lake District but the willing spirit tried too 
much and a serious attack of Malaria at Nayagarh State has necessitated Mr. 
Wells' return to Hospital. He has worked since September 1919 in Assam and 
a change to a healthy chmate is undoubtedly desirable. We hope that he will 
soon be strong enough to continue Survey work and recuperate his health in the 
healthy tracts of Central India where, through the generosity of H. H. The 
Maharaja Scindia, we hope to make valuable collections. 

Mr. Primrose has settled down to vigorous collecting in the Mergui District 
undeterred by the heavy rains. His letters will help those who write the Scienti- 
fic Reports on the work of the Mammal Survey to make their jDapers interest- 
ing to the non-scientific reader as well as to the scientific one. 

Mr. Riley O'Brien is still in the Palni Hills and after the Prince of Wales' visit 
to the Terai, the Society's Indian collector will return to Nepal. 

An interesting suggestion has been made to us by one of our members, 
Capt. T. R. Livesey of Kotah, and we are sure he will not mind our boldly trans- 
posing his letter almost in extenso to these pages. He writes : — 

" I have been meaning to write to you on the subject of collection of skins 
of Birds in India. At present there seems to be no method in it and stray 
"Ornithologists " in different parts of the country slay any bird they consider 
rare which is hardly the way to encourage such species to extend their range ! 
and is of course abhorrent to any lover of Nature. 

"Could you not co-ordinate and regulate such collecting, calling through your 
Journal for exactly what you want and discourage, even prohibit, indiscrimi- 
nate slaughter of rare and beautiful birds ? 

"Here is a diagram we will suppose of the geographical distribution of a spe- 
cies of Indian Bird — as at present known. I suggest after having obtained a 
typical series of skins, male, female, young, summer and winter plumage say 
of the species — the further collection of skins should be stopped except 
where needed — for in addition to the type you may require specimens from 
N. E. S. and W. to place the limit of distribution and to ascertain any 
variation in plumage, etc. Then extreme types from the boundaries of 
distribution should be collected in the areas marked 1, 2 and 3 and not along 
the outermost circle for therein the bird is presumably rare and trying to 
extend itself. 

° The Royal visit to the museum was unfortunately cancelled at the eleventh hour. 



EDITORIAL, 



257 



" When the required number of skins from the areas I, 2 and 3 
have been acquired the fact should be published so as to prevent anyone send- 
ing in others. Within the area marked 4 — none should be shot — but there is 
no objection to ornithologists reporting it. 

" Natural History Societies and Museums as a rule pay no heed at all to 
reports of birds being seen — unless their dead remains are sent along — this en- 
courages the useless killing of birds rare in that locality and harms the species. 

" Your wants might be publislied in the Joui-nal under — 




1 — Centre of distribution from which the type skins come and in wliich the bird is most numerous probably. 
2 — The species is fairly common in this area. 

3 — Area in which bird is only seen on occasions and from which a limited number of skins are required. 
4 — Area in which it is rare if present at all and in which it must not be killed. 

(A) Skins, 

(B) Information regarding the species in question, 

and also, as important as your wants — your " don't wants " which will save 

the lives of rare birds and the ' collectors ' some trouble." 

In a subsequent letter Capt. Livesey elaborated a scheme to effect the desired 
purpose on the following Unes : — 

The pubhcation by the Society — say four times a year, of 12-15 special map 
diagrams. The information given on the map would record as far as iwssible 
the information already possessed, gleaned from the pages of the " Fauna " 
" Ibis " and this Journal, and state the information required by those working 
on Birds either out here or at the British Museum. 

These booklets would be sold to members so that the expense to the Society 

would not be great. To many members they should be an attraction and at 

the end of the year should see the return to the Society of a great mass 

of material. Here a difficulty presents itself as pointed out by Capt. 

3S 



258 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXFIII, 

Livesey. Can the officials of the Society— ah-eady rather over-burdened 
with work— find the time to collate and sift all the information obtained 
and publish annuaUv a fifth booklet giving the results obtained from the issue 
of the previous iour ? We doubt if, with the size of our staff limited by 
necessity to the meagre size of our purse, we could undertake that such revising 
work would be done by our staff, but in the old days of the Society we used 
to rely, and in the present days we still rely, on the help of members of the 
Society who are specially qualified in any particular subject and we see no 
reason why with the assistance of so many ornithological members of the 
Society we should not undertake the work. 

Now as to the practicability of the foregoing ? 

The above remarks may hold good for a country like England where the 
area is comparatively limited, and where there are a comparatively large 
number of people who take an intelligent interest in Natural 
History, and there are many Field Clubs and other associations which 
go in for observing Bird Life. Out here in India, conditions are on 
a different scale. Firstly there are few Natural History Societies; the 
number of Bird skins obtained by these Societies from their individual 
members or by the various Museums is an almost negligible percentage- 
of the number shot. Further the number of individual collectors who go in 
for systematic collecting and who are able to recognise and identify the 
different species correctly is extremely limited. How many men we wonder 
are there in the whole of India who are interested enough to undertake 
work on the lines suggested r The best method of bird protection is the 
law against the export of plumage, which, though it is evaded often, is a 
deterrent against the indiscriminate slaughter of bright plumaged birds, 
etc. The large majority of our members merely take a sporting interest in 
thesubject and most of the skins sent us for identification are common 
game birds. Therefore apart from the skins obtained by our collectors, 
from areas where they are wanted the collecting of bird skins by members 
of the Society is not likely to effect the issue We may be wrong and \ve 
shall be glad to hear from members on the above subject and if the scheme is 
popular we hope to start it next year. We are not reproducing the suggest- 
ed map here but will send particulars to members interested in the idea. 

The series of papers on the Fauna of Mesopotamia and parts of Persia are now 
almost completed and it will not be long before they are pubhshed in book fonn. 
This has been made possible by the foresight of the Mesopotamian Government 
which, realising the necessity of such a pubhcation and the expense a separate 
publication would entail, arranged with the Society that 1,000 extra copies of 
each paper should be printed off as issued and kept until such time as the whole 
series was completed and the different papers could be bound together in one 
whole. We take this opportunity of expressing our thanks to the authors of 
the various papers and to the members of the Society whose exertions in a diffi- 
cult country, within a sphere where War operations were active, made the writing 
of the papei-s possible and provided through the medium of our journal such a 
mass of new and valuable information on the Natural History of Iraq. 

It is with great pleasure that we issue in this number the first of a series of 
popular papers by Col. Ward on the Game of Kashmir. Col. Ward is one whose 
knowledge of Natural History in Kashmir is unrivalled and who knows how to 
convey his knowledge in a way which interests his reader and encourages in him 
the desire not merely to read more and more about the delights of a Shikari and 
Naturalist in Kashmir but to partake himself of its actual pleasures. 

Readers of the Quarterly Review who remember the delightful article which 
appeared in the issue for ' July 1920 will be glad to know that the next 
number of the Journal (to be issued we hope in January) will contain a paper by 
Harold Russell on Indian Parasitic Flies. Mi-. Russell in his last letter write* 



EDITORIAL. 269- 

" It has proved a much bigger work than I expected. I am well satisfied with 
*' the result because it puts together in readable form a lot that is not other- 
" wise accessible which has not yet been attempted so far as I know. I have 
** discovered how little is known about the India Diptera ! " 

We want articles for our Journal on Fishing. The article in the last number 
on the History of Trout Fishing in the Nilgiris has stimulated our interest. CoU 
Ward will write for us on Fishing in Kashmir and we have hopes ri contributions 
from other keen and experienced fishermen. Since Mr. Comber left Bombay, 
the Bombay Anglers Association, so far as the issue of its Journal is concerned, 
is to all appearance dormant, and this Society's Journal offers the best opportun- 
ity to anglers to discuss and ventilate their wants and to ensure that the dimen* 
sions of their fish are faithfully recorded. 

It is with deep regret that we record the death of Mi-. John Wallace, a member 
of the Committee of this Society since 1901; An account of Mr. 
Wallace's life appears on another page. His death removes yet another of tha 
old band which used to work in the Society's Rooms in Apollo Street. Some 
have been taken by death — others we are glad to say enjoy their well earn 
retirement in England. Is there no one amongst us who will not — ^while there- 
is time — write an account for us of those old days and those old workers E. H. 
Aitken, R. A. Sterndale, G. W. Vidal, I.C.S., Father F. Dreckmann, 
A. Abercrombie, L. C. H. Young, Col. Kirtikar. Ought we not to prepare 
well in advance for our Jubilee and when that comes what is above all 
things necessary ? Is it not that we should praise famous men and our 
Fathers who begat us ? But how are we to do so if we have no memories 
of them ? The Society has several volumes of photos of animals and other 
denizens of the jungle, but is entirely lacking in photos of those Homa 
sapiens who founded and nursed and worked for the Society. May we appeal 
to those who have photos to send them to us, and may we appeal to those 
who know and possibly worked with these old friends to send us word 
portraits of them ? 

The Hanging Wall Charts showing how to distinguish between poisonous and 
non-poisonous snakes have proved a great success, but the small pocket charts 
specially designed for our members' use hang fire so far as sales are concerned. 
Why we cannot say. Perhaps members have not reahsed their value. Let us 
hope they will now. 

Just as this Journal is being issued from the Press, we learn that the 
long expected copies of Stuart Baker's Game Birds are on their way out to 
us and we hope the original subscribers will receive their copies about the 
same time aa this Journal. Although the subscription list is closed and 
copies are no longer obtainable at the very low subscription rate, members 
can obtain copies from the Society at a discount off the published price. 



260 
OBITUARY. 



It is with great regret that we announce the death which took place in 
Bombay on the 9th October 1921 of Mr. John Wallace, C.E., who joined the 
Bombay Natural History Society as a member in 1891 and who was elected 
a member of the Committee of the Society in 1901, a position he occupied 
until his death. 

Educated at King's College, London, Mr. Wallace worked for some years in 
important engineering firms at home and gained a thorough experience of machin- 
ery of all kinds. He subsequently went to Cairo as Chief Engineer of the Egypt- 
ian Railways. During the Egjrptian Expedition of 1882, he volunteered his 
services to the Military authorities and was appointed by Lord Charles Beresford 
Chief of the Fire Brigade during the burning of Alexandria when his knowledge 
of local conditions and familiarity with fire appUances proved of great value to 
the Mihtary authorities. For his services he received the Silver Medal and Bronze 
Star of the Egyptian Expedition of 1882 and the Order of the Mejidieh from the 
Egyptian Government. 

In 1886 Mr. Wallace came to India and after designing the water works at 
Cawnpore and miU buildings at Aurungabad, Gadag and Ahmedabad settled 
down as an Engineer in Bombay and since 1893 was joint Editor of the Indian 
Textile Journal. 

Mr. Wallace specially devoted himself to the designing and making of the 
simpler and cheaper appliances for handicrafts suitable for the average Indian 
workman, and in this coimection he rendered valuable services to the workshops 
of the School of Arts in Bombay which he improved and remodelled considerably 
while serving as Acting Principal in place of Mr. Cecil Burns. 

In this connection however he will perhaps best be remembered as the inventor 
and prime-mover in the idea which has developed into a flourishing little industry, 
namely, the teaching of women to make beads out of the hard and various colour- 
ed seeds which ordinarily fall ungathered in the jungles, and to make up these 
beads into chicks, necklaces, curtain loops, hat-pins and many other ornamental 
articles for which a good demand might be expected. 

The seeds most suited to this purpose being very hard and of irregular shape 
and size, it was by no means easy to devise an apparatus for driUing them which 
should be both cheap, simple and efficient, but after a good deal of experiment a 
drilling machine was evolved of the simplest kind — and we may say of the 
cheapest as it was made from an old packing case ! Its efficiency was proved 
by the fact that work came in too fast for it, and it was supplemented by a 
long table furnished with six drill heads, the whole of which are driven by 
one cord, a coolie providing motive power. 

Only in India could be found such a rich variety of seeds, brown, black, 
yellow, red, white and olive, suited to the work. The rich brown Gharbi bean 
of the size ot a watch, combines with the Rudraksha nut (sacred to Shiva) in a 
very handsome loop for heavy curtains, and the gul mohr, the scarlet wild 
liquorice, wild grass, acacia, soapnut, cana, moonflower, Lushai bean, Singara, 
gall nut, fever nut and many others are worked up into a series of beautiful 
articles which received their full share of appreciation in the Forest Depart- 
ment of the Industrial and Agricultural Exhibition held in 1904 on the Oval 
at Bombay. 

The Mother Superior of theAll Saints Home atMazagaon, where the industry was 
estabhshed, writing to the Honorary Secretary of the Society after Mr. Wallace's 
death, said " All through — and up to within a few days of his death, he showed 
the greatest interest in its development — he was constantly suggesting new 



OBITUARY. 261 

ideas, or helping us to overcome difficulties, his manifold technical skill was 
placed untii'ingly at our service. 

We lose in him a most sympathetic friend as well as an efficient and valuable 
Bupporter." 

It is as a sympathetic friend and an efficient supporter that John Wallace will 
be best remembered by fellow members of the Committee and attendants at the 
Society's — now alas infrequent "At homes". A most regular attendant he shewed! 
a keen interest in all exhibits and papers placed before the meetings. 



262 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



No. I.— THE POWER OF SCENT IN WILD ANIMALS. 

In Volume XXVII, No. 1, there is an article by E. C. Stuart Baker 
" on the power of scent in wild animals " and although I know very little from 
perponal experience about the ways and habits of Indian Fauna, experience 
gained in other parts of the world causes me to burst forth on this fascinating 
subject. 

First might I say that I am of the same conviction as the writer of the 
article, in fact I go further, contending that beasts depend not only when 





_Herds of Cob 




Water 



Camp 



PLAIN- 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 263 



hunting but also for protection on their powers of hearing and sight ; to say 
however that they never use the power of scent would be a mistake, as this 
possession is used, oi- shall we say attempts are made by this means, to gain 
information, but the animal seems to be adrift. I know such opinions are all 
wrcngtothe armchair! naturalist or museum scientist, but the instances put 
forward by Mr. Stuart Baker are worth more than all our home gasbags put 
together even if they were multiplied a hundredfold. 

I know it is no use my laying down the law without giving facts, so here are 
a few experiences : — 

The lion. — I was on " Safari " in Muri Province, Northern Nigeria, one early 
morning, moving through small elephant grass about 10 to 12 feet high and going 
downwind (of a force of about 12 miles per hour) when my old tracker (dot and 
carry one) murmured softly " Ziki Baturi." After a few words of argument I 
took the express and went forward softly for about 40 yards to where the grass 
stopped and halted in amazement at the sight of 5 lions strewn round the car- 
case of a Roan inartistic positions at a distance of no more than 20 yards. I was 
so surprised that putting my hand to my pocket, in which I always carry a small 
bag of flour, I tested the wind. The lions were not upset at all nor even had they 
any suspicions, and it was not until I stepped out in full view that interest and 
hurried life came on the scene. The resultant slaughter does not effect the 
question at all. 

Another example. — This time in a very far away country to the north of 
Uganda where game animals had never had a modern gun fired at them and 
herds of waterbuck, kob, zebra, etc., stood to gaze at one, full of curiosity. 

I was out on a big plain teeming with Kob ( Cohus coha thomasi) as far as the 
eye could see about 1-30 a.m. on a glorious moonlight night, as Colonel Glasford 
calls it " Ghooming " shod with very thick rubber soled boots. Finally taking 
up the position {A) behind an anthill I sat quietly smoking, drinking in the glori- 
ous beauty of the scene, when some hidden sense caused me to quietly look 
round to my left where I saw a lion coming up wind about 80 yards away, quietly 
and without any fuss just like a dog trotting down a lane at home. The lion 
took the dotted path as shown in the diagram, passing me at thirty yards until he 
arrived at [B). By this time I was very curious indeed to discover the whys 
and wherefores. The lion waited at (B) for quite a time, ten or twelve minutes, 
until I heard a cough between the hills. Our lion then got up and deliberately 
walked down wind (I following) full in the open on to the Kob which bolted 
down wind and were rushed by three lions, at about the place (C). The hunting 
was successful as two Kob were pulled down. Our lion then joined up after a 
friendly scap with a lioness and the two set to work on the one carcase, but the 
other two, both lionesses, did not eat together. I did not see the actual pulling 
down on this occasion but I have done so on other occasions and although it is 
most difficult to get a proper idea, owing to bad light and the quickness of the 
operation, what occurs seems to be that the lion rushes the prey, seizes it by the 
neck with its mouth whilst it hurls its force by impact on to the shoulders of the 
animal giving the neck a wrench round. The whole business, done so quickly, 
breaks one of the neck vertebrte, death being instantaneous. 

African Buffalo. — Here I am on delicate ground myself as scent does play 
a part, but not the sole and only part our gas bag friends would have us believe. 

The first instance was with JBos caffer braticlii/ceros or the Lake Chad variety 
of the Congo Desert species. This gentleman is small for his long name but 
makes up for this by having a nature truly Corsican as when he is roused it is 
war to the death, aggressive and defensive. The country is a nightmare for the 
sportsman as only those can reahse who have crawled after buffalo into their 
strongholds. 

The buffalo in question had been hit badly, but rather far back, about 6-30 a.m. 
and had promptly gone for cover, so, giving him plenty of time to stiffen, I went 



264 JOURNAL,BOMB AY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol, XXVIIL 



after him by myself as although I may be a fool I never allow a native retainer 
to be a fool at the same time. One fool is quite enough on such an occasion. So 
about 11-30 a.m. saw me crawHng down a tunnel like track following good-look- 
ing blood spoor. This I did for two hours with what little wind there was behind 
me. About this time I missed the sjDOor and took a wrong turn. Finding out 
my mistake I returned until I could just see the fork, so lay dowTi behind an old 
fallen tree to "wipe my steaming face, as it is hot in these places. After a bit I 
was electrified to hear the blowing of my friend .with a corresponding hammer of 
my heart, and after a wait the buffalo came along the main path I had used 
sniffing and blowing steam from his nostrils along my very spoor. He came to 
the fork 30 feet away, sniffed, then went along the main track. Whilst trying to 
see him through the undergrowth I must have made a noise as the resulting 
charge crashed me over, and the ensuing ten minutes, with two ribs broken and 
a shoulder dislocated before the buffalo finally went under, has taught the writer 
a few things about being a fool. Xow if that buffalo had had a proper sense of 
scent he would have jjicked my spoor up the side track. He did not but went 
straight on. I move, and am promptly charged, located exactly and instantly 
by the power of hearing. 

It might bore you to hear more about Bos cajfer so I will proceed with. 

The Rhinoceros, the clown of the animal world. Time and again when photo- 
graphing this animal I have gone do"wn wind, up wind, any wind so long as I 
kept his stern in front of me and wore rubber soled boots,— but let his small 
pig ej'es or ears see or hear me then it was hopeless. 

The Elephant. — To my mind the elephant is an animal with the sense of scent 
most developed and this I think is due to evolution, a subject which causes more 
bad language than beer. 

There is another absorbing subject; i.e., a study of the senses shown by The 
Crocodile, a reptile. I have always been keen to watch but as all my experiences 
have been mth the African brute they might not be of interest to members of 
an Indian Natural History Society, but I can assure you crocodiles will reward 
any man who has the ojjportunity to watch them. 

The Wild Ooat and the Jailan. — Then take the wild goat {Capra hircus) and 
the Jailan or Red Sheep (0ms orientalis gmelini) of the Bos Dagh Range, Asia 
Minor. They depend solely on sight alone. 

One example I can give was whilst shooting on the Bos Dagh Range. We 
had had a long day after the oldest and most cunning of all the tribe of big sheep, 
until I was well-nigh finished. I was sitting in the snow telUng myself what a 
fool I was to go miles and miles after a poor sheep when I could buy a head in 
Konia any day, when a hiss from Mehemet, my brigand guide, brought me fiat 
in the snow behind a tuft of grass. I remember thinking how my stern hmbs must 
be looming up on the horizon when an old ram with five ewes came along step- 
ping in my own spoor which lay along the snow covered plateau plain to the 
whole world. The sheeji came along in single file and did no-t even sniff or take 
the slightest interest in the strange footsteps in the snow until the old ram saw 
n\\ dreaded stern portion and I wondered if it was the rough patch in my old 
flannel trousers which had upset the old boy's sense of the artistic. Anyway he 
was upset, spun round and away they went as only these animals can go. 

Wild Goat—1 have never in the Taurus Range, Asia Mnor, been nearer ta 
wild goat than 600 yards and whatever other senses they may have these must 
be useless to them compared with their wonderful sight. 

New what we leai-n from all this is : — • 

(1) That the scent of man is unknown to the majority of wild animals and only 
known to leopards or other flesh eating animals by years of contact with mankind, 
in other words by evolution or bitter hard experience passed down by genera- 
tion to generation. ■* 

(j2) Wild animals depend firstly on sight for offensive and defensive action. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 265 

(3) Animals living in tliick bush have tho sense of hearing developed far 
more than tho other organs ; evohition again. 

(4) Individual cases of any one animal confuse the judgment with re- 
ference to the whole. Shikaries by keeping totally out of sight, or i)erfectly still 
when sighted, suitably clad and having suitable foot wear and being careful of 
dry twigs, etc., need have no fear of being scented. 

I have bored you to tears by now, but I do hope that many more articles like 
the one by Mi-. Stuart Baker may appear in your Journal as they do give pleasure 
and instruction to a more "Ghooming " nature worshipper like myself who knows 
no long latin names nor wishes to read the learned quibbles of the men of science 
but who loves God's creatures great and small and when filled with a good dinner 
of buck is far more contented than if he had pushed a long new name on to some 
poor lowly bug. 

HUGH COPLEY. 
Nagpue, 

2m May 1921. 



No. II.— PANTHERS AND ARTIFICIAL LIGHT. 

I have read accounts in your Journal of panthers returning to kills beside 
which a lamp had been placed, but do not remember having seen any account in 
which a panther had actually killed an animal tied up beside a light. I located a 
panther in a small hill near here and tied up a goat, but as the panther failed to 
turn up before dark and as the moon rises late, also ha\'ing no electric light, I 
decided to have another try on the following afternoon, and tie the goat up 
nearer the entrance of its cave. To do this however I had to dig a pit, as there 
was no cover anywhere that I could sit behind, and bushed it in. I decided to 
sit up till the moon rose but as there would be about 3 hours of darkness, I was 
afraid the panther would have time to kill the goat and oat it before I got a 
chance of even seeing it, so I left word that a lantern should be brought and 
placed about 15 yards from the goat as soon as it was dark, and should be 
removed again as soon as the moon rose. 

At about 7-15 p.m., the lantern was accordingly placed near the goat. 
At 8-15, the goat which was Ijang down, got up and became very uneasy and 
soon aiter the panther rushed in and seized it, lying, facing the lantern, holding 
the goat by the throat. This is a panther that seems to have practically made 
this hill its home, and lives on anything it can pick up in the surrounding villages, 
and so has probably got pretty well accustomed to lights. I am wondering if a^ 
panther that lives more in the jungles would be as bold; I know of men who have 
a lantern hung up near their horse when camping in places where there are panth- 
ers in order to protect their horse. It does not look as though this is of 
much use, at any rate so far as the domesticated variety is concerned 1 
The panther was a female measuring 6 feet. 

C. B. BEADNELL. 
Vellore, Noeth Argot Disteici, 

2m June 1921. 



No. III.— THE FOOD OF THE SMALL INDIAN CIVET [VIVERRI- 
CULA MALACCENSI8) IN CAPTIVITY. 

On the 24th March 1920, a fully adult civet of this species was caught by my 
coolies while cutting wheat and I have kept it ever since. Blanford quotin.'4 
Jerdon says : " Jerdon had several which caught rats, squirrels and birds. ' "■ 
31 



266 JOVRNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XX Fill. 

The late Mr. Sanyal states that in the Calcutta Zoological gardens they are " fed 
on a mixed diet consisting of meat, boiled or raw eggs, plantains, and other 
fruits and bread ; in fact it, like a large civet, eats anything." 

I have not tried mine with either rats, squirrels, or fruit and bread but did 
with cooked and raw meat. 

It readily eats table scraps when they consist of ordinary fowl, pigeon or 
duck, no matter how they have been cooked, not even objecting to any ; but 
absolutely refuses to touch game whether raw or cooked. I have tried it with 
quail, teal, snipe, sandpipers and godwit, sometimes cooked sometimes raw, 
but they weren't touched. 

They are said to be easily tamed but though I have had mine over a year now 
it is just as wild as when I got it. It is a most uninteresting animal, remaining 
coiled up in a box all day and only coming out at night and darting back to its 
box if anyone approaches it. 

CHAS. M. INGLIS, 

m.b.o,u., f.z.s., f.e.s. 
Baghownie Fty., Darbhanga, Dt. Bihah, 
26th May 1921. 



No. IV.— A GOOD FEMALE CHINKARA HEAD {G. BENNETTI), 

Regarding measurements of the Indian Female Gazelle, it will be interesting 
to note also that His Highness the Maharaja Sahib Bahadur of Dhar has recently 
in one of liis tours in the Districts killed a very fine head of a female, the photo 
of which I send as it may be of interest to members. 

The measurements of this Female Gazelle are as follows : — 
Length 8", circumference If", and tip to tip 2V. 

G. B. POWAR. 

Dhar, \st July 1921. 

[Unfortunately the photo will not reproduce well. We are unable therefore 
to publish it but have placed it in the Society's Album. — Eds.] 



No. v.— WILD DOGS IN BURMA.* 

This is rather a hardy annual, but there has recently been much correspondence 
in local papers regarding wild dogs and " wolves " said to have been seen by 
various exalted officials. The following notes may therefore be of interest. 

I beheve your recent mammal survey only discovered the large wild dog in 
Burma, an animal said to hunt in small packs of six or seven. 

I recently sent you the skin of a wild dog shot by a reliable old Burmese hunter, 
while I was in camp at his village. He killed three and told me next morning 
that there were twenty -thirty feeding on a dead buffalo (died of rinderpest). 
Is not this an unusual number ? 

Another hunter, whom I have known for, years, told me that in the neighbour- 
ing Sadwingyi Reserve, he had seen about eighty feeding on a full grown bull 
Tsaing they had just killed (Several Tsaing have been killed by them recently 
and last year they killed two village cows close to a Aillage). If we divide by two 
to allow for " the little one that would not keep still for him to count it, " this 
would still give a pack of thirty or forty. 

I thought that only the red dog of the Deccan hunted in such large numbers 
and that the Big Burmese Dog was never more than six — ten to a pack. 

I have myself never seen more than six or seven together, but in this same 
Sadwingyi Reserve I have found fresh droppings (all along a road) of a pack that 
taust have numbered far more. 

• See next page. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 267 

The local legend is to the effect that wild dog live in a large pack numbering 
anything up to a hundred and ruled over by a Black King-Dog, this troupe 
however is rarely mot with and what is usually seen is only a small band of 
outlying scouts. 

I have myself only met wild dog five times. 

(1) In Shwebo District some Burmans brought one just dead which they had 
killed with dalis while it was SAvimming the Irrawaddy (half a mile) ; it was 
alone. 

(2) In Tharrawaddy District some four or five (mute) were running a Gyi in 
circles. TSvice the Gyi galloped through my camp and the dogs were apparently 
in relays ringing it in. As I could not see a dog I finished the hunt by bagging 
the G}^. 

(3) In Shwebo District I saw one dog trotting up a stream and a good ten 
minutes later the pack (six in open order) came through the jungle on both 
sides. I kiUed two (similar to the skin just sent you). 

(4) In Shwebo District I saw a Thamin covered with sweat and mud and on 
kilhng it found one eye freshly torn out and the other badly gashed. It was 
very " done " and stiffened at once on being shot. On this occasion the dogs 
were scared by the shooting as we heard them turn away, but did not see them. 

(5) One night in Tharrawaddy in 1910 (cold weather) when camped in the 
Pegu Yomas, I heard dogs in full cry (rather like a poor voiced pack of hounds). 
We were some 20 miles from any village, so it wasn't pie dog and as the noise 
came from the valley below me it was not geese. The Burmese Girdling C-ooUes all 
said " wild dog " and added that one often heard them. This rather upsets 
the theory that they run mute, but it is the only time I have heard them 
" Scorning to cry " like Puffington's hounds. 

On every occasion the dogs have been of apparently the species of which I 
sent you a skin, and were in small packs. Is it possible, however, that these dogs 
(apart from the Black King theory) do at times hunt in much larger packs, or 
could these alleged packs of eighty seen by Burmans be the smaller variety ? 

As to the reliability of the two Burmans, they were both skilled shikaris and 
not the well known type that wants one after hours of tramping to shoot, a 
sitting dove with a •470 H. V. rifle. 

C. E. MILNER. 
Shwebo, 

lOth June 1921. 



No. VI.— DISTRIBUTION OF SEROW IN BURMA.* 

I have recently shot up here, in the Maigthon Hills of Mu Forest Division, a 
Red Serow which does not seem to fit in with any of the species classified on 
page 296, Volume XXII, No. 2, of the Journal. The skin and mask are now with 
Messrs. Theobald of Mysore, should you consider it worth while examining them. 

Perhaps a brief account of my distinctly limited experience of Serow in Burma 
will best emphasize the points I want to raise, namely : — 
(i) Do the various sub-species of Serow overlap ? 
(ii) Are the sexes differently coloured ? 
(iii) Do the different sub-species interbreed ? 

I only know of three separate hills in this Division where Serow occur. 
Each being some 30 — 40 miles away from the other. 

On the first two hills I have never seen more than the animals' tracks, but in 
each case the Burmans assure me the animal is black with reddish legs below the 
knee, i.e., Capricornis sumatrensis sivettenhami, I imagine. 

On the third hill I had two beats last January. In the first beat a mother and 
kid were put out, but I did not see them. Burmese evidence as to their colour is 

• The Editors' comments on Mr. Milner's interesting notes will appear in No. 3 having unfor- 
tunately been crowded out of this number. 



268 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XKVIIL 

not conclusive (it was variously described as black or like a Saing Nyo, i.e. 
the very dark colour of some old bull Tsaing). 

In the second beat I saw the head and shoulders of an undoubtedly black 
Serow, he (?) watched me for some time, but I could not get a shot ; there is how- 
ever no doubt that he was black ; I could not see his legs. 

A month later I had another beat on the same Mil and killed a female Serow in 
dense jungle (hence the sex error) and this animal (now with Messrs. Theobald) 
was red, but not so red as in the plate of C. s. rubidus ; more a dark red brown 
with a few black hairs and a black mane. 

Now these Maingthon Hills are continuous with the Chindwin Hills and should 
therefore, I beheve, produce Red Serow ; however on the same hill we have one 
black one (S ?) and one red female. Is it therefore possible that females are 
red and males black ? (Lydekher "Game animals of India" throws no light on 
this) or do the species overlap or interbreed ? 

The only other Serow head I have seen shot in the District (date, place and 
sex unknown) was red, but on the other hand the Burmans state that the Serow 
on the remaining two hills are black. 

Again just across the Irrawaddy in the Ruby Mnes Hills you get the Black 
Serow, with a few white hairs on head and back, with red legs. I have seen the 
head from Bernardmyo belonging to H. L. P. Walsh, I.F.S. {i.e., C. s. 
swettenhami or is it milne edwardsi). 

Some years ago (1910) when in Tharrawaddy Division, Lower Burma, I shot 
one (S and saw other Serow on the Pegu Yomas and these were all black with 
red legs. The one I killed had no white hairs anywhere nor had it any white on 
lips or muzzle. 

According to books, however, this would appear to be a C. s. ruhidus area 
whereas no one had ever seen a Red Serow there. 

Your recent Mammal Survey (I have not kept the journals) has probably 
given you better statistics on which to base the range of each sub-species and I 
should be interested to hear exactly what sub-species may be met with in Burma 
and what their ranges are. 

C. E. MILNER. 
Shwebo, 

10th June 1921. 



No. VIL— SOME NOTES ON THE HORNS OF THE THAMIN 
{GERVUS ELDI.) 

( With a plate.) 

In 1918 Mr. Oldfield Thomas published in the Society's Journal (Vol. XXV, 
page 363) an article entitled " The Nomenclature of the Geographical Races of 
the Panolia Deer ." In his article Mr. Thomas gives the specific features which 
differentiate the various races of this deer and also describes a new subspecies, 
R. thamin hrucei, which he names after the late Mr. Bruce who shot the speci- 
mens on the Thimbaixng-gwin Plain. 

Mr. Thomas has raised the Manipur race to a distinct species on account of its 
naked pasterns. Is not this feature due to the marshy ground which these deer 
inhabit in Manipur, and into which their feet continually sink, so wearing away 
the hair ? I have been unable to discover any proof that the young of the deer 
in that area are born with naked pasterns, and until such proof is obtained surely 
this pecuharity should be considered as being characteristic of a geographical 
race rather than of a separate species. Perhaps Mr. Thomas can give us such proof 
or evidence of other special characteristics which in themselves justify the addi- 
tion of another species to contuse further the mind of the sportsman-naturaUst , 



Journ., Bombay Na.t. His. Soc. 




Side view of Stag No. 7. Compare with No, 2. 




Showing horns forming 3 parts of a circle. 
(Stag No. 2.) 




Stag No.:— o 4 8 2 

Showing greater divergence in the horns of the ohler animal. 



iJ" >T 



"^'f-. 



jftKm' 



An old Stag wilh a very wide head. 
Tops palrrated (No. 5.) 



¥ 




A fine Stag. (Stag No. 7 from the front.) 
THAMIN {CERVUS ELDI). 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 2(59 



The individual variation of Thamin horns is very extensive, even in beasts of 
the same age shot on the same ground. 

In May 1914 I shot six stags of this species in the Taungwindgyi sub-division 
of the MagAve district. This ground is ahnost the centre of the Thamin's habitat, 
and, as such, the stags should have shown the typical horn features as described 
by Mr. Thomas in the above article : namely " the horns are comparatively 
rough and basal snags are always present, commonly 3 to 6 inches long," also 
*' with horns not palmated." 

The horns of the six stags I shot were as follows: — 

1. Adult but not yet in his prime. Length 31 J inches. One small basal 
snag on each horn. Beam rough. 

2. Probably a year older than No. 1. Length 33 inches. Beam rough and 
dark. Basal snag one inch long on each horn. 

3. A very big stag in his prime. Length 37J inches. Beam smooth and dark. 
A basal button on each horn. 

4. A very heavy head. Length 36| inches. Beam smooth and very licht 
coloured. A basal button on each horn. 

5. An old stag with a A-ery wide head. Length 34J inches. Horns very 
rough and dark, palmated at ends. Small basal snag about ^ inch long on each 
horn. 

6. A stag just reaching his prime. Length 34| inches. Beam smooth and 
medium colour. One small basal snag on each hom. 

In May last year, in the corresponding week, I returned to the ground and 
shot two more stags. 

7. A very fine stag. Moderately smooth light-coloured beam. Length 36t^- 
inches. A small basal snag on right horn, a button on left horn. 

8. A very old stag with horns " going back ". I sent this head to Mr. Old- 
field Thomas hoping that he would find it of interest and worth comment. 
I have heard nothing from him however, and having mislaid my own notes I can 
give no details. 

For the benefit of sportsmen who may be interested, I may mention that the 
" all-round " measurement (i.e., tip of brow tine to tip of beam along the curve) 
of Nos. 3, 4, and 7 respectively were 55|, 50|, and 54f inches. 

It will be seen that the individual variation is considerable, that no stag has a 
basal snag of more than IJ inches long, and that one is palmated. 

Mr. Thomas, in describing R. thamin brucei, lays stress on the angle of the 
brow tine to the beam. In my experience a stag's horns do not have the brow 
tine and the beam in the same hne as a rule until the stag is fully adult, and 
as he grows old the beam develops a decided kink forward half-way up; so that 
the horns, when viewed from the side, instead of forming three parts of a circle 
as in stag No. 2 ( photo), show this forward kink, which in an old stag almost 
assumes a right angle. 

Another feature on which ]\Ir. Thomas lays stress in his description of 
R. Thamin Brucei, is the smaller divergence of the beam in the new sub-species. 
This also I have found to increase with the age of the stag. A young stao- has 
the horns only slightly divergent, bent up from the jjedicle, and forming three 
parts of a circle when viewed from the side. Compare photo of No. 2 with that 
of No. 1. Also compare the two outside heads in the photo of stags Nos. 5 4 
3 and 2. The divergence in the older animal is very much the greater. I have 
examined manj^ thamin stags at close range and through glasses, and found this 
to be a certain distinguishing feature between shootable and immature heads. 
An immature beast viewed from the side often appears at first to have a good 
head. Then the continuous curve without the forward kink is noticed, and the 
horns seen from the front stand high up from the head but with no spread ; quite 
unlike the front view of stag No. 7. 



270 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol.XXVIlI. 



Is it not possible that the two heads fram which Mr. Thomas has described 
R. thamin brucei are adult but not very old specimens of the type species i 
This would explain the small development of the supra-orbital ridge. Also the 
locality whence the two specimens were obtained is not " a considerable distance " 
from other thamin. There are plenty of thamin in the Lower Chindwin, 
Sagaing and Shwebo, within 50 miles of the Thimbaung-gwin Plains, and thenca 
Southwards, wherever there is suitable ground, right away to Pegu. 

I think Mr. Thomas should give us a little more evidence before adding an 
other to the numerous sub-species which already exist to the confusion of the 
field naturaUst. 

2. Sianiese Thamin. 

In the course of a journej^ in Siam last year (1920), I passed down the Meping 
River from Raheng to Paknampo by boat and thence to Bangkok by rail ; re- 
turning by the same route as far as Hkambengpet, where I left the river and 
struck across countiy to recross the Burma border at one of the sources of the 
Thaungyin River. 

There are still a few thamin about 10 miles E. of Raheng, and further down 
the Meping they seem to have been plentiful on the left bank below Hkam- 
bengpet up to two or three years ago, but have now been much reduced by natives 
hunting for the Chinese horn trade, and are only to be found 25 miles or more 
from the river. According to native report they are still plentiful 30 miles East 
of Klong lOung. 

I examined three heads at Raheng, three at Hkambengpet, and two recently 
killed near Klong Klung. The first six had no traces of palmation. Of the last 
two, one, which I purchased and which is still in my possession, is heavily pal- 
mated : the other showed distinct flattening of the beam. The palmated head 
is the larger of the two and measures Z\\ inches along the beam. At Paknampo 
I saw three heads ; one in the Bombay Burma Coy's bungalow was well palmated, 
while the other two were in shops in the bazaar and had no signs of palmation. 
In Bangkok, of twenty heads I saw only eight were palmated, while five others 
showed slight flattening in the terminal third of the beam. Basal snags were 
wanting in some cases, and in no case numerous or large. 

On my return to India I wrote to Mr. P. R. Kemp, head of the Survey Depart- 
ment of Siam and a keen shikari and naturalist, to ask him for observations on 
heads in Bangkok with particular regard to the sub-terminal tine and the ques- 
tion of palmation. I quote from his reply. ''.... I have been struck by the 
lack of a sub-terminal tine of any length in the specimens that come from Eastern 
Siam, Korat and Ubon provinces. In many there is no tine at all to speak of and 
the end of the horn carries a series of snags for some 7 or 8 inches, with perhaps 
one snag of considerablygreater length than the others. There is a certain amount 
of flattening in addition though it hardly amounts to what I would call palma- 
tion. I saw no basal snags at the junction of beam and brow tine. Some heads 
from Paknampo, probably brought down from Raheng district — carried a more 
distinct subterminal tine in addition to snags and appeared — as heads — to ave- 

rao-e a larger size than the Eastern heads Most thamin heads in Bangkok 

come from the Eastern provinces. I have not however examined sufficient 
number to quote proportions, etc., but those I have looked at certainly have 
nothin<^ like the sub-terminal tine development that illustrations show in the 
pukka ' Certus eldi ' of Burma." 

Mr. Kemp's observations agree exactly with my own. I think it more than 
probable that the thamin heads bought in Bangkok are more often than not 
selected to be sent home on account of their being palmated, and that palmation 
should not be laid down as a horn characteristic of the thamin of Siam. 

The best pair of horns I could hear of from Siam measured 34J inches, and there 
seems no doubt that they do not run nearly as big as the Burma heads. The 
average of good heads is not more than 31 inches in Siam. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



271 



From the above data, and judging from the large number of heads I have 
examined in Rangoon, the following inferences may be drawn. That in the 
Northern districts of its habitat the horns of R. thamin tend to few and small 
basal snags, the number and size of the snags tending to increase the further 
South they live in Burma, and to decrease in S. E. Siam. That roughness (or the 
reveree) of the beam is an individual peculiarity with, perhaps, a tendency in 
Siam to more pronounced " pearling ". That the sub-terminal tine is always 
present in Burma specimens but is inclined to disappear the further to the South- 
East we go in Siam. (My own specinien from the Meping valley has large sub- 
terminal tines). That palmation is rare in Burma but that there is a strong 
tendency to palmation in Siamese specimens, though I should say that under 40 
per cent, of Siamese heads are palmated. 

From such data it seems undesirable to difiEerentiate geographical races and 
sub-species which must evidently grade into one another, until bodily character- 
istics come to light which give us definite differences from definite districts. 

I was told that stags in the Meping valley are spotted in the hot weather, but 
could not obtain a skin or other confirmation. 

I hear that Mi-. Thomas is now working out the races of the Thamin, and all 
sportsmen and naturalists will be greatly interested in the results. 



C. H. STOCKLEY, Major. 



Chaklala, Punjab, 
July 1921. 



No. VIIL— A BABY HOG DEER IN CAPTIVITY. 



/ ■ :i 



■\^-v' 



" Going mad." 
One of the daintiest Uttle pets, I have ever had, and I have had a great many 
of all sorts, is a baby para (Hog deer), "Wee-Wun" was picked up by a mahout 
when we were beating with a line of elephants the grass lands by the Kasi River 
in the Mowng in March. The place was swarming with para, every fifty yards or 
so there would be a rustle in the grass and up would jump a para, jinking in and 
out of the grass with head low and ears laid flat back. Even when not scaredl 



272 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII, 

they creep about very quietly, hardly showing themselves at all. One little 
one we put up was in such a hurry that he didn't look where he was going — put 
■ his foot in a tuft and went head over heels, much to the amusement of the mahouts. 
The para stag's horns all seemed to be in different stages. Some were in velvet, 
some fully growTi and one that I shot appeared to have dropped one horn. 
Para get their name of Hog-deer from their habit of creeping about with their 
heads down I suppose, though anything more unlike a pig I have seldom seen. 

Two babies were brought to me when I got back to camp, a buck and a doe. 
The doe was smaller, had rather a longer face and was not quite such a bright 
brown as the buck. Both were spotted something hke a cheetal or Spotted 
Deer but without the white stripe along the side and with brown legs instead 
of white. Neither could have been much more than a week old and both were 
very tottery on their legs. It was rather a puzzle to know how to teed them, 
but, remembering how I had once brought up a little Markhor successfully, I 
tried the same dodge. I took a small sponge, wrapped it in a handkerchief, then 
dipi)ed it in warm milk and water. They refused at first to have anything to 
do with it, but with patience and perseverance I succeeded in making them 
take a little. The doe, which was much the quietest, picked up the idea quite 
quickly but the other was most difficult to manage. I fed them once or 
twice during the next few nights, and tried to quiet them but they were very 
restless. Once they must have smelt a panther because both started up in 
evident panic and the peacocks all started .giving the alarm and I thought I 
heard one talking far away. 

They had a terrible journey up here (Khatmandu) poor little things, 8 hours on 
an elephant, .36 hours in a train, a day in a Ford over the most appalling bumps, 
and a day on cooUe. That, and the change of temperature, was too much for 
the little doe — she died during the first night. " Wee-Wun " missed her sadly 
and bleated continuously at first but got over it in a day or two. The bleat was 
not like that of a sheep or goat — more a drawn out squeak — often he would 
squeak and seemed to want to make it longer, leaving his mouth open but 
nothing happened. The full grown deer has a call something hke the cheetal. 

By this time he drank his goat's milk out of a saucer and would take it without 
any bother. Diluted cow's milk didn't suit him at all though he quite hked it. 
He was loose in the garden all day and would totter about on his little wobbly 
legs right on the very tips of his toes. Even now he never seems to stand down 
on his hind feet, he only uses the very tips. In a week or so he began taking 
interest. in leaves and would nibble at a leaf in an absent minded sort of way, 
then stop and stare far away. Leaves seemed to attract him much more than 
grass, which seems curious, as he came from a grass country and I believe para 
are not browsers as a rule. He must have been about a month old before he 
discovered that clover was most excellent. I had tried to induce him to eat it 
for same time by picking it in front of him. He had been in the house with us 
most of the day because it had been raining, then when we went out he suddenly 
rushed at a tuft of clover and started eating as hard as he could. From that 
day he made rapid progress in the grass eating Une and I reduced his milk. 

He is very tame and up till a week or so ago would follow me wherever I went, 
and always lying doAvn in the heat of the day, or when he got tired, in the rose 
beds close to the house. From the very first he showed an inclination to get 
amongst cover of some sort and was much happier creeping about, head low and 
ears laid flat, in and out of the bushes, starting at imaginary alarms then quietly 
going on again, than out in the open on a lawn. Now however he is much more 
independent, preferring to go exploring all by himself and choosing new lying 
down places. He is a most secret little fellow and hates to be seen lying down ; 
if by any chance, when I'm hunting for him I come across him in his nest he 
will never go to that spot again, though if I call him and he leaves his nest with- 
out my actually seeing him in it, he will go there again and again till it is dis- 
covered. 



Journ., Bombay Nat. His. 8oc. 






Ih I 






"Surprised ! 



/'\ 



'• CkEKPING along HEAL) DOWN, EAKS BACK." 

YOUNG HOG DEER {CERVU8 POUCINUS). 



MISCELLANEOUS NOl '6. 273 



We tlioiiglit ho might be rat hoi- lonely, so we asked if .sonio other young deer 
■couldn't be got and they brought a cheetal doe — six months old — which wasn't 
quite what we wanted. However we left her and now the two are great fi'iendg 
though Wee-Wun at first was terribly scared, bolting right away when he first 
■caught sight of her. I sometimes take them a walk about the grounds in the 
evening, both following me, then when they get to a good bank they go quite 
mad- — dashing up and down, bucking and skipping. " Wee-Wun" is very quick 
and nimble now on his legs bringing off the most astonishing jinks combined 
with a buck and a kick. At first he used to fall down in his efforts, but he is quite 
able to take care of himself now. 

Up till quite lately I always shut him up at night because of the violent storms 
we get. He always followed quite willingly and once or twice put himself to 
bed, but lately ho has been more and more unwilling to conxe to bed till the other 
evening he flatly refused to come. I succeeded in making him come about 20 
yards ; then realising it was bed time he kicked up his heels, shook his head and 
bucked away into the bushes. So I let him have his way — possibly he may 
realis3 that a brick roof is better in a storm than the thickest bush. That shake 
of his head is a most curious little trick. He began it when he first got at all 
steady on his legs and is always doing it when he feels impish and full of beans. 
His tail ho uses as a sort of signal though I've not discovered yet quite what it 
all means. If he is scared and wants to get away quietly he keeps it low, makes 
himself invisible — but if he is being chased it goes up. When he goes mad it goes 
up and when I'm calling him for his milk he answers with little squeaks and his 
tail goes up as he hurries towards me. It seems to depend on the pace. Wee- 
Wun gets in a fearful state of excitement over his cuj^ of milk, stiffening all over 
and nearly upsetting it all in his violent efforts to drink it more quickly. He 
buries his nose right in, up to his eyes almost and I had to teach him to take a 
breath in the middle otherwise the consequences were disastrous. A curious 
thing about him is that when he has been asleep his tear ducts are very wide open, 
so that the pink at the bottom can be seen though, at other times they are close 
shut. What is the reason of this I wonder ? 

Wee-Wun has a much shorter head than the cheetal — much deeper in the jaw, 
really prettier. The spots on his sides have nearly disappeared now, only those 
•on each side of a dark stripe down his back remaining clear. One can feel the 
place where his horns will come, rather softer spots than the rest of his skull, he 
loves them to be rubbed. Wee-Wun imagines he is quite a big buck though 
really he is only 17 J inches high. 

T. A. K. 



No. IX.— THE INDIAN PANGOLIN. {MANIS PE.\TADACTYLA), L. 

In the Fauna of British India (Mammalia), page 598, is given the dimensions 
•of three male pangolins as follows : — 

No, Head and body. Tail. Total length. 

1 24.5" 18" 42.5" 

2 26" 18" 44" 

3 23.5" 22.5" 46" 

The last one is a Ceylon specimen. A male specimen was brought to me 
on the 18th April which measured — 

head and body ,31 inches. 

tail 20-5 „ 

Total length 51*5 inches. 

35 



274 JOURNAL, BOMB A I NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIL 

This is, as far as known to lue, the largest specimen of the species yet recorded. 
It was killed at Paunda, near village Kandholi, Dehra Dun (2,700 feet) U. P. 



N. C. CHATTERJEE, 

B. Sc, F. E. S. 



Dehba Dun, 2\st April 1921. 



No. X.— THE HABITS OF THE GREY MONGOOSE. 

I presume that the idea that the mongoose is immune to the venom of snakes 
or that it instinctively recognises and eats a vegetable antidote (though how 
the eating of anything could cure so rapidly acting a blood poison was never 
explained) is now quite exploded. It would seem probable that this animal is 
immune to the poison of scorpions and centipedes however. At least so it 
appears to three of us who have been watching the operations of a tame mongoose 
of late. As she (the object of our observations is feminine) has not yet been 
offered every possible article of the first of the two great classes Heine sub-divided 
nature into : " things one can eat and things one cannot eat ", we are not 
prejDai-ed to say definitely what is her favourite food. Though she is not 
more than 3 months old she has killed and eaten several frogs (she invariably 
seizes them by the head, so that they are unable to protest vocally), at least one 
rat (and devoured another freshly killed) and several scorpions and centipedes, 
besides insects galore. Her predilection seems to be for frogs, rats and scorpions, 
and also nice fat, luscious grasshopjjers or locusts, and this she demonstrates 
by a continuous growling while eating a morsel she specially appreciates, even 
when there is no one near to interfere. When attacking either a scorpion or 
centipede she takes no precaution to avoid being stung. We were able to watch 
one affair with a scorpion fairly closely. The scorpion was brought in un- 
damaged and placed on the floor. The mongoose immediately seized it about 
midbody so that nearly the whole of the tail was free and projecting from one 
side of her mouth. She then carried it about without causing it any serious 
injurv as was seen when she dropped it and started playing with it as a cat 
would with a n^ouse, while the unfortunate scorpion attempted to seek safety. 
While the scorpion was carried in the mongoose's mouth as described we noticed 
that its sting was pressed against the beast's cheek. Whether the sting actually 
pierced the skin we could not tell, of course, but it had every appearance of 
haA-ing done so and there seems no valid reason why it should not. The 
mongoose, however, showed no sign of discomfort either then or afterwards. 

When she had finally eaten her prey, including the poison bulb and the sting 
which she seems to consider a bomie bovche, I carefully examined the cheek 
but could perceive neither puncture, swelling nor soreness. 

The mongoose is very friendly and plaj^ul Avith the dogs of the household 
and with all humans. The cat, however, though she once knew and liked 
another mongoose, will not let this one approach her and seems afraid. She 
bolts if the mongoose comes near and the latter erects her hair so as to appear 
twice her size. 

Before meeting this exemplar I was not aware that a mongoose could purr like 
a cat and for the same reason. 

C. E. C. FISCHER. 

Teipucane, Madras, 2Hli July 1921. 



No. XL— THE EFFECT OF A SCORPION'S STING ON A TERRIER. 
At 10 P.M., on the 5th June, my dog, a big, smooth-haired fox terrier was stung 
by a scorpion, I applied Scrubbs' ammonia to his foot within a few minute 
of his being stung, but it did not give him any relief. He yelped or howled almost 
without ceasing for an hour and nearly went mad wth the pain. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



His ej'es were bulging and he kept snapping at us. At one tiiu » Ue gnawed at 
the legs of liis bed and bit through the strings. After an hour he was sick and 
continued vomiting until his stomach was empty. This was followtid by retch- 
ing every few minutes, and he evidently broke a blood vessel as he brought up 
some blood. He was much exhausted and lay on his side. He then passed a 
lot of blood through his rectum while on the ground. From the tims he bagan 
to vomit, the attacks of severe pain became less frequent. About 1-30 A. M., ho 
seemed much quieter and I had him cleaned and put on a soft bed of grass. At 
2 A.M. I gave him two dessert spoonfuls of brandy and water and he went off 
to sleep in Iialf an hour. At 7 a.m., he was a little weak but otherwise alright. 
I gave him milk diet on that day which he took sparingly, and he is now quite 
fit and well. 



E. O'BRIEN, Lt. -Colonel. 



Bhuj, Cutch, 9</i Jmie 1921. 



No. XII.— A PANTHERS INDIFFERENCE. 

I had the luck to bag a fine panther yesterday, of a size somewhat 
remarkable for the Kanara District ; a male, length l'-2" . The circumstan- 
ces which are very peculiar may be of interest for the records of the 
Society as they indicate an extraordinary lack of fear of man in the animal 
concerned. Yesterday afternoon, the i^lst May, I left Mungod, on my 
Motor Cycle for Konankeri, a distance of 10 miles, to shikar cheetal at the 
latter place. Having spent an enjoyable though unsuccessful afternoon 
there, I started on the return journey to Mungod about 20 minutes before 
sundown. I had replaced my rifle in its leather case which was ao-ain 
padded by several yards of cloth wound round it, and the whole securely 
strapped by many passes of the strap, to the Motor Cycle carrier. As I 
reckoned on getting home before dark, I opened the throttle and the 
exhaust cut out, and the machine being a powerful Harley Davidson I was 
travelling at over 30 miles an hour to the accompaniment of a very great 
deal of noise and dust. About two miles from Konankeri coming round a 
bend, I saw a large panther sitting on the road side. 1 immediately cut 
off the engine and braked, and came to a standstill twenty yards past him: 
it was lucky that he was not directly in my line of travel. Havino- dis- 
mounted and pulled the machine up on the stand I allowed myself a hasty 
glance and noticed that the panther was still sitting on his haunches and 
quite unalarmed though the dust of my sudden passage was yet eddyino- 
round him. I immediately began to unpack the rifle with all haste 
keeping my back to the panther. It was a full half minute before the 
rifle could be got ready for action possibly longer : then when I looked 
again he was gone. I walked back the 20 yards to the spot I passed him 
and saw him at once ; he was lying at the foot of a tree ten yards inside 
the jungle, and looked up at me quite unconcernedly without evincing the 
slightest intention of moving. I believe I could have taken five minutes 
over my aim had I so desired, but as he was offering his full broadside at 
ten yards range this was quite unnecessary. I put a bullet throuo-h the 
middle of the target, passing an inch behind the heart, and he dropped 
dead at the end of a 15 yard run. The rifle I was using used to be the 
otticial property of a German infantryman. I had brought it from Ypres 
as a souvenir in 1917. It is of the 7 mm. mauser pattern. Having dragged 
the panther to the road, with the commandeered assistance of two cartmen 
who were approaching within fifty yards of me when T fired, by the com- 
bined effort of the three of us it was hoisted across the Motor Cycle carrier 
and secured by a ten foot strap, its extremities being tied away from the 



276 J OURNAL, BOMBAY NATVRAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

ground by means of the cloth previously referred to. The whole incident 
had occupied less than a ^ hour, and now there only remained to light the 
head lamp and proceed home, which was accomplished successfully though 
cautiously at a modest speed of 7-8 miles an hour. 

This incident demonstrates the extraordinary luck of shikar, a fine 
panther being secured devoid of all cost in the matter of goats, beaters, 
•or ' bundobust.' 

H. J. C. MILLETT, l.F.S, 
Camp, ma'DHAKwAR, 
21st May 1921. 

No. XIII.— KASHMIR BIRD NOTES. 

While not specially on ornithology bent the surrounding birdlife, among 
other scenic charms, was a source of never failing interest and pleasure to me 
on a walking tour, accompanied by Larry, an Irish terrier, through some of the 
northern valleys of Kashmir in the fateful months of June and July 1914. 

The following few observations, of many cursory and unrecorded ones on 
birds met with during the tour, contain nothing new or original, but may be 
of passing interest, and serve further to ampUfy notes on Kashmir iDirds 
pubUshed by me in Vol. XXI of this journal. 

The Jungle Ceow [Corvus macrorhynchus) is mentioned in the Fauna as 
•occurring in every portion of the Empire except the higher parts of the Himalayas'' 
(the italics are mine). I have seen this species at 12,000 feet and over, and not 
AS an isolated occurrence, but commonly. Possibly the spread of graziers, 
with their flocks and herds of cattle, sheep and goats, to the higher grazing 
grounds on the borders of the melting snows in the Kashmir Himalayas in recent 
years, may have attracted these crows to higher regions for the sake of the 
pickings to be got. 

The Yellow-Billed Chough {Pyrrhocorax alpinus) is a much less noisy 
bird than the red-billed variety. 

Hodgson's Treeceeeper {Certhia Iwdgsoni) was a new acquaintance which I 
found nesting at about 11,300 feet. The nest was in, and behind, a large crevice 
in the bark of a silver fir at some 12 feet from the ground. The visible portion 
•consisted of comparatively large bits of twig and chips of bark which must 
have taxed the strength of the birds to carry and fix in position. 

Both parents were indefatigable in their attentions to the young, arri\T[ng at 
short intervals at the nest with biUs festooned with the broken • remains of large 
insects. Enormous quantities of food were thus apparently consumed by the 
voracious nestlings during the day. I did not climb to the nest, but possibly 
a young cuckoo was stumulating the parental care and activity. At this 
elevation it would have been canorus or poliocep%alus, both of which occurred. 

The length of bill in this species is very noticsable compared with that of 
•C. Iiimalayana. 

The Slatey-blue Flycatcher {Cyornis leucomelamirus) is very like typical 
JSiphia in the action of the tail. There is the same vigorous flick upwards 
though the preUminary motions are more vibratory. The female is so similar 
to Alseonax ruficatidus in coloration that although there is a difference in size, 
■a, difference which is not always easy to detect when the bird is in a tree, it is the 
tail action, and the less active habits of the present species, which will enable 
one to differentiate between the two species in their natural surroundings. I 
met with this flycatcher at over 9,000 feet. 

The Blue-Fronted Redstart (Ruticilla frontalis.) At an elevation of about 
11,300 feet I saw an abnormally placed nest, containing young of this species. 
It was 20 feet up in a shallow hole in a birch tree, in a small grove of these trees. 

The Robin Accentor {Tharrhaleus rubeculoides.) On the watershed above 
Tar Sar lake, Liddar valley, at an elevation of a little over 13,000 feet, an accentor 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 277 



which, crossed my path I noted as Tlmrrhaleus ruheculoides. This bird's mode 
of progression on the ground was by long sparrow-Hke hops. 

The Himalayan Rubythroat {Calliope pecloralisj has a song which is 
loud, continuous and shrill, but compasses some veiy pleasing notes. A fair 
imitation of it could be produced by rapidly rotating the lid against the box of, 
an oldfashioned circular wooden pillbox. This bird has been usually associated 
in my mind with glacier moraines and running water. But a nest found, con- 
taining young, was on a small spur on an open hillside,, at about 12,000 feet, far 
from water, and -svithiu a few feet of a track along which Kashmiris, gujars, ponies 
and cattle passed daily. It was built in the ground under a tiny juniper bush, 
and; failing to see the parents, I should certainly have attributed the ownership, 
to a pipit, lark, or meadow bunting. 

The nest was a deep cup or rather cyhnder, composed almost entirely of fine 
grasses with a little moss to finish it off round the upper edge. The tail of the 
female when sitting must almost have touched her head, the nest was so deep. 

The young appeared to be fed principally on a species of leather jacket or 
daddy longlegs which was plentiful in the vicinity. Both parents were equally 
assiduous in bringing food to the nest. 

This pair paid the penalty, usual in nature, of nesting in abnormal, and exposed 
situations, for the family came to grief a few days later, the nest being rifled, 
probably by some marauding Jungle crow. 

The Bltjeheaded Robin {Adelura cceruleicephala). A robin hopped close 
to my tent one day while I was encamped near Surphrar Sind valley, and 
allowed me to catch it. It was a young female Blueheaded Robin {Adelura 
cceruleicephala.) I was surprised to find this species at such a low elevation, 
not more than 7,000 feet, but came to the conclusion that it had dropped 
down the steep hillsides from immediately above. 

The Central Asian Blackbird {Merula maxima) was not uncommon at about 
12,000 feet in two or three of the higher valleys I camped in but this species 
appears to be local in its distribution in Kashmir. It differs in many respects 
from our common blackbird, Merula merula. In coloration the male maxima 
never seems to assume the glossy blackness of the male merula, and, in my ex- 
jjerience, the colour of the former is always a dull brownish black. Moreover 
the females of the two species are very different in colour, AI. maxima bein^ 
almost a grey bird as opposed to the distinctly brown female of M. merula. 
Again the songs of the two species bear little resemblance to one another, that 
of the present species having little of the fine flutelike tone one associates with 
the song of the common blackbird. Although containing some pleasing notes, 
the song of M. maxima is largely composed of wheezy drongo-like utterances with 
an occasional loud whistle not unlike that used by Kashmiri shepherds when 
herding their flocks. The alarm note also is much less loud, harsh and squeaky 
than that of 31. merula. 

When hopping, however, along the edge of the melting snow, digging for 
worms 31. maxima does remind one of the " blackbii'd on the lawn." 

At Sonamuss above Surphrar, at an elevation of 11,500 feet, I came across a 
small flock of Rose-Finches composed of two species. These were Propasser 
</i wra. The White-Browed Rose-Finch, and Procarduelis nepalensis. The Dark 
Rose-Finch. The male of the latter species is a beautiful bird when in full 
breeding plumage. 

A pair of Rose-Finches was seen at as low an elevation as 9,500 feet in July. I 
could not properly identify them but am nearly sure they were P. thura. 

The Red-Browed Finch {Callacanthis burtoni). The song of this bird is 
monotonous, and all more or less on one note, but the ' timbre ' redeems it 
from being unmusical. The song is quite distinct from the call notes described 
by me in Vol. XXI. 



278 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATUFAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

Hodgson's Yellow-Headed Wagtails (Motacilla citreoloides). A few of these 
were breeding around lake Gangabal Haramauk, and in the vicinity. 

Hodgson's Pipit (Arithus rosaceits) was also breeding in considerable numbers 
about lake Gangabal, but among parties of this species was, what appeared to 
me to be, a different pipit, very like the Tree-Pipit Antlms trivialis which 
occurred in the locality. This doubtful pipit was, I feel nearly certain, The 
Meadow Pipit (A. pratensis) but I failed to collect an example to make sure. 

Hodgson's Pipit sings mostly on the wing. The bird first soars to a consider- 
able height; and then descends with outstretched wings in a sort of ' vol plane ' 
while simultaneously it commences the song with a syllable like ' chup,' rapidly 
repeated several times, followed by a more slowly repeated 'sweet' as it approaches 
the ground. 

Stumbhng on a nest of this species at Kolahoi one day I nearly trod on the 
sitting female which rolled down the hillside in a wonderful manner with legs, 
wings and neck apparently broken to smithereens. 

The Common Lark (Alavda arvensis) is somewhat crepuscular in habits in 
Kashmir. One delightful bird perched, with its mate, on a stone, about 30 yards 
from my dinner table, one evening and serenaded me till it was almost quite 
dark. 

The Small Cuckoo (CwcziZMs poliocephalus). I solved the (tome) enigma 
of the notes, which so puzzled me at Sonamarg in 1912, vide p. 1313, 
vol. XXI. 4, and which puzzled me again this year (1914) till at last 
I caught a ghmpse of a flying bird, and eventually secured an example 
after much patient shikar and watching. The author of the sounds was none 
other than the Small Cuckoo {Cuculus poliocephalus). This cuckoo is fairly ubi- 
quitous in Kashmir, occurring at all elevations, and, in the same month, from 
the valley itself 5,100 to 11,000 feet and over,though it is,perhaps, not so common 
as C. canorus. In some favoured spots these little cuckoos collect, and here they 
make both day, and a good part of the night, ' hideous ' with their very extra- 
ordinary notes, although jierhaps not more than half a dozen individuals may 
be present. The number of birds in a locality must always be hard to compute 
from the notes. At Liddarwat, 9,500 feet, I was encamped in a clearing in silver 
fir forest, and for one whole day one solitary individual of this species kept up 
an almost incessant cackle, not being silent for more than half an hour from 8 a.m. 
till dusk. It constantly changed its perch from tree to tree in the forest around 
my camp, and sometimes called on the wing, and to anyone not versed in the 
ways of this freak among birds it would certainly have appeared that there were 
at least a dozen or more birds calling. This particular bird so exhausted its 
syringeal muscles by its jjerformance this day that it remained silent throughout 
the night, but recommenced at 7-30 a.m. next morning, and called till about 9 
A.M. ; then finding, I suppose, that there were no responsive females in the neigh- 
bourhood it shifted to another part of the valley. But it returned in the even- 
ing, and called at intervals during the night. It remained in the vicinity calling 
daily, and, intermittently, at night till I left on the 23rd July. It was the only 
bird of this species, to my knowledge that I heard or saw in this particular spot 
during my stay of 12 days. 

The following words may serve to convey to the ear the cadence and to some 
extent, the sound of the notes, viz., " That's your choky pepper." When the 
bird is Aagorous at the beginning of the- season a syllable is often added to this, 
and conversely, when the vigour is waning at the end of the season, a syllable may 
be omitted. The ' timbre ' of the note allowing for the much greater loudness 
is not unlike that of the White-cheeked Bulbul (Molpastes leucogenys). On an 
open hillside it can be heard a quarter of a mile away or more. The note of the 
female is not unUke that of the female canonis, but is more slowly rej^eated, and 
perhaps more nearly resembles that of the female C. sat iiratus^ hut is less loud. 
The immense energy put into the call-notes by the male, and the poAver of the 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 270 

muscles of the syrinx is, apart from tl«i volume of sound, evidenced in tlie Avork- 
ing of the lower mandible, th(^ juarked distension of the throat, and the jerking 
■of the whole body and tail. 

Unlike birds of the passerine families and indeed others of its genus, The Smalx, 
■Cuckoo does not usually call at dawn, but generally commences some two hours 
■after sunrise. It becomes active in this respect, from about 8 or 9 a.m. till noon, 
then again in the evening, again at dusk, again, moderately so, after dark, and 
even at midnight, and again commonly at about .3 or 4 a. m. 

This is not an easy bird to spot or collect. One hears its notes all round but 
they are ventriloquial in character, and when in a tree and calling, Hke others 
of its genus, it keeps very still. Under favourable circumstances however, it 
may be seen perched on the topmost twig of a tree, uttering its call, or may be 
found, towards evening, coming to the ground to hunt for caterpillars in the 
undergrowth. 

I do not know what species this cuckoo victimises in Kashmir, but around 
Surphrar, where it was so common, Horornis ]}allidus occurred in great numbers, 
and Alseonax rufimiidus was also extremely conimon. 

Scullys' Wood Owl (Syniinni hiddidphi) is, in my experience, by far the com- 
monest owl in Kashmir in summer. It occurs at comparatively high eleva- 
tions, 11,000 to 12,000 feet or over, and occasionally nests above tree limit. This 
latter was the case in one valley I camped in. Here there were only a few scat- 
tered and stunted birches about, and I came to the conclusion that the owls, 
which called so frequently at night, were nesting in holes in cliffs. These 
particular birds certainly belied the generic trivial designation, for there was 
nothing that could be called a wood in the immediate vicinity. Doubtless an 
abundance of food supply explained their presence in these haunts, the hillsides 
being riddled with the holes of mice and voles. Small rodents seem to be the 
staple food of this owl in summer. 

In connection with the food of this species I may remark in passing that a 
solitary Scullys' Wood Owl took up its winter quarters in the compound of my 
bungalow in Kohat, and roosted thei'e for 2 months or more, in a toon tree about 
10 yards from the bungalow. This biixl, I was glad to see, fed mainly on sjjarrows 
but occasionally, he or she, (I did not discover the sex) A-aried the fare with a 
bulbul {Molpastes leucogenys) or a shrew. A feeble attempt at the ' hoot ' was 
sometimes to be heard, as the wintei- passed, but the ' khawak ' note was fre- 
quently uttered when on the wing, and occasionally when perched. 

H. A. F. MAGRATH. 
Malahide, Co. Dublin, 
September 1920. 



Xo. XIV.— THE AVIFAUNA OF THE XELLIAMPATHY HILLS. 

41. Motacilla melanope. In the series of these notes, published in Vol. XXVII, 
Xo. 4, I stated that this bird left early in March. This I then believed to be 
•correct, but this year, at any rate, these wagtails are still with us, though in 
greatly reduced numbers, and what I certainly do not remember to have seen 
before, are now in their summer plumage. The Rose Finch, Blue Headed 
Eock Thrush, etc., left here in the first half of March. 

29. Stopawla melanops. Mr. Stuart Baker, in epistola, con.siders that this 
bird must have wandered so far South as a winter migrant. This is undoubtedly 
correct as I have seen none of these birds since the end of March, but it was 
decidedly common during the cold Aveather. 

91. Neopheron glnginianvs. Observed a solitary bird by some cooly linea on 
the 20th March. 



280 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIII. 

92. Fycnonotus gularis. The only specimen I have seen was on the 2Uh 
March, near the top of the Northern slopes. 

A. P. KINLOCH. 

Nelliampathies , 

%ih April 1921. 



No. XV— ROOSTING HABITS OF THE COMMON BABBLER 
{ARGYA CAUDATA). 

The other evening, early Maj', at dark dusk, sitting in my garden, I saw three 
shadows go into a thick (leaf and flowers) branch of a pirn tree about 7 feet from 
the ground. Shortly 4 or 5 more arrived, from a different direction, which I 
could just make out to be the ordinary " Seven sisters ". I gave them time to 
settle and then went with a hurricane lan^^^em to look. I foimd the birds sitting 
in a row all heads the same way and so tight together that one who drew breath 
out of time must have waked all the others. It really looked more like a close 
broAvn fur " boa " with pale bird faces struck on. They did not mind the light 
held within about 6 to 10 inches of them, nor did they mind my wife and two 
other ladies making audible remarks about them. They were in the same place 
and same position for about a week after I found them. 

A. G. FRERE-, t.a. Major, 
St. Thomas' Moun?', 
Uh June 1';?]. 



No. XVI— BEHAVIOUR OF THE WHITE-CHEEKED BULBUL {MOL. 
PASTES LEUCOGEXYS) WHEN ITS YOUNG IS IN DANGER ; 
AND THE (?) PARi^NTAL INSTINCT OF LOVE FOR THE 
OFFSPRING DISPLAYED BY THE DARK-GREY 
BUSH-CHAT {OREICOLA FERREA.) 

The habit among parent birds with eggs or young of simulating injury when one 
approaches the eggs or young, as the case may be, seems to be one that is 
practised by various species that are widely different from each other. The 
Plovers possess this " injury feigning instinct ", and Mi'. Dewar says that it is 
best developed in the Pratincoles. But there are some other familiar Indian 
birds which behave in a similar manner. For example, the late Mr. Dodsworth 
recorded an interesting note on the behaviour of the Short-billed Minivet {Peri- 
crocottis hrerirostris) when its nest is in danger ( FicZe J.B.N.H.S,, Vol. XX, No. 
2, pp. 156, 157). Such an instance seems very unusual. Recently I had an ex- 
perience which provides another example of the fact that some of our commonest 
Indian birds pretend (?) to be damaged. I do not knoAv why it is, but the habit 
of feigning injury seems to be one usually associated with birds of the plover type. 
In this case the birds were White-cheeked Bulbuls {Molpastes leucogenys). 

On the 10th July I was going for an early morning stroll in the grounds of the 
Imperial Secretariat at " Gorton Castle" in the hopes of finding nests of Molpastes 
leucogenys and Troclmloplerum Uneatum, but in this I was unsuccessful. While 
examining a large wild-rose bush, I noticed a bulbul on an adjoining deodar, and 
on coming under the rose-bush, another bulbul flew out from it. I thought per- 
haps that there was a nest, esi^ecially as the two bulbuls on seeing me set up an 
alarm which made me feel all the more convinced. Although I searched the 
bush carefully I found no nest, but eventually I had the good fortune to spy a 
young bulbul. To try and capture it was now my aim ; but it gave me a good 
2hase and finally succeeded in making good its escape by flying on to a low bush 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 281 

which was sitiiatod in a place where I dared not venture with any degree of safety. 
I followed the bird from bush to bush and from tree to tme, but as soon as £ 
would approach sufficiently close to grab it, it would fly off again. This lasted for 
ibout an hour and showed ma that the l)ird had fairly good powers of flight. 
During m}- chase after the young bulbul, the behaviour of the parent birds was 
very noticeable. Of course, they were full of alarms and curses. As a rule they 
would follow the young bird about, sitting on the same branch with it, but flying 
off again as soon as I came too close. On several occasions, however, one or the 
other, and sometimes both parent birds would suddenly fly down to the ground, 
and there tumble and roll about in a most peculiar manner, or flutter about with 
one of their wings hanging helplessly as if it had been broken. I do not know 
whether bulbuls often behave like this, but this is the first occasion on which I 
have seen them doing so. 

While chasing the young bulbul I noticed what may possibly be an example 
of the parental instinct of love for th(i offspring. Before I came across the young 
bulbul, I noticed a pair of Dark-grey Bush-Chats (Oreicola firrea) which seemed 
to be in a very disturbed state of mind at my presence. A little search revealed 
a j'oung bush-chat seated quietly in the middle of a small shrub. I had no desire 
to capture the young bird, so I left it alone and jjassed on, but the parent birds 
followed me with great pertinacity, giving vent to alarm cries the whole time. 
The parent bush-chats followed me till I came across the young bulbul. Up to 
that time perhaps they were concerned at my discovering their own offspring, 
but now they joined in the cries raised by the old bulbuls ! The bush chats 
seemed to forget that they had a young one of their own and devoted their atten- 
tions to the young bulbul ! Although in my hunt after the bulbul, I twice passed 
the bush where the bush-chat was, its parents thought no more about it and were 
entirely absorbed in the welfare of the young bulbul ! I do not profess to know 
whether this is reason or instinct, but I am inclined to think it is instinct. Pre- 
sumably the bush-chats recognised the bulbul as a young bird and instinct im- 
pelled them to see to its safety ; and presumably also the bush-chats forgot about 
their own young one on account of the behaviour of the parent bulbuls. If 
there had been no bulbuls to distract the attention*of the bush-chats they would 
have concerned themselves about their own young one, as indeed they wei'e 
doing when I first found it. Otherwise, why would the bush-chats trouble about 
the young of a bird of another species, when they had a young one of their own 
to look after? And why did the bush-chats not leave me alone when they discover- 
ed that I was after a young bulbul and not a young bush-chat ? Perhaps the 
maternal (and paternal, I suppose) instinct was suppressed by intense fear, and the 
birds were only thinking of raising an alarm and nothing else. This view may per- 
haps be the right one, as at one time during the chase after the young bulbul, I 
counted the following birds : the two adult bulbuls, the two adult bush-chats, 
a male house -sparrow, a green-backed tit, and a jjair of laughing-thrushes, all' 
helping to make an awful din, and to shout advice to the young bidbui ! 

S. BASIL-EDWARDES.* 
Simla. 25th hdy 1921. 

No. XVII.— AN ALBINOID OTOCOMPSA EMERIA. 

Some time back I had exi:)erience of two " freaks " among " Bulbuls ". One 
was an albino 3Iolpastes and the other a melanistic specimen of the same species. 
I have been fortunate enough to come across another case of albinism in another 
species — the Otocomj)sa emeria, the widely known Red-Whiskered Bulbul. The 
bird was caught wild and brought for sale. Below I give a description of its 
colouration : — 

All those parts, the head and around it which were deep black, have lost this 
vivid colour. The forehead, loi-es and the front part of the cheeks are dark 

* See footnote page 267. 
36 



i?82 JOVJiNAL, BOMB AY NATURAL HIST. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIIl. 

brown. The crown is also brown with a few whitish feathers in the crest. The 
narrow black moustachial streak surrounding the ear-coverts and joining the 
crown is light brown ; the hinder parts of cheeks and the ear-coverts are white 
as usual. The crimson tuft of feathers springing from the lower eye-lids, is 
retained in a very small spot just there. In a normal bird this crimson passes 
over the ear-coverts, but in the present specimen it does not do so. Sides of 
neck and a broad crescent interrupted in the middle of the breast, which should 
have been broAvnish black, have become light brown, the crescent ending in 
just a faint tinge. The undertail-coverts retain their normal crimson colour, 
at the edges, however, it is lighter. Upper plumage, the flanks and thighs, as 
also the lower plumage, are white with a tinge of bluish ; the tail is completely 
white. Back and wings are white, the latter washed with a faint light-orange. 
The colour of the bill, claws and legs has also been affected. The bill and 
claws are blackish brown, the apex of the bill being whitish, while the legs are 
pinkish brown. Iiis light -broAvn. 



SATYA CHURN LAW. 



•Calcutta, 3rrf June 1921. 



No. XVIII.— THE WHITE-SPOTTED FANTAIL FLYCATCHER 
{RHIPIDURA PECT0RAL18). 

This pretty little active flycatcher is common in the Central Provinces as well 
as in other parts of Western and Southern India where it. replaces its near re- 
lative, the White-throated Fantail, the common species of the sub-Himalaya 




And Eastei-n portions of the Empire. It is essentially a bird of shady wooded 
nalas and ravines but is also found in gardens and shady groves and is especially 
fond of the big thorny bamboo. In the Central Provinces they breed in March 
and April and possibly again later. The nest is a neat little inverted cone of 
line vegetable fibre felted together with cobwebs and lined with fine grass. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 283 

Three or four eggs ai-o laid which are cream with a dense ring of yellowish 
brown and grey spots towards the big end. 

The nest is often attached to drooping branches of shi-ubs or trees overhanging 
a stream. That in the photo was iii such a position, the plant to which it is 
attached being Heptaplevrum venulosum, an epiphytic shrub. The photograph 
was taken by Mr. C. E. C. Cox. 

B. B. OSMASTON, i.F.s. 

Pachmarhi, July 1921. 



No. XIX.— THE CRESTED SWIFT {MACROPTERYX CORONATA). 

The Indian Crested Swift differs in several respects from most other swifts 
and may be easily recognized by its conspicuous crest and long pointed tail. 

In size it is nearly as big as the European Swift, and in colour it is ashy 
above and white below. The male bird has in addition a chestnut moustachial 
stripe. 




This swift is widely distributed in India and Burma but is nowhere very 
numerous. They frequent open forest, and especially glades in the forest 
near water. They are found usually in pairs but sometimes when feeding 
they may be seen in larger numbers. They are resident and non-migratory 
so far as m.\ exjjerience goes, being found at all seasons of the year even as far 
north as Dehra Dun. 

The nest is a small shallow half cup fixed in the side of a small branch (often 
a dead branch is selected). It is composed of little steps of bark cemented 
together by the saliva of the bird, and is only just large enough to contain the 
single egg which, as shown in tlie accompanj'ing photo, projects well above 
the level of the top edge of the nest. 

The birds lay in March and April. The nest in the photo was taken near 
Allapilli (Chanda) in the Central Provinces. 

The birds were observed commencing this nest on Marcih I9th ;